PNNL Fracturing Fluid: Cost-effective Option for Geothermal Energy. The researchers identified two processes that produce large rock fractures at low pressures using Stimufrac. Geothermal energy is a reliable source of energy with tremendous potential that captures heat below the Earth’s surface and converts it into electricity.
Although high temperature rocks are relatively easy to find, it is difficult to find geological formations that can become sustainable reservoirs. A mechanical process, called hydraulic fracturing, creates a network of fractures through the injection of high-pressure fluid in deep rock formations.
PNNL Fracturing Fluid
Which causes heat transfer from the injection to the fluid. PNNL recently published findings in the journal of the American Chemical Society Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering about the two processes in which the potential was confirmed. Current fracture fluids used in improved geothermal systems (EGS) are expensive and inefficient for temperature conditions.
Conventional liquids used in the oil and gas industry also require large amounts of water and can pose a threat to groundwater. With funds and technical support from the Office of Geothermal Technology (GTO) of the US Department of Energy. UU., PNNL presented an option. The researchers developed an ecological fracture fluid called StimuFrac that takes advantage of the low pressure to fracture highly impermeable rocks in EGS.
Stimu Frac addresses this important EGS challenge by creating potentially safe and cost-effective fractures that penetrate high temperature deposits. The PNNL team recently identified two processes that produce large rock fractures at low pressures when Stimufrac is used. PNNL chemist Carlos A. Six years after the conception of this technology, we now know how it works, Fernandez said.
Until now we understood the fracture mechanism at a lower pressure than conventional fluids, but we did not understand the fracture mechanism. The PNNL team published findings on two processes that confirmed Stimufrac’s ability in the Journal of Chemistry and Sustainable Engineering of the American Chemical Society.
The PNNL computational scientist
The researchers conducted a computational and experimental study of StimuFrac, determining that it continuously dissolves rock material at pressures lower than conventional hydraulic and waterless fluids. StimuFrac involves pumping a water-based polyamine solution to the ground. It is then combined with injected carbon dioxide and forms a hydrogel.
The resulting volume creates an expansion pressure that causes rock fractures. StimuFrac can reduce operating costs by up to 60 percent by using significantly less water and less pumping energy than traditional fracturing methods. The researchers confirmed a series of experiments using fused silica fracture fluids with two processes.
The homogeneous “rock-like mechanical properties” described by PNNL geologist Delphin Aprio and rock samples from an EGS site in California. The PNNL computational scientist, Varun Gupta, used models based on the finite element method to determine the pressure required for the fracture of molten silica.
Fracture the fluid rock
The team observed a decrease in the injection pressure required to produce fractures in conditions where the volume expands. According to published findings, Stimufrac fractured silica at a constant pressure 30 percent lower than conventional fluids. In one process, the researchers established that the overpressure resulting from the expansion of the CO2-activated volume of the water polymer solution was responsible for the most efficient fracture observed.
The overpressure value was determined using a new high pressure mixing vessel developed by the team. In the second process, StimuFrac penetrated the lower pressures to fracture the fluid rock. The lower pressure means that it is a fracture process that consumes less energy and is relatively inexpensive, Fernández reported.
Glimpses of dragonflies and damflies in ancient hunting strategies: Dragonflies and dumflies are animals that may seem benign but are actually ancient hunters. The closely related insects shared ancestors more than 250 million years ago, long before dinosaurs, and provide insight into how an ancient nervous system controls precise and rapid airstrikes.
An article recently published in Current Biology, led by researchers at the University of Minnesota, suggests that despite the different strategies of dragonfly hunting and wetting. The two groups share important neurons in the circuit that drive the flight of prey. These neurons are similar, according to the researchers, that the worms inherited them from their shared ancestor and that the neurons have not changed much.
Department of Ecology
Obtaining information about your ability to process images quickly can inform technological progress. These findings can explain where to place cameras in drones and autonomous vehicles, and how to process incoming information quickly and efficiently. “Dragonflies and flies are interesting from an evolutionary point of view because they give us a window to the old neural systems,” said Paulo González-Bellido, assistant professor and lead author in the Department of Ecology.
