Paleontologists In Madagascar Have Identified A New Genus And Species. The bird from the Cretaceous period of Madagascar has a sickle-shaped beak. Paleontologists in Madagascar have identified a new genus and species of enantiornithine bird that had a long, deep beak, a morphology previously unknown among Mesozoic birds.
Forsterae incorrectly among non-avian dinosaurs and other late Cretaceous animals from Madaskaskar. Image credit: Mark Witton lived in the newly identified bird species 70 to 68 million years ago (Late Cretaceous era) in what is now Madagascar. Called Falcatelli forsteri, it is from the enantiornithines, an extinct group of birds known exclusively from extinct fossils and discovered mainly in Asia.
Enantiornithins represent the first great diversification of early birds, occupying ecosystems with their non-avian relatives such as Velosacroptor and Tyrannosaurus, said Dr. Alan Turner. A researcher in the Department of Anatomical Sciences at Stony Brook University. Unlike earlier birds such as Archeopteryx, primitive and long-tailed skull features, enantiornithins such as Fanatacacli forsteri appeared relatively modern.
Life remodeling of Falsatelli forestera with its unique peak. Image credit: Mark Witton Falsatly Forrestera was small, the size of a crow, and had a sickle-shaped beak. Dr. “We don’t really know why some beak shapes develop. But we do know that they are used for tasks like handling objects, grooming feathers, feeding, and other life-sustaining behaviors, Turner said. In the case of Falcatelli forreste.
It was probably the same and it is important to find that this early bird had such a uniquely developed beak during the Cretaceous. Falsacetelli forreste is known from a well-preserved partial skull found in northwestern Madagascar. The excellent preservation quality is outstanding and reveals many important details, said the paleontologist.
As an example, a complex series of grooves on the outer surface of bones on the side of the face indicates that the animal harbored a giant keratinous mantle. While alive. Using high-resolution micro computed tomography and digital modeling, they nearly separated the bones from the rock.
He said: It quickly became apparent that the bones that make up the face in Falsatelli Forresteri are held up unlike any dinosaur, avian or non-avian, despite having a face similar to many modern bird groups today.
discovery of the skull of a bird
All living birds make their beak skeletons in a very specific way. It is produced mainly by an enlarged bone called the premaxilla. In contrast, most dinosaur-age birds, like the iconic Archeopteryx, have relatively unaffected snakes. Which have a small premaxilla and a large maxilla.
Surprisingly, we found a similar primitive arrangement of bones in the Falsatelli Forreste, but a tall, long upper bill with a general facial shape and something reminiscent of some modern birds unlike anything known from the Mesozoic. It turns out that you can make a modern-looking beak in many ways, Dr. Turner said.
It is not necessary to have a ‘modern’ looking beak to develop the basis for developing modern beak skeletons. The discovery is described in an article in the journal Nature. Rarely do experts find dinosaur-shaped birds with sickle-shaped beaks. Scientists announced the discovery of the skull of a bird the size of a raven with a sickle-shaped beak.
age of dinosaurs
The name of the bird is Falcatelli forsterera, it lived in the age of dinosaurs, which was more accurate in the Mesozoic era. Resident in Madagascar for 68 million years. According to scientists, this bird has different characteristics compared to other birds of its time. Not just the shape of the beak, but the basic anatomy as a whole. It’s no wonder scientists consider these discoveries to be evidence of bird diversity during the age of dinosaurs.
The middle Forrestera faulktecli, similar to the beak of a baby beacon, comes from a different species and is not closely related. Today we know that there are different forms of bird beaks. From sword-beaded hummingbirds to hornbills. However, there was little variation among Mesozoic birds. Scientists can only find the skull incorrectly. It measures approximately 9 cm and was found in a rock.
paleontologist & research co-author
The researchers did not play with it because the wind did not risk damaging the skull. Instead, the scientists analyzed the Falcatelli forsterea skull using advanced scanning and digital reconstruction. Incredible, the skull (Falcatecki forsteri) is small, fragile, brittle, and very difficult to learn.
All that said, Professor Patrick O’Connor of Ohio University is the lead author of the study published in the Journal Nature. These fossils of birds are extremely rare because they have very delicate skeletons.
Its cavities survived the fossilization process, and were added to by paleontologist and research co-author Alan Turner of Stony Brook University in New York.
Turner claimed that the Falsatelli forsterii skull is a small specimen of the diversity of bird forms from the Mesozoic Era. Illustration of the bird Falsatelli forasterii that lived 68 million years ago in Madagascar. Its beak was like a modern bird.
Paleontologists In Madagascar
Representation of a falcon that survived 68 million years ago in Madagascar. Its beak was like a modern bird. Anatomy of Falcatelli forsterea: According to scientists, Falcattei forsterea evolved from a small winged dinosaur about 150 million years ago. Ancient birds retained many ancient features, including teeth.
The evidence is that the Falcatelli fossil has a conical tooth in front of the upper jaw. Scientists suspect that Falsatli only had a few teeth in his life. Researchers reveal evidence of deadly duel with dinosaurs This is what antinioornithine. Which did not survive the mass extinction 66 million years ago, put an end to the Cretaceous period.
