Human evolution – History. The process by which humans evolved on Earth from the now-extinct primates. Zoologically, humans are Homo sapiens, an upright culture-bearing species that lives on land and first evolved in Africa about 315,000 years ago. We are now the only living member of what many zoologists call the human tribe, the hominins, but there is abundant fossil evidence indicating that we were preceded by other hominins, such as Ardipithecus, by millions of years.
Australopithecines and other species. Homo, and that our species is also related to at least one other member of our genus, H. He lived at the same time as Neanderthalensis (Neanderthals). Furthermore, we and our predecessors have always shared Earth with other apelike primates, from today’s gorillas to the extinct Dryopithecus.
human evolution timeline
That we and extinct hominins are related in some way and that we and apes, both living and extinct, are also related in some way is accepted by anthropologists and biologists everywhere. However, the precise nature of our evolutionary relationships has been the subject of debate and research since the great British naturalist Charles Darwin published his great books On the Origin of Species (1859) and The Origin of Man (1871).
Darwin never claimed, as some of his Victorian contemporaries insisted, that “humans descended from the apes,” and modern scientists would view such a claim as a futile simplification, as they would any popular belief. it is the “missing link” between humans and apes. However, in theory, there is a common ancestor that existed millions of years ago. This ancestral species does not form a “missing link” with the lineage.
species to Homo sapiens
But rather a node for divergence in different lineages. This ancient primate has not been identified and may never be known for sure, as fossil relationships are unclear even within the more recent human lineage. In fact, the human “family tree” could best be described as a “family shrub”, within which it is impossible to link an entire time series of species to Homo sapiens, with which experts agree.
The main resource for detailing the path of human evolution will always be fossil specimens. Indeed, the fossil deposits of Africa and Eurasia indicate that, unlike today, more than one species in our family lived at the same time for most of human history. The nature of specific species and fossil specimens can be accurately described, such as where they were found and how long they lived.
geochemical dating techniques
But the question of how species lived and why they became extinct or evolved into other species can only be addressed by formulating scientifically informed scenarios. These scenarios are based on contextual information obtained from the areas where the fossils were collected.
In devising such scenarios and completing the human family bush, researchers must consult a wide and diverse range of fossils and use them with sophisticated excavation methods and records, geochemical dating techniques, and other specialized fields such as genetics, ecology, and science. data to data. it must also be used.
Paleoecology and ethology
In short, all the tools of the multidisciplinary science of the Paleolithic. This article looks at the broad trajectory of human tribes from the Miocene epoch (23 million to 5.3 million years ago [Maya]) millions of years ago, to the development of modern, symbolically structured, tool-based human culture. Only tens of thousands of years ago, during the geologically recent Pleistocene epoch (approximately 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago).
Particular attention is paid to the fossil evidence for this history and to the key models of evolution that have gained greater credibility in the scientific community. See the Evolution article for a full explanation of evolutionary theory, including its main advocates before and after Darwin. , its stimulation of both resistance and acceptance in society, and the scientific tools used to examine the theory and test its validity.
The first changes to an upright posture were probably more related to standing, stretching and sitting than prolonged periods of walking and running. Humans stand with their hip and knee joints fully extended so that their thighs are aligned with their respective leg bones to form a continuous vertical spine. To walk, the person simply leans forward slightly and then keeps the center of mass displaced.
Which is located within the pelvis?
The large muscles of the human lower extremities power our movements and allow a person to sit up and get up from a sitting position. Body mass is transferred through the pelvis, thighs, and feet to the heels, balls of the feet, and toes. Remarkably little muscular effort is expended to stay in place. In reality, our large glutes, front thigh, and calf muscles are hardly used when we stand up.
Rather than muscle contraction, the human bipedal posture relies more on the way the joints are built and the strategically placed ligaments that hold the joints in position. Fortunately for paleoanthropologists, some bones show dramatic clues to how a particular hominin propelled itself, and adaptations to restrict terrestrial bipedalism led to notable anatomical differences between hominins and great apes. These differences are easily recognized in fossils, particularly in the pelvis and lower extremities.