Evolution and Behavior of the Faculty of Biological Sciences on paper and because there are so many species, we can study their behavior and compare their neuronal performance. It cannot be obtained from fossils. A notable difference between dragonflies and damflies is the size and position of their eyes. Most dragonflies today have very close eyes, which often touch the top of their head.
While Damascus sports eyes that are far away. The researchers wanted to find out if this made a difference in their hunting habits. If it affected how their nervous system detects prey. The researchers found: dragonflies and dummies hunt separately, dragonflies use a high-resolution area near the top of their eyes to hunt prey from below, and dome flies flank their eyes to hunt prey.
The front uses a higher resolution
In Dragonflys, the eyes that merge at the top, the eyes act as if they were two screens of an extended screen (that is, the image of the victim. Which would be equivalent to a mouse pointer, may fall to the left or right but only one Never on both screens on time. Damsflying’s eyes serve as duplicate screens, where the victim’s image is seen with both eyes at the same time (that is, they have binocular vision), both designs have advantages and disadvantages.
And their appearance differs in different strategies. Regardless of the type of hunting and the environment. The neurons that transfer information about a target from the brain to the motor centers of the wings are almost identical in the two groups. Indicating that they were inherited from the common ancestor. Different hunting strategies bear fruit in different environments.
Dragonflies hunt in an open area, taking advantage of the sky’s contrast to help them achieve their goal. Although they cannot calculate the depth using two images, they depend on other signals. Damselflies hunt among the vegetation, where selective pressure may be absent for a rapid response.
The need for depth perception may be strong. Researchers are now trying to understand how extended images are calculated against duplicates in the brain, and how information is applied in muscle movements. We still don’t understand much, Jack Supple, first author and most recently Ph.D. Graduated from the Gonzalez-Bellidos Laboratory.
We don’t know how these neurons coordinate all the different muscles of the body during the flight. If we try to build a realistic robot or a suffocating dragon tomorrow, we will have a difficult time. In addition to examining the differences between the two insect families. Researchers continue to detect differences in species within each family.
González-Bellido said – While most dragonflies have their eyes closed at the same time, there are a handful of species of eyes. Some of them abound in Minnesota and we are eager to take advantage of the new flight field to study their behavior in a controlled environment.
Source: University of Minnesota.
The researchers confirmed that it is possible to determine the sex of chicken eggs: Researchers at Linköping University have developed a method by which eggs can become chickens the same day before an embryo develops. Sweden has about 7.5 million chickens according to the Swedish Agricultural Board.
The turnover in the population is more than 5.5 million every year. The eggs laid in the eggs contain many male chickens (roosters) as females. But since the roosters cannot lay eggs and are not suitable for use as food, they are killed and the bodies destroyed. A research team from the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM) of LiU has developed a method to solve the problem.
“Eggs can be cured from the beginning when they have just been laid. Eggs destined to become roosters can be used in food production, or even eaten as eggs.” Says Anita Lloyd Spetz, IFM emeritus professor. Gas analysis: researchers can now determine whether an egg will become a rooster or a chicken by analyzing the gases it emits. Egg planting is being investigated in many places, and the methods used vary.
This important task – being able to save the rooster in such a way that it doesn’t kill them – solves a significant moral problem. Many groups have made considerable progress. But no other group uses gas sensors. It’s like us,” says Professor Anita Lloyd Spetz. According to the researchers, the advantages of this method are that it can be done in the early stages and is relatively cheap. It is.
85% accuracy: Jan Yabrahim was still a student when the project started a year ago. His grade project examined the gases emitted by the eggs and showed that the composition of the gases varied between those that became roosters and those that became chickens. The research team was able to analyze gases at various temperatures using silicon carbide sensors developed at IFM.
In his subsequent investigation, Jan Yabrahim measured those values and obtained an equation that can separate the rooster with 85% accuracy. “Really, what can we achieve right now?” There are many reasons to believe that we can reach a better figure, “says Jan Yabrahim.
When will it be commercially available: It’s hard to say, but we will go a long way in six months. Anita Lloyd Spetz says that translating it into what is economically important to make it a commercial method. What is the purpose of the investigation: I hope that at some point in the future, and I don’t know when.