Unlike early birds, like Archeopteryx, which in many ways still resembled a dinosaur with a long tail and a nonspecific snout. Birds like falcatali look relatively modern, Turner said. It is in the basic skeletal structure where the differences are most pronounced, O’Connor added, with greater resemblance to dinosaurs like Velociraptor than to modern birds.
Paleontologists discover new fossils of gigantic freshwater turtles, an international team of paleontologists has unearthed several well-preserved shells and the first known jaw specimen of Stupendemys Geographicus. A species of side-neck freshwater turtle that lived 5-10 million years ago (Miocence period). ) in South America. Together, fossils shed new light on the biology, past distribution and phylogenetic position of the giant tortoise.
Reconstitution of Stupendemys Geographicus male (front) and female (center-left), with the giant alligator Purussaurus mirandai and the great catfish Phractocephalus nassi. Reconstitution of Stupendemys Geographicus male (front) and female (center-left), with the giant alligator Purussaurus mirandai and the great catfish Phractocephalus nassi. Image by scinews.com.
Since the extinction of dinosaurs, northern neotropics have housed missing vertebrates today that were extremely large within their respective clades, said team director Dr. Marcelo Sánchez, director of the Institute and Museum of Paleontology at the University of Zurich and colleagues. Among them are the largest snake, the alligator crocodile, the gavial and some of the largest rodents.
One of the most emblematic species of these species is the gigantic geographic turtle of Stupendemys. Because it is the largest non-sea turtle ever known from a full shell. Stupendemys Geographicus was first described in 1976 from the Urumaco formation in northwestern Venezuela. But our knowledge of this animal was based on partial specimens that led to a problematic taxonomy, in particular due to the lack of specimens with elements skull and shell associates.
What is a Paleontologist?
Paleontologist Rodolfo Sanchez and an 8 million-year-old shell of Stupendemys male geography of Urumaco, Venezuela. Dr. Sánchez and his co-authors have discovered and examined new specimens of Stupendemys geography in the Urumaco region in Venezuela and in the La Tatacoa desert in Colombia. The findings included the largest shell reported by any existing or extinct turtle, with a shell length of 2.4 m (8 feet) and an estimated mass of 1,145 kg, almost 100 times the size of its closest living relative.
The shell of some Stupendemys Geographicus individuals has reached almost 3 m (10 feet), which makes it one of the largest turtles, if not the largest, that ever existed, said Dr. Sanchez. In some specimens, the researchers observed a particular and unexpected feature: the horns. The two types of shells indicate that there were two sexes of geographical Stupendemys: males with shells with horns and females with shells without horns, said Dr. Sanchez.
species within the tree of life of the turtles
This is the first time that a sexual dimorphism in the form of horned shells has been reported for one of the lateral neck turtles, one of the two main turtle groups in the world. Scientists have also been able to review the evolutionary relationships of this species within the tree of life of the turtles. Based on studies on the anatomy of turtles.
We now know that some live turtles in the Amazon region are the closest living relatives, said Dr. Sánchez. In addition, new discoveries and research on existing fossils from Brazil. Colombia and Venezuela indicate a much wider geographical distribution of Stupendemys Geographicus than previously thought. The animal lived throughout the northern part of South America.
Despite its enormous size, the turtle had natural enemies, the authors added. In many regions, the presence of geographical Stupendemys coincides with Purussaurus, the largest alligators. It was probably a giant tortoise predator, not only for its size and food preferences, but also as suggested by bite marks and perforated bones in the fossilized shells of Stupendemys Geographicus. The research is described in an article in the journal Science Advances.
Paleontologists discover new fossils
Paleontologists discover new fossils of gigantic freshwater turtles and scientists have fossils to prove it. Huge extinct animals lived 5-10 million years ago. The freshwater turtle today is almost 100 times larger than its closest living relative. The turtle roamed through present-day Venezuela and Colombia during the late Miocene era. Fossils of a giant tortoise that were as big as a car in South America, scientists said in a study published this week.
It is the largest, if not the largest, tortoise ever, said study lead author Marcelo, a paleontologist at the University of Zurich. The giant, extinct animals lived 5 million to 10 million years ago and were 9 1/2 feet, about the size and shape of a medium-sized automobile. Known by the Latin name Stupendemys Geographics, the freshwater turtle today is almost 100 times larger than its closest living relative, the Amazon River’s big-headed turtle. She had a body mass of approximately 2,500 pounds.
Turtles developed in Venezuela & Colombia
Fossils suggest that the male of the species had horns, while the female did not. There are two types of indications that two sexes of stupendemies were present: horned spheres and female horned spheres, Sanchez said. Artist’s concept of the giant tortoise Stupendemies Geographics: Male (front) and female (left) swim in fresh water. Horns, which are rare in turtles, can be used to protect their massive skulls during the man-to-man fight, the researchers said.
Predators include Purim, similar to a giant crocodile, known as Purusaurus, the study noted that turtle fossils cite not only the size and dietary preferences of the caymons, but also the bite marks and drilled bones. The turtles’ diet included fish, snakes, and mollusks. The study findings have greatly expanded the known range of turtles, which developed in Venezuela and Colombia during the late Miocene era.
Although the first giant tortoise specimens were identified from the remains discovered in Venezuela in 1976. The giants’ knowledge of these reptiles has been stunted so far due to the lack of complete specimens. The study was published in the scientific journal Science Advance on Wednesday.