Early bipedal hominids
Although we are bipeds, our pelvis is oriented like a quadruped primate. Early bipedal hominids assumed the upright trunk posture by bending the spine upward, especially in the lower back (lumbar region). To transfer the mass of the entire upper body to the lower extremities and move the muscles so that one could walk without the assistance of the upper extremities and without moving from side to side, changes in the pelvis were required, especially the iliac ( larger bones, blade-shaped on each side), ischia (the bulge on which the body rests when sitting).
The sacrum (a wedge-shaped bone formed by the fusion of the vertebrae). Hominin hipbones have smaller ilia with larger regions that articulate with a shorter and wider sacrum. In contrast, the hip bones of great apes have long ilia with short sacral joint areas, and the sacrum of great apes is long and narrow. The human pelvis is unique among primates in that the iliac bones fold forward so that the inner surfaces face each other, rather than lining up sideways, as in apes and other quadrupeds.
Curved iliacs place certain gluteal muscles on the side of the hip joint, where they stabilize the pelvis when the foot swings forward during a step. This special mechanism allows us to move smoothly, with only slight oscillations of the pelvis and without sudden movements from side to side of the upper body. Humans have shorter hamstrings (and longer lower limbs), facilitating quick actions of the hamstrings, which extend the femur at the hip joint, while great apes have longer hamstrings and hind limbs.
Shorter, giving them a powerful hip extension for climbing. up. Tree. Specifically, a human thigh bone is long and has a very large, rounded head and a short, round neck; A prominent lateral ridge on the knee presses on the groove in which the patella is located. The femurs are further at the hips than the knees and are bent toward the midline to keep the knees together. This angle allows anthropologists to diagnose bipedalism, even though the fossil is just the knee end of a femur. On the other hand, the femurs of quadruped great apes do not bend toward the knees and the femoral shaft lacks a telltale tilt.
human footprints are unique
Human feet are different from those of apes and monkeys. This is not surprising, because in humans the legs must support and propel the entire body on their own, rather than sharing the load with the front legs. In humans, the heel is very strong and the big toe is permanently aligned with the four smaller lateral toes. Unlike other primate feet, which have a movable midfoot, the human foot has (if not necessary) a stable arch to provide strength. Consequently, human footprints are unique and easily distinguished from those of other animals.
3.5 million years ago at least one species of hominid, Au. afarensis, was a skilled walker. In addition to the physical evidence from this era, Laetoli in northern Tanzania also has a 27.5-meter (90-foot) track built by three men calmly walking on wet volcanic ash. In all observable characteristics of foot shape and tread pattern, they are strikingly similar to barefoot people living in the tropics today. However, although the legs of Letoli hominins appear to be surprisingly human, it should not be assumed that other parts of their bodies are very similar to ours.
The tracks were probably left by Australopithecus afarensis individuals at Laetoli, northern Tanzania, about 3.5 million years ago. Fragmentary femoral remains of Aurorin tugenensis dating back six million years in Kenya indicate to some experts that they were also bipedal. R. ramidus (5.8–4.4 million years), Aramis, a primate from central Ethiopia and one of two fossil species of Ardipithecus, was also bipedal.
The evidence in this case comes from the foramen magnum, the hole in the skull through which the spinal cord enters. In Ardipithecus, this opening is similar to being located in the center rather than at the back of the skull. A rearward-facing foramen magnum indicates a stooped posture, while a downward-facing hole holds the skull above the spine.
Other features suggesting bipedalism in Ardipithecus include an enlarged tarsal area on each foot and, later, a pelvic structure with muscle-to-bone attachment sites compared to bipedal hominids. Also, Au’s leg bone. anamnesis (4.2 to 3.9 million years) from northern Kenya attests to his bipedalism. All hominins that lived in the time of the Laetoli footprint makers were likely bipedal when on land.