The unnecessary killing of roosters will end. Simply, eggs can be used and the total amount of misery is reduced. The main objective for me. It is, says Jan Yabrahim. The research has received financial support from the Aztec 2030 initiative. Source from: University of Enlace. Hormonal resistance in breast cancer associated with DNA:
It is intended for readers with some scientific or professional knowledge in the field of news or articles. Garavan researchers have revealed a change in the 3D arrangement of DNA associated with resistance to treatment in ER + breast cancer. Epigenetic changes occur in the DNA of breast cancer cells that have developed resistance to hormonal therapy.
Which is an effective treatment for ER + breast cancer, which accounts for 70% of all diagnoses. Reversing these changes, the researchers say, has significant potential to help relieve breast cancer. A team led by Professor Susan Clarke of the Garvan Institute for Medical Research showed that in hormone-resistant ER + breast cancer, the 3D structure of the DNA is ‘re-hormone’, given which genes are activated.
And which are activated. The genes of the cells are turned off. The researchers published the findings in the journal Nature Communications. For the first time. We have revealed significant 3D DNA interactions that are sensitive to hormonal therapy related to breast cancer or not,” says lead author Professor Clarke, a leader in genomics and epigenetics research at Garavan.
Understanding this process reveals new ideas to avoid hormone therapy against ER + cancer, which allows them to grow out of control. Facing hormone resistance in breast cancer: estrogen, the sex hormone and it can be an involuntary driver of cancer development: ER + breast cancer increases when estrogen ‘traps’ your cells.
The estrogen-inhibiting treatment, known as hormonal therapy, is successful in preventing the development of cancer and reducing relapses. Although many breast cancers become resistant to treatment over time. Resistance to treatment is a significant health problem that leads to a relapse in one third of all patients with ER + breast cancer in hormone therapy in 15 years, said the study’s first author, Dr. Dice Joanna Achinger -Kaveka.
We are interested in epigenetic changes in DNA, a layer of instructions that organize and regulate DNA activity, which reduce the development of hormone resistance in breast cancer. Understanding these fundamental changes can help in the development of future therapies that prevent resistance from developing or reverse when it occurs.
Discovering hidden changes in DNA
Using chromosomal depolarization capture, a cutting-edge technology that provides a snapshot of how three-dimensional DNA is organized and interacts in a cell. Researchers have identified several ER + breast cancer cells. He compared those who were sensitive or resistant to hormones.
Among breast cancer cells that were still sensitive to hormonal treatment and that had developed resistance, we observed significant changes in the 3D interactions of the DNA regions that trigger activation. Genes that control estrogen receptor levels in cells include, Dr. Says Achinger-Kaweka.
In addition, we discovered that this occurred in regions of ‘reconnected’ 3D DNA that were methylated, which is an indigenous change that the team has already related to hormone resistance. The researchers say that altered DNA methylation in key regulatory regions can explain how the 3D structure of DNA is altered as a cancer cell develops hormonal immunity. Which can lead to better cancer treatment.
A new way to treat breast cancer
Cancer cells are always trying to end therapy and only one cell is needed to develop a different way to avoid the drug to overcome cancer,” says Professor Clarke. Our study shows us how much change in indigenous people can have an effect on the behavior of cancer cells.
The researchers say the next step is to assess whether epigenetic changes can be altered to prevent hormone resistance and using existing medications that have already been used in clinical trials for other types of cancer, including lung and colorectal cancer.
Once patients with ER + breast cancer become resistant to hormonal therapy, it is more difficult to treat,” says Professor Clarke. We hope our research promotes combined therapies that allow women to take hormone therapy for a longer period of time, giving them better clinical results.
Engineers find a way to turn water pollution into valuable chemicals. Researchers at Rice University have identified a simple way to remove water from carcinogenic contaminants and turn them into valuable chemicals.
Agricultural fertilizer runoff
Michael Wong, Thomas Seinfetal and his team have discovered a new catalyst that can convert nitrite contaminant wastes into ammonia, a compound used primarily as fertilizer and household cleaners, as well as hydrangea, called a rocket. Used as fuel.
