Hubble Spot Great Interacting Galaxy: NGC 2276

Hubble Spot Great Interacting Galaxy: NGC 2276. The NASA – ESA Hubble Space Telescope took this image of a spiral galaxy called NGC 2276. This Hubble image shows the rear arms of the spiral galaxy NGC 2276. The color image was created from separate exposures taken in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum with Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3).

Hubble Spot Great Interacting Galaxy

It is based on the data obtained through five filters. Color is the result of assigning different colors to each monochrome image attached to a different filter. NGC 2276 is located 120.5 million light years away in the Cepheus Planetarium. Also known as IRAS 07101 + 8550, LEDA 21039, and UGC 3740.

The galaxy was discovered by German astronomer Friedrich August Theodor Winnke on June 26, 1876. This Hubble image shows the rear arms of the spiral galaxy NGC 2276. The color image was taken from single exposures taken in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum with Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3).

Elliptical galaxies near spiral galaxies

It is based on data obtained through five filters. Color is the result of assigning different colors to each monochrome image attached to a different filter. In the atlas of strange galaxies, NGC 2276 is mentioned twice: as Arp 25 in the category of “a heavily shielded spiral galaxy” and as Arp 114 in the category of “nearby and disturbing elliptical galaxies near spiral galaxies.

“A closer look reveals a strangely one-sided galaxy shaped by gravitational contact and intense star formation,” said the Hubble astronomers. “The new image shows an unusually contrasting appearance of NGC 2276, which appears to be due to two different astronomical interactions: one with galaxy clusters scattered by superheated gas, and one with a close galactic neighbor.”

“The interaction of NGC 2276 with the intracluster medium – superheated gas located between galaxies in galaxy clusters – has ignited an explosion of star formation along one edge of the galaxy,” he said. “This wave of star formation appears to the left of this image as a bright blue glow from newly formed giant stars, giving the galaxy a strangely one-sided appearance.”

The recent star formation explosion of NGC 226 is related to the presence of black holes and neutron stars in the binary system. “The gravitational pull of a smaller companion, on the other side of the galaxy, is causing the outer edges of NGC 2276 to be out of shape due to this explosion of new stars,” the astronomers said.

Spiral arms of NGC 2276

This interaction with the small lens-shaped galaxy NGC 2300 (not seen here) has distorted the outermost spiral arms of NGC 2276, leading to the misconception that the larger galaxy is oriented face-to-face in the earth. The scientific value of objects like 2I / Borisov is also enormous, because they contain a lot of information about their planetary systems. A

tronomers detected comatose nickel from interstellar comet 2I / Borisov. Using spectroscopic observations from ESO’s Very Large Telescope, a pair of Polish astronomers have detected nuclear nickel vapor in the cold coma of an interstellar comet 2I / Borisov, discovered on August 30, 2019 by amateur astronomer Gennady Borisov.

This image shows the spectrum of interstellar comet 2I / Borisov in the lower right for an actual photograph of the comet taken with ESO’s Very Large Telescope in 2019; Nickel lines are indicated by orange stripes. This image shows the spectrum of interstellar comet 2I / Borisov in the lower right for an actual photograph of the comet taken with ESO’s Very Large Telescope in 2019; Nickel lines are indicated by orange stripes.

Astronomical Observatory

“The scientific value of objects like 2I / Borisov is absolutely enormous, as they contain a great deal of information about their planetary systems of origin”, Ph.D. Piotr Guzik said. Candidate for the Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University. “We were curious to know which atoms and molecules produce gases around 2I / Borisov,” said Dr. Michael Drahus of the Astronomical Observatory at Jagiellonian University.

Guzik and Dr. Drahs visited 2I / Borisov on 24, 30 and 31 January 2020 with the X-shooter spectrograph in Unit Telescope 2 of ESO’s Very Large Telescope. At the time of the observations, the comet’s geocentric and sun-centered distances were 2,322 AU and 2,064 AU, respectively, and the mean velocity was 19.16 km / s.

“A portion of the 2I / Borisov spectra shows nine emission lines not associated with any species found regularly or less frequently on comets in the solar system,” he said. “We identified the detected lines as the spectroscopic signature of the atomic nickel vapor, Ni Eye.”

This finding is surprising, since gases with heavy metal atoms were only observed in warm environments, such as ultra-hot exoplanets or evaporated comets that pass very close to the Sun, such as Comet Ikeya-Seki (C / 1965 S1).