But some of them (including some young species) exhibit characteristics that advocate regular arboreal climbing, perhaps. predator. In Haider, northern Ethiopia, A. afarensis (3.8-2.9 Mya). They include various parts of the locomotor skeleton that reveal a bipedal habit: short iliac, wide and thick sacrum, and femoral angles, among other characteristics.
At the same time, smaller females with curved fingers and toes, posterior ilia, and long upper limbs, as well as their rib cage configuration, indicate that they can easily climb and maneuver trees. Bahrelgazali (3.5–3.0 million years old) from central Chad and Kyanthropus platiops (3.5 million years old) from northern Kenya are fully represented by teeth and skull and jaw fragments that are not can infer positional behavior.
Some species of Homo Erectus near to present to humans present on Earth, The Earth has a history of 4.6 billion years. However, Homo sapiens (modern humans) flourished only 400,000 and 250,000 years ago. Humans have evolved from familiar hominids (great apes) that have existed on Earth for almost 20 million years. Over time, there are several human species with different characteristics on Earth.
But not all human species have survived the journey with many of them. The only human species that remains is Homo sapiens. The idea of humans associating with apes emerged in 1859 after the publication of The Origin of Charles Darwin’s Species. He was the first to point out that each species is one of the first. Later, two scientists, Thomas Huxley and Richard Owen, supported him. Huxley published a book in 1863 entitled Evidence in Man’s Nature.
future human evolution
Although scientists have held many ideas and theories. The main problem was the evidence because there was a shortage of fossil intermediaries. Eugene DuBois first discovered a fossil intermediary in Trinil in the Dutch East Indies (nowadays Indonesia) in 1891. Which shows that there were species between humans and apes. He called his discovery Pithenanthropus Erectus or Java Man. Additional fossils were discovered in Africa in 1920 and studies on the evolution of humans began thereafter. Here is a list of seven Homo species that exist on Earth:
Homo Heidelbergensis lived on Earth between 700,000 and 200,000 years ago. They emigrated from Africa. Homo heidelbergensis males were approximately 5 feet 9 inches (175 cm) tall and weighed approximately 136 pounds (62 kg), while the female was an average height of 5 feet 2 inches (157 cm) and 112 pounds (51 kg ). It had a larger, flatter brain box than today’s humans.
They were the first human species to adapt to the cold weather and make it their habitat for their habitat. They were also widely known for their ability to hunt large animals, which had not been seen in their first human species. The first fossil of Homo Heidelbergensis was discovered on October 21, 1907 by a worker in Germany. The worker handed it to Professor Otto Schuetensack of the University of Heidelberg, who later identified and named the fossil.
Homo rudolfensis is another extinct species that falls into the category of hominids. It is believed that they lived 1.9 million to 1.8 million years ago. Its physical constitution, weight and height are still unknown due to the lack of cranial fossils. On August 8, 2012, paleoanthropologist Meave Leakey and his team announced the discovery of a face and two jaws related to Homo rudolfensis.
The fossil known as KNM-ER 1470 was at the center of a debate about its age. It was previously thought to be around three million years old, but then corrected to 1.9 million. The difference in the skulls of other Homo species led to the creation of a new species called Homo rudolfensis.
There are some characteristics of ER 1470 that suggest that it is indistinguishable from other Homo species, such as muscle deficiency. A lack of australopethesin skull and a softly rounded occipital bone similar to Homo Erectus. However, other outstanding features suggest that Homo rudolfensis differs from other Homo species, with the upper part narrower than the middle and with several megadont postcanins.
Homo habilis was another species of hominids that lived on Earth between 2.4 and 1.4 million years ago. Homo habilis had some characteristics similar to those of apes, such as long arms and a moderately pregnant face. He had a large brain box in the range of 550 cm to 687 cm. However, it had a small face and small teeth. It has been debated whether Homo Habilis should be classified as Homo because they had very few characteristics of other Homo species.