Agricultural fertilizer runoff is contaminating land and surface waters, causing ecological effects such as algal blooms. As well as significant adverse effects for humans, including cancer in children, hypertension and developmental problems.
They are involved, said Wong, professor and president of the chemical department and biomolecular engineering at Rice’s Brown School of Engineering. I am very curious about the chemistry of nitrogen, especially if I can design materials that clean water from nitrogen compounds such as nitrogen and nitrates.
The study, published in ACS Catalysis, challenges the idea that only palladium-based catalysts are effective for nitrate reduction and extend the front of the reduction process. Producing ammonia from nitrate waste is particularly exciting for the Wong team. Ammonia-based fertilizers are important for the global food supply, and ammonia has also been discussed as a liquid carbon-free fuel that can address climate change.
But ammonia producers still rely heavily on the Heber-Bosch process, which consumes a lot of energy, and making ammonia from nitrite waste can provide an ecological alternative, Wong said. At high pH values, rhodium produced significant amounts of ammonia and small amounts of hydrangea.
In the last two decades, the removal of water contaminants by catalysis has drawn attention as a promising technique. Because palladium is considered the most effective metal for nitrate and nitrite removal, few studies have explored the performance of other metal catalysts well.
Wong’s team of students and colleagues tested how well a rhodium catalyst could extract nitrite compared to a well-known podium material. The team concluded that at high pH values, palladium produced mainly dinitrogens. While rhodium produced significant amounts of ammonia and small amounts of hydrangea.
At the beginning of this project there was a desire to find a cheaper metal than commonly used palladium, said Wong. A professor of chemistry and director of the Catalysis and Rice Nanomaterials Laboratory. While rhodium is not cheap, we discovered that it can do something that palladium cannot perform chemistry at high pH levels and create too much ammonia.
It was the new chemistry, which led to further questions And we followed the breadcrumbs. The study explains why this material becomes more effective in conditions that cause the deactivation of conventional catalysts, said Senfel. An assistant professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering.
This opens new avenues for designing strong nitrite reduction catalysts. The document is based on the research of nitrogen chemistry that has become increasingly the focus of Wong and his team. In 2017. He published an investigation into a material that can convert nitrate to dinitrogen gas quickly and economically.
Wong believes that catalytic converter technology based on new rhodium catalysts may be more useful since filters installed at sites such as farms can be installed on the farm. The fact is that we can start thinking about where to apply it because we can now access chemistry, he said. Wong and his team were very surprised by the creation of the hydrazine of the rongium catalyst.
Chelsea Clarke, a graduate student at Wong’s lab, said: What excites me most about this research is the observation of hydrazine. It gives us new ideas on how to make other useful chemicals from nitrite wastewater. Although Wong and his team still do not know how this chemistry can be best applied.
Geothermal energy cleaner
They are eager to explore the opportunities it presents. Wong said: I am excited to learn about the removal of nitrite, ammonia and hydrazine, as well as chemistry. The most important way is that we learned to clean water in a simple way and to waste chemicals. The new fluid makes unused geothermal energy cleaner.
The new geothermal stimulation fluid from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory enables geothermal energy production to be greener and less expensive where traditional geothermal energy does not work. The non-toxic fluid is designed for use in a geothermal system, where the fluid is injected into drilled wells thereby creating underground geothermal deposits.
The fluid expands when exposed to underground carbon dioxide, creating small but deep cracks in impermeable rock. Sincerely, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory More American homes may be powered by a new, non-toxic, and potentially recyclable liquid from Earth’s natural underground heat.
And it is expected that more than half of the water will be used, as other liquids take advantage of geothermal hot spots that would otherwise they would be unusable. Used to make. Fluids can be a boon to a new approach to geothermal energy called improved geothermal systems. These systems pump underground fluids.
A step known as “reservoir stimulation”, to enable power generation where conventional geothermal energy does not work. The new tank excitation fluid contains an environmentally friendly polymer that increases fluid volume, creating small cracks in deep underground rocks to improve power generation.
It can also significantly reduce the cost of fluid water footprints and improved geothermal systems. The Royal Society of Chemistry has published an article describing the fluid in an advanced edition of the Journal of the Green Society. Our new fluid can make advanced geothermal power generation more viable, said lead fluid developer Carlos Fernández.