The researchers said: “The nickel in 2I / Borisov is generated from a short lived molecule containing nickel at 1 AU with a shelf life of 340 seconds and at a rate of 0.9 * 1022 atoms per second.” “This is really cool because heavy elements have not been seen before in a cold cosmic environment,” Guzik said. The team’s article was published today in the journal Nature.

Hubble Spot Great Interacting Galaxy
Hubble Spot Great Interacting Galaxy

Hubble watches a giant planet grow

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope offers astronomers a rare look at a Jupiter-sized planet still forming and feeding on material around a young star. “We just don’t know much about how giant planets grow,” said Brendan Bowler of the University of Texas at Austin. This planetary system gives us the first opportunity to see material fall on a planet. Our results open a new area for this research.

This illustration of the newly formed exoplanet PDS 70b shows how material can fall on giant worlds as it accumulates mass. This illustration of the newly formed exoplanet PDS 70b shows how material can fall on giant worlds as it accumulates mass.

Using Hubble’s sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light, the researchers uniquely observed radiation from extremely hot gas falling on the planet, allowing them to directly measure the rate of increase in the planet’s mass for the first time. The planet PDS 70b is surrounded by its own disk of gas and dust that ejects material from the much larger circumstellar disk of this Solar System.

Disk of this Solar System

The researchers speculate that magnetic field lines extend from its circumferential disk into the exoplanet’s atmosphere and are funneling material toward the planet’s surface. The illustration shows a possible magnetospheric accretion configuration, but the detailed geometry of the magnetic field requires future work to investigate.

The distant world has already grown to five times the mass of Jupiter over a period of about five million years, but it is estimated to be near the end of its formation process. PDS 70 b orbits the orange dwarf star PDS 70, which is located about 370 light years from Earth in the constellation Centaurus.

Although more than 4,000 exoplanets have been cataloged so far, only 15 have been directly captured by telescopes. And the planets are so distant and small that they are just dots in the best images. The team’s new technique for using Hubble to obtain direct images of this planet paves a new path for future exoplanet research, particularly during the planet’s formative years.

This massive exoplanet, designated PDS 70 b, orbits the orange dwarf star PDS 70, which already has two actively forming planets within a giant disk of dust and gas that surrounds the star. The system is located in the constellation Centaurus at a distance of 370 light years from Earth.

“This system is so exciting because we can see the formation of a planet,” said Yifan Zhou of the University of Texas at Austin. “It is the youngest real planet that Hubble has directly imagined.” At 50 million years old, the planet is still collecting material and accumulating mass.

Hubble’s sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light provides a unique look at radiation from extremely hot gas falling on the planet. “The Hubble observations allowed us to estimate how fast the planet is gaining mass,” Zhou said.

The Very Large Telescope at the European Southern Observatory captured the first clear image of a forming planet, PDS 70b, in 2018 around a dwarf star. The Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory captured the first clear image of a planet in formation, PDS 70b, around a dwarf. Tara in 2018.

The planet stands out as a bright spot to the right of the center of the image, which has been obscured by the coronagraph mask used to block the light from the central star. The UV observations, adding to the body of research on this planet, allowed the team to directly measure the rate of increase in the planet’s mass for the first time.

The circumstellar disk

The distant world has already expanded to five times the mass of Jupiter over a period of approximately five million years. The current measured accretion rate has decreased to the point where, if the rate remains constant for another million years, the planet will only increase by about one hundredth of the mass of Jupiter.

Zhou and Baller emphasize that these observations are a single snapshot in time: More data is needed to determine whether the rate at which the planet adds mass is increasing or decreasing. Our measurements suggest that the planet is at the end of its formation process.

The young PDS 70 system is filled with a primordial disk of gas and dust that provides fuel to fuel planetary evolution throughout the system. The planet PDS 70b is surrounded by its own disk of gas and dust that is removing material from the circumstellar disk.

Hubble watches a giant planet grow

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope is giving astronomers a rare look at the Jupiter-sized planet, in stable formation that is feeding on material around a young star. “We just don’t know much about how giant planets grow,” said Brendan Bowler of the University of Texas at Austin.

This planetary system gives us the first opportunity to see material fall on a planet. Our results open a new area for this research. This illustration of the newly formed exoplanet PDS 70b shows how material can fall on giant worlds as it accumulates mass. This illustration of the newly formed exoplanet PDS 70b shows how material can fall on giant worlds as it accumulates mass.