But scientists discovered that they had the ability to use stone tools for various purposes. It was the skill. Three main fossils of Homo habilis are available: KNM-ER 1813, OH 24 and OH 8. The first fossil was found by scientists in the 1960s in the Olduvai Gorge of Tanzania by Lewis and Mary Leeke. It is believed that Homo fluorescensis lived in Indonesia 95,000 to 17,000 years ago.
They were quite small, about 3.5 feet, with a small brain. There is evidence that Homo fluorescensis made stone tools and hunted small elephants and large rodents. The main fossils of Homo fluorescence were found in Indonesia in 2003 and were called LB-1. The woman’s head was one third the size of the modern human brain. Perhaps their small bodies allowed them to survive on a small island with limited resources.
Homo Erectus is an extinct species of primitive humans that lived in the Pleistocene period from approximately 1.9 million years to the most recent 143,000 years ago. Eugene DuBois discovered the first Eutrus fossils in Java (in present-day Indonesia) in the early 1890s. The fossil study showed that Homo Erectus originated in Africa and spread from India, China, Georgia and Java.
The homo erectus was generally in the range of 4 feet 9 inches to 6 feet 1 inch, weighing approximately 88 to 150 pounds. Their height and weight were different from fossils found in other parts of the world. The fossils of Africa were larger than those of Indonesia, China and Georgia. His long legs and short arms helped him to climb trees easily and run faster than modern humans.
Neanderthal is an extinct human species that has the closest resemblance to modern humans. Only 0.12 percent of its DNA is isolated from modern humans. It is believed that Neanderthal existed about 600,000 to 30,000 years ago, and lived in Central Asia throughout Europe and the southwest. They possessed most of the characteristics of modern humans, used various tools for hunting and used symbolic decorative objects.
There is evidence that they buried their dead with offerings like flowers. It has also been found that some previous human species are involved in such symbolic behavior. A study has indicated that Neanderthal and modern human brains were similar at birth. However, in adulthood, his mind grew larger. They were stronger than modern humans with a huge body size: male (164–168 cm) and female (156–158 cm).
Most hominid species on Earth became extinct during climate change, but Homo sapiens survived and became the ancestor of modern humans. Homo sapiens lived together, looked for food and evolved to the point of being able to withstand the climatic changes that occur. In addition to hunting. He discovered how certain plants spread and how to raise animals, which changed history forever. He soon learned to cook more food and ate a variety of animals and plants.
Their control over fire and their tendency to live in large groups also created better shelters. Scientists have found several fossils that support the strong evidence of Homo sapiens. The oldest known fossils were discovered in Hiro, Ethiopia. Researchers at the University of California found the skulls of two adults and one child, who lived between 160,000 and 40,000 years before modern times.
Homo Erectus when he left
Northern, Eastern and Southern Africa; Western Asia (Damici, Republic of Georgia); East Asia (China and Indonesia) when they lived: about 1.89 million and 110,000 years ago. The earliest African fossils of Homo Erectus (sometimes called Homo ergaster). They are the oldest known humans with relatively long legs and small arms with modern body proportions similar to that of humans.
These characteristics are considered adaptations for soil life, reflecting the loss of adaptation to previous tree climbing, with the ability to walk and possibly run long distances. Compared to previous fossil humans, note the elongated brain case relative to the shape of the face. The most complete fossil of this species is known as Boy Turkana Boy.
A well-preserved skeleton (although almost all the bones of the arms and legs), which are approximately 1.6 million years old. Subtle studies of teeth indicate that it grew at a growth rate similar to that of a great ape. There is fossil evidence that this species is cared for by older and weaker individuals. The presence of Homo Erectus in the fossil record is often associated with first handcuffs.
human evolution history
The first major innovation in stone tool technology. Classic examples of this species include the earliest fossil discoveries from Java (beginning in the 1890s) and China (il Peking Man ‘, early 1920s). In general, the first species that extends beyond Africa, Homo erectus, is believed to be considered a highly variable species, spreading across two continents.