A chemist with the Department of Energy at the National Laboratory for the Pacific Northwest. “And while we initially designed fluids for geothermal energy, it can also make unconventional oil and gas recovery environmentally friendly. Geothermal energy is generated by harnessing the heat present below the Earth’s surface to emit steam and turn on the power plant’s turbine.
Traditional geothermal plants depend on the natural presence of three things: groundwater, porous rock, and heat. Existing geothermal power plants in the United States generate 3.4 gigawatts of power, accounting for about 0.4 percent of the nation’s power supply. An increase in geothermal energy can be generated in places where there is heat, but it is not easily accessible due to impervious rocks or insufficient water.
The Enhanced Geothermal System
A 2006 report led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, estimates that the country’s geothermal power generation can be increased enough to power more than 30 times 100 GW or 100 million typical American homes. Desiring this capability, the DOE has funded five augmented geothermal system demonstration projects across the country.
In a demonstration project in Nevada, improved geothermal methods increased the productivity of a conventional geothermal plant by 38 percent. But the use of augmented geothermal systems has been limited due to technical challenges and concerns about their cost and intensive water use.
Building an improved geothermal system requires the injection of millions of gallons of water, a valuable resource in the western United States, where improved geothermal energy has the greatest potential. That water is sometimes mixed with a very small amount of chemicals to help the fluid develop better and disperse small cracks underground.
And ultimately extending the life of a geothermal power plant. Some geothermal reservoir excitation fluids are similar to oil and gas hydraulic fracturing fluids, with a small percentage of their geochemistry volume and other sources may include proprietary chemicals, according to the 2009 document.
These chemicals can be toxic if used, leading geological developers to recover and treat used fluids. This protects the aquifers, but at the same time increases the cost of generating electricity. An environmental review must be performed to obtain a permit for an improved geothermal injection.
A better solution
PNNL fluid is a water and 1 percent polyalamine solution, made up of a long carbon chain, with a nitrogen bond that is similar to polymers used in medicine. The fluid is drilled into a well at a geothermal hot spot. Soon after, workers also injected pressurized carbon dioxide, which may have come from carbon captured in fossil fuel power plants.
In 20 seconds, the polyalamine and carbon dioxide combine to form a hydrogel that increases the liquid to 2.5 times its original volume. The swelling pushes against the gel rocks, spreading the existing cracks, while creating new ones. It is necessary to reduce the amount of expanding water by half and open an improved geothermal reservoir, which reduces the cost of generating electricity.
To test fluid performance, geophysicist and co-author Ellen Bonneville led the development of an experimental set. Five cylindrical rock samples. The size of Si batteries taken near a geothermal power plant operating in California, were placed inside a high-pressure, high-temperature test cell made by the PNNL team.
Small amounts of liquid and liquid carbon dioxide were injected into the test cell. The pressure and temperature were gradually adjusted to suit the conditions of the underground geothermal deposits. The researchers discovered that their fluid constantly created small but effective cracks in the rock samples.
Some of the new fractures were too small to be seen with a high-resolution imaging method called X-ray microtomography. But when they looked at liquids like water or carbon dioxide, the team noted that the liquids move through samples. of previously waterproof rocks.
Moving fluids did not pass through rock samples that were injected with running water or the common hydraulic fracturing chemicals sodium dodecyl sulfate and xanthan gum. The team argued that large-scale testing could cause large cracks.
Two other benefits are the ability of the fluid to be recycled and reduce costs. Fluid can be recycled by reducing or stopping the fluid pumped underground or by injecting an acid. The modeling shows the reason for the separation of the hydrogel into its basic components: water-polyalamine solution and carbon dioxide.
A pump will transport different liquids to the surface, where they will be recovered and used again. However, fluid recurrence has not yet been tested in the laboratory. The operating cost of augmenting geothermal systems with new fluids can also be reduced.
With less liquid to pump underground, there will be less water to buy, treat and treat the cost of the project. However, detailed analysis is needed to determine how much the geothermal value added label can increase the fluid. Additional studies are needed to evaluate fluid performance for additional geothermal systems.
