The Scientists Made A Molecular Map Of The Striatum

Scientists created a molecular map of the striatum. The striatum, the inner part of the brain, is considered essential for decision making and the development of various addictions.

Methods used in mouse models and to map brain cell and tissue types. A team of researchers from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden were able to visualize the organization of various opioid islands in the striatum.

Focusing on the characterization of patches and matrix compartments. Genetic labeling of neurons that express the Mu opioid receptor reveals the identity of the neuron subtypes.

And also establishes spatial markers for the identification of subparts in the striatum.

Molecular Map Of The Striatum

 

In the study, Drs. Constantine Melatis and his colleagues created a 3D molecular map of the nerve cells attacked by opioids and showed how they organize in the striatum.

Our map is the basis for a new understanding of brain networks, arguably the most important for decision making, said Dr. Meletis said.

This may contribute to a better understanding of common reward processes and the effects of various addictive substances on this network.

To find this molecular code, the researchers used single-core RNA sequencing, a method of studying small differences in individual cells and mapping the expression of the separation gene.

The results provide the first demonstration of molecular codes that divide the striatum into three main levels of classification: a spatial organization, a patch matrix, and a specific cell-type organization.

With this new knowledge, we can now begin to analyze the function of different types of nerve cells in different molecularly defined regions, said Dr. Meletis said.

This is the first step to directly define the role of networks in decision making and addiction control with the help of optogenetics.

The scientists said this new knowledge could also form the basis for the development of new therapies based on a mechanistic understanding of brain therapy.

The development of the new Salem map is described in an article in Cell Reports magazine. Scientists made a molecular map of the stratum.

The striatum, the inner part of the brain, is considered central to decision making and the development of various addictions. Using methods used in mouse models and to map brain tissue and cell types.

A team of researchers from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden were able to visualize the organization of various opioid islands in the striatum.

Märtin et al define the molecular identity of striatal projection neurons, focusing on the characterization of patches and matrix compartments.

Genetic labeling of neurons that express the Mu opioid receptor (Oprm1) reveals the identity of the neuron subtypes and also establishes spatial markers for the identification of subclasses in the striatum.

Märtin et al define the molecular identity of striatal projection neurons. And focusing on the characterization of patches and matrix compartments.

Genetic labeling of neurons expressing the opioid receptor Mu (Oprm1) reveals the identity of the neuron subtypes, and also establishes spatial markers for the identification of subclasses in the striatum.

In the study, Drs. Constantine Melatis and his colleagues created a 3D molecular map of the nerve cells attacked by opioids and showed how they organize in the striatum.

Our map forms the basis for a new understanding of arguably the brain’s most important network for decision making, said Dr. Meletis said.

This may contribute to a better understanding of common reward processes and the impact of various addictive substances on this network. To find this molecular code, the researchers used single-core RNA sequencing.

A method of studying small differences in individual cells and mapping striatal gene expression. The results provide the first demonstration of molecular codes that divide the striatum into three main levels of classification.

A spatial organization, a patch matrix, and a specific cell-type organization. With this new knowledge, we can now begin to analyze the function of different types of nerve cells in different molecularly defined regions, said Dr. Meletis said.

This is the first step to directly define the role of networks in decision making and addiction control with the help of optogenetics.

The scientists said that this new knowledge may also become the basis for the development of new treatments based on the mechanistic understanding of the brain network. The development of the new Salem map is described in an article in Cell Reports magazine.

Striatum

The corpus striatum, or corpus striatum, also known as the nucleus striatum, is a nucleus or group of neurons in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.

The striatum is an important component of the motor and reward systems. It receives glutamateric and dopaminergic inputs from a variety of sources; And the rest serve as the main entrance to the basal ganglia.

Functionally, the striatum coordinates various aspects of cognition, including motor and action planning, decision-making, motivation, reinforcement, and perception of reward.

The striatum is made up of the caudate nucleus and the lenticular nucleus. The lenticular nucleus is composed of a large putamen and a small pale globe.

In primates, the striatum is divided into a ventral striatum and a dorsal striatum, subdivisions based on function and connection. The striated ventricle is made up of ambulate nuclei and olfactory tubercles.

The dorsal striatum is made up of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. A white substance in the dorsal striatum, the neural tract (internal capsule) separates the caudate nucleus and the putamen.

Anatomically, the term stripum describes its striped (striped) appearance of gray and white matter.

The Structure

The striatum is the largest structure of the basal ganglia. The striatum is divided into a ventral and a dorsal subdivision, which is based on function and connection.

The ventral striated nucleus accumbens and is composed of olfactory tubercles. The nucleus accumbens is composed of the nucleus of the nucleus accumbens and the nucleus is the accumbens layer.

Which is separated by different populations.

The olfactory tuber receives information from the olfactory bulb, but it has not been shown to play a role in odor processing. Non-primate species include the Calleja Islands.

The abdominal striatum is associated with the limbic system and has been implicated as an important part of the circuits for decision-making and rewarding behavior.

The dorsal striatum is composed of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. Staining can distinguish the corpus striatum into two different compartments from a corpus striatum or patch and a surrounding matrix.

This is particularly evident in the acetylcholinesterase and calbindin components. More studies have been done on the dorsal striatum, but compartments have also been identified in the ventral striatum.

Dorsal striatum stripsomas comprise 10 to 15 percent of the striatum volume.

Cell type

Dendritic spine in the middle luminous neuron of the striatum

The cell types of the striatum include:

Medium spiny neurons (MSN), which are the main neurons in the striatum. They are GABAergic and are therefore classified as inhibitory neurons. Mid-spin projection neurons comprise 95% of the total neuronal population of the human striatum.

The median neurons of the spine are of two types: MSN of type D1 and MSN of type D2. A subset of MSN contains D1 and D2-like receptors, and approximately 40% of striated MSNs express DRD1 and DRD2 mRNA.

Cholinergic interearnon releases acetylcholine, which has several important effects on the striatum.

In humans, as in other primates and rodents, these interneurons respond to stereotyped responses to homogeneous environmental stimuli that are temporally aligned with the responses of dopaminergic black thinking neurons.

The large aspini cholinergic interneurons themselves are affected by dopamine through dopamine D5 receptors. There are several types of GABAergic interneurons. The best known are the expressed parvalbumin interneurons.

Also known as fast-spike intrins, they participate in a powerful inhibition of major neurons by feedforward. In addition, there are GABAergic interneurons that express tyrosine hydroxylase, somatostatin, nitric oxide synthase, and neuropeptide-y.

Recently, two types of GABAergic interneurons expressing neuropeptide Y have been described in detail, one of which results in the synchronous activity of cholinergic interneurons in inhibiting dominant neurons.

These neurons in the striatum are not evenly distributed. There are two areas of neurogenesis in the brain: the subventricular zone in the lateral ventricle and the dentate cirrus.

Neuroblasts formed in the lateral ventricle adjacent to the strobe integrate into the striatum. It has been observed in the human striatum after ischemic stroke.

The injury caused by the striatum stimulates the migration of the neuroblast from the subretinal area to the striatum.

Where they differ in adult neurons. The normal path of the SVZ neuroblast is to the olfactory bulb, but this traffic is diverted to the striatum after an ischemic stroke. However, some newly developed neurons are alive.

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