It is not certain that it has reached Europe and possibly La Longest-lived human species: approximately nine times as long as our own species. Homo sapiens, has existed! Year of discovery: 1891 Age of discovery: Eugene DuBois, a Dutch surgeon, found the first individual Homo erectus (Trinil 2) in Indonesia in 1891. In 1894, Dubois called this species Pituitarythropus erectus, or ‘Arap-man’.
At that time, Erectus (later changed to Homo) Pytanthropus was the primitive and youngest brain of all known early human species. Human fossils had not yet been discovered in Africa. We don’t know everything about our early ancestors, but we continue to learn more!
Paleoanthropologists are constantly in the field, digging new areas, using innovative techniques, and constantly filling in some gaps in our understanding of human development. Was Homo Erectus a direct ancestor of our own species Homo sapiens! The data suggests that increased body size, increased dependence on animal food resources, and increased range size were part of a network of factors linking H. to Africa.
- The initials of erectus facilitated early dispersal.
- Was one of these factors more important than the others?
- In East Africa and Georgia, do all parts of the same species (Homo Erectus) vary regionally in size and shape?
- Are there really many species of early humans that we now call Homo Erectus?
- How well did Homo Erectus control fire and was it widely used?
- What does this say about possible changes in the diet of this species?
- Did Homo Erectus evolve in a more human pattern and rhythm, or more apes?
- Was Homo Erectus the first human species to experience early adolescent growth?
How they survived?
Individuals with long bodies and large brains Homo Erectus regularly require a lot of energy to function. Eating meat and other types of protein that can be quickly digested allows you to absorb nutrients with a lower digestive system, providing more energy. It is also speculated that honey and underground tubers may be important food sources for Homo Erectus. We soon see evidence in the fossil record of Homo Erectus fossils (approximately 1.9 million years ago). We see evidence in the archaeological record of the first major innovation (approximately 1.76 million years ago) in stone tool technology.
What Homo Erectus was like?
What Homo Erectus was like: Homo Erectus, meaning “honest man”, lived for 1.8 million years, if possibly a related species H. Includes ergaster, or 1.25 million years ago, if it was excluded. The species disappeared about 70,000 years ago and is a member of the hominid family and genus Homo, which includes modern humans. However, it was an intermediate form of the genre, falling between users of earlier tools, early Homo habilis and current Homo sapiens. Homo Erectus is widely considered to be the ancestor of modern humans.
Homo Erectus disappeared 70,000 years ago
The researchers believe that Homo Erectus exhibited more human qualities than its predecessor, Homo habilis, which stands taller and taller at about 5.9 feet (1.8 m) instead of 4.2 feet (1.3 m). The species’ brain was also large, although Homo sapiens is still 75% in size. He had smaller teeth, a lower slope on his forehead, and developed more complex instruments.
Prehistoric tools included stone-headed spears that were glued together to obtain a sharp edge. Homo Erectus is an instrument made primarily in the Aculian style, a type of stone tool industry. The Aitchian era of stone tools lasted from about 1.2 million years ago to about 500,000 years ago, although some primitive cultures have used such tools up to 100,000 years ago.
environment more effective
These types of tools are best represented by axes, placed on both sides to create a more effective means of making people with an impact on their environment more effective. Using these devices allowed hominids to defend against the largest predators for the first time. Although he may have tried to beat the fire, that behavior would not be specific to people of this species.
Who only appear at the end of their time on Earth. Traditionally, fire was exploited for approximately 100,000 years, just 25,000 years before the extinction of this species. Homo Erectus was succeeded by H. heidelbergensis and H. ninderthalensis, who demonstrated an increased ability to make and use tools and, in general, control their environment.