Fernández and his team plan a laboratory study to investigate fluid recycling and the ability to fracture large pieces of rock. Their ultimate goal is to conduct a controlled field test. The Geothermal Technology Office of the Department of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the Department of Energy funded this research.
This study used X-ray computed tomography and magic angle spin nuclear magnetic resonance equipment at the DOE’s Laboratory of Molecular Environmental Sciences at PTNL, EMSL. The team recently commissioned a PNNL-funded study to investigate a similar fluid for unconventional oil and gas recovery.
Gas recovery decompose
It is believed that the oil and gas extraction fluid will use a different polyamine that is related to the chemical used in the geothermal extraction fluid. Both fluids are stable and can withstand extreme temperatures, pressures, and acidity levels. Many of the fluids used for oil and gas recovery decompose, making them less effective over time.
This characteristic, combined with the reduced use of fluid water, its non-toxic nature and its recyclability, makes PNNL liquids candidates for oil and gas extraction. The researchers identified two processes that produce large rock fractures at low pressures using Stimufrac.
PNNL has recently published findings on two processes in the journal American Chemical Society’s Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, confirming the potential of Stimuphrac. Geothermal energy is a reliable source of energy with tremendous potential that captures heat below Earth’s surface and converts it into electricity.
Although high temperature rocks are relatively easy to find, it is difficult to find geological formations that can become sustainable reservoirs. A mechanical process called hydraulic fracturing creates a network of fractures through the injection of high-pressure fluid into deep rock formations, causing heat transfer from the injection to the fluid.
The current fracture fluids used in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are expensive and inefficient for temperature conditions. Conventional liquids used in the oil and gas industry also require large amounts of water and can pose a risk to groundwater. With funding and technical support from the US Department of Energy’s Office of Geothermal Technology (GTO). In the US, PNNL presented an option.
The researchers developed an environmentally friendly fracture fluid called StimuFrac that takes advantage of low pressure to fracture highly impermeable rocks in EGS. StimuFrac addresses this significant EGS challenge by creating potentially safe and cost-effective fractures that penetrate high temperature deposits.
The PNNL team recently identified two processes that produce large rock fractures at low pressures when using Stimufrac. “Six years after the conception of this technology, we now know how it works,” PNNL chemist Carlos A. Fernández said..we knew the benefits of Stimuphrac, but we did not understand the fracture mechanism under less than conventional pressure. Liquid until now.
Procedures: The PNNL team published findings on two processes, which confirm Stimufrac’s ability in the American Chemical Society Journal’s Journal of Chemistry and Sustainable Engineering. The researchers conducted a computational and experimental study of StimuFrac, determining that it continuously dissolves rock material at lower pressures than conventional waterless and hydraulic fluids.
StimuFrac involves pumping a water-based polysilamine solution into the soil. This combines with injected carbon dioxide and forms a hydrogel. The resulting volume creates an expanding pressure that causes rock fracture. StimuFrac can reduce operating costs by up to 60 percent by using significantly less water and less pumping energy than traditional fracturing methods.
PNNL geologist Delphin Aprio
The researchers confirmed a series of experiments using fused silica fracture fluid with two processes. Including homogeneous “rock-like mechanical properties” described by PNNL geologist Delphin Aprio and rock samples from an EGS site in California Huh. PNNL computer scientist Varun Gupta used models based on the finite element method to determine the pressure required for fracturing fused silica.
The team observed a decrease in the injection pressure required to produce fractures in conditions where the volume expands. Based on published findings, Stimuphrek continually fragmented silica at 30 percent less pressure than conventional fluids. In one process, the researchers established that the overpressure resulting from the expansion of the CO2-activated volume of the water polymer solution was responsible for the most efficient fracture observed.
The overpressure value was determined using a new high pressure mixing vessel developed by the team. In the second process, the StimuFrac fluid penetrated the rock under lower pressure to fracture the rock. The lower pressure means that it is a fracturing process that consumes less energy and is relatively inexpensive, Fernández reported.
The researchers are now evaluating various injection strategies in foot-scale rock samples to identify strategies that promise possible deployment in the field. Fernández said that PNNL is looking for industrial partners to bring this technology to the field in the next two years.