The planet PDS 70b

By employing Hubble’s sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light, the researchers gained a unique view of radiation from extremely hot gas falling on the planet, allowing them to directly measure the planet’s massive growth rate for the first time. The planet PDS 70b is surrounded by its own disk of gas and dust that is removing material from the huge circumstellar disk in this Solar System.

The researchers speculate that magnetic field lines extend from its circumferential disk into the exoplanet’s atmosphere and are funneling material toward the planet’s surface. The illustration shows a possible magnetospheric accretion configuration, but the detailed geometry of the magnetic field requires future work to investigate.

The distant world has already grown to five times the mass of Jupiter over a period of about five million years, but it is estimated to be near the end of its formation process. PDS 70 b orbits the orange dwarf star PDS 70, which is located about 370 light years from Earth in the constellation Centaurus.

Although more than 4,000 exoplanets have been cataloged so far, only 15 have been directly captured by telescopes. And the planets are so distant and small that they are just dots in the best images. The team’s new technique for using Hubble to obtain direct images of this planet paves a new path for future exoplanet research, particularly during the planet’s formative years.

This giant exoplanet, designated PDS 70 b, orbits the orange dwarf star PDS 70, which is already known to have two actively forming planets within a giant disk of dust and gas that surrounds the star. This system is located in the constellation Centaurus at a distance of 370 light years from Earth.

This system is so exciting because we can see the formation of a planet, said Yifan Zhou of the University of Texas at Austin. It is the youngest real planet that Hubble has directly imagined. At 50 million years old, the planet is still collecting material and accumulating mass. Hubble’s sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light provides a unique look at radiation from extremely hot gas falling on the planet.

The Hubble observations allowed us to estimate how fast the planet is gaining mass, Zhou said. The UV observations, adding to the body of research on this planet, allowed the team to directly measure the rate of increase in the planet’s mass for the first time. The distant world has already expanded to five times the mass of Jupiter over a period of approximately five million years.

The current measured accretion rate has decreased to the point where, if the rate remains constant for another million years, the planet will only increase by about one hundredth of the mass of Jupiter. Zhou and Baller emphasize that these observations are a single snapshot in time: More data is needed to determine whether the rate at which the planet adds mass is increasing or decreasing.

Planet’s temperature

Our measurements suggest that the planet is at the end of its formation process. The young PDS 70 system is filled with a primordial disk of gas and dust that provides fuel to fuel planetary evolution throughout the system. The planet PDS 70b is surrounded by its own disk of gas and dust that is drawing material from the circumstellar disk.

The researchers speculate that magnetic field lines extend from its circumferential disk into the exoplanet’s atmosphere and are funneling material toward the planet’s surface. If this material follows the disk pillars on the planet, it will cause local hot spots, Zhou explained. “These hot spots could be at least 10 times hotter than the planet’s temperature.”

These hot patches were found glowing in ultraviolet light. The Hubble observations point to the planet PDS 70b. A coronagraph in Hubble’s camera blocks the glare from the central star so that the planet is seen directly. Although more than 4,000 exoplanets have been cataloged so far, only 15 have been directly captured by telescopes.

The team’s new technique for using Hubble to obtain direct images of this planet paves a new path for future exoplanet research, particularly during the planet’s formative years. These observations give an idea of how gas giants formed around our Sun 4.6 billion years ago. Jupiter may have accumulated in the disk surrounding the falling material.

Ultraviolet wavelengths

Its main moons would also have been formed from the remains left on that disk. A challenge for the team was to overcome the glare of the mother star. PDS 70b orbits roughly the same distance as Uranus from the Sun. But its star is 3,000 times brighter than the planet at ultraviolet wavelengths. As Zhou processed the images, he very carefully removed the glare from the star to leave behind only the light emitted by the planet.

In doing so, they improved the limit for how close a planet could be to its star in Hubble’s observations by a factor of five. “Thirty-one years after launch, we are still finding new ways to use Hubble,” Bowler said. Yifan’s observing strategy and post-processing techniques will open new windows to study similar systems, or even the same systems, over and over again with Hubble.

With future observations, we could find out when most of the gas and dust falls on your planets and if it does so at a constant rate. The researchers’ results were published in April 2021 in The Astronomical Journal. The Hubble Space Telescope is an international cooperation project between NASA and ESA (European Space Agency).

NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, conducts Hubble science operations. STScI for NASA in Washington, D.C. It is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy.

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