HabEx: New mission proposed to search for a second Earth. The Habitable Exoplanet Observatory (HabEx) will use a telescope with a mirror larger than Hubble’s and employ origami techniques to access the outer ‘stellar shadow’, which will block the light from the target stars and look similar to Earth and will enable the attribute. Exoplanets around it & the Habucks Observatory (Habucks) will use a telescope with mirrors larger than the Hubble and will use origami technology to use an external ‘star basin’. Which will block the light from the target stars and look like Earth and it will allow characterization.
HabEx New mission proposed
Exoplanets around it. HabEx, a space telescope with ultraviolet (UV), optical and near infrared (near IR) and spectroscopic capabilities, will have three main scientific objectives. Search the surrounding world and discover its habitat. Prepare a map of nearby planetary systems and understand the diversity of the world. New discoveries of astrophysics systems from our own solar system to galaxies. The universe by increasing our access to UV rays through nearby IR.
“Our goal is to see if we can find a planet that is similar to Earth, one that can support life,” said Professor Scott Gowdy, a researcher at Ohio State University. While we have identified many planets outside our solar system. So far, none has proven to have the necessary elements for the usual elements. The Habucks mission will be the next logical step in the search for planets similar to our Earth.
The habucks will have a 4 meter wide mirror, compared to the Hubble 2.4 meter mirror, and will be used along with a stellar shadow to search for light from other planets. Professor Gaudi said: This light usually comes out of the bright light of the surrounding stars, including our Sun. But the Habucks will deflect the starlight with a star head, a 52-meter flower-shaped disk that will move origami similar to space in a tight spiral.
NASA as the next large observatory
Once the satellite reaches its orbit and blocks the light of the stars, the light of the stars is blocked, but allows the light of other planets to be reflected to reach the instruments of the telescope. Then, henchmen would look for signs of planets with stars like the Sun that contain water or carbon dioxide, two signs that could be habitable for a planet.
The telescope will also have a camera that can take pictures of nearby planets. Those paintings will be the first familiar drawings of those systems, said Professor Gaudí. HabEx will have additional instrumentation. Including a crown paragraph, which can also characterize planets outside our solar system and record images of them. The project is one of the four mission concepts proposed by NASA as the next large observatory.
A large-scale mission that will play a key role in space science over the next decade of the United States. The Federal Decadal Survey was intended to make a recommendation on which project should receive funds by 2021. If you prefer, the HabEx mission will be launched in the 2030s. It is estimated that it will cost approximately $ 7 billion for 10 years.
Gaudi and his colleagues at the MIT Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA presented the mission concept at the AGU Fall Meeting 2019 in San Francisco, CA, on December 13.
Our goal is to see if we can find a planet similar to Earth that can support life,” said Professor Scott Gowdy, a researcher at Ohio State University. While we have identified many planets outside our solar system, so far no one has demonstrated the essential elements for common elements. HabEx’ mission will be the next logical step in the search for planets similar to our Earth.
Hubble 2.4 meter mirror
The Hubble will have a 4 meter wide mirror, compared to the Hubble 2.4 meter mirror and will be used with a stellar shadow to search for light from other planets. Professor Gaudí said: This light generally emanates from the bright light of the surrounding stars. Including our Sun. But the habucks would deflect the starlight with a star head, a 52-meter flower-shaped disk that would move origami similar to space in a tight spiral.
Once the satellite reaches its orbit and blocks the light of the stars, the light of the stars is blocked, but allows the telescope instruments to reflect the light of other planets. Then, the minions will look for signs of planets with stars like the Sun that contain water or carbon dioxide, two signs that can be habitable for a planet. The telescope will also have a camera that can take pictures of nearby planets.
Those images would be the first familiar images of those systems, said Professor Gowdy. Habucks will have additional instrumentation, including a paragraph from Crown. Which can also characterize planets outside our solar system and record their images. The project is one of the four mission concepts proposed by NASA as the next great observatory. A large-scale mission that will play an important role in space science over the next decade of the United States.
NASA prepares a HabEx mission
The goal of the Federal Decade Survey was which project should receive funding by 2021. If desired, the HabEx mission will be launched in the 2030s. It is estimated that it will cost around $ 7 billion for 10 years. Gauty and his colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at MIT and NASA presented the mission concept. NASA prepares a HabEx mission to search for another Earth-like exoplanet.
NASA has designed a mission to directly search for Earth-like exoplanets using the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission or the HabEx Space Telescope. HabEX visualization: a telescope that will search for Earth-like exoplanets. NASA has proposed a mission to image planets directly around Sun-like stars to search for Earth-like exoplanets.
Habex Community of Science
The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission or HabEx is one of four mission concepts that the space agency is currently studying in preparation for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Professor Scott Gowdy, a researcher at the Ohio State University and Habex Community of Science: Our goal is to see if we can find a planet that is similar to Earth, one that can support life.
He and his colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at MIT and NASA presented the mission concept at the AGU Fall Meeting 2019 in San Francisco on December 13. Habitable Exoplanet Mission, HabEx, habex telescope, nasa, nasa Earth like planet search, habex mission A diagram of the Exoplanet Habitable Observatory. The NASA website described HabEx as a large space-stationary optical telescope with “exclusive resolution”.
An “unprecedented resolution” for direct image exoplanets and enabling galactic, extrasalactic and solar system astrophysics. The agency says the HabEx concept is ready for development, which will be applied technically and scientifically for the next decade. Compared to Hubble’s 2.4 meter mirror, habucks will have a larger mirror that is 4 meters wider.
It will be used in conjunction with a star shadow to search for light from other planets. Gaudi explains that the light is generally submerged by the bright light from nearby stars, including our Sun. But the Habucks will deflect the stars with Starshade, a 52-meter flower-shaped disk that travels into Origami-like space will go tight. Habitable exoplanet image missions.
instruments of the telescope
Habex, telescope, NASA Earth as planetary search, habex mission illustration of star day deployment steps. Gowdy said: Once the satellite reached its orbit and flew about 77,000 km from the telescope. The light was blocked by the stars, but light was allowed to reflect from other planets to reach the instruments of the telescope, said Gaudi. Although Habucks’ primary goal is to characterize planets like Earth.
He will also study the full range of exoplanets, particularly around our closest Sun-like neighbors. The first complete family portrait of planets,” says NASA. In addition to Starsday, HabEx will also have a coronography. A device that can also characterize planets outside our solar system and record images of them. Habitable exoplanet imaging mission, Habex, habex telescope, planetary search like nasa, nasa Earth.
The HabEx study is being conducted by a science and technology definition team. While we have identified many planets outside of our solar system, so far, none have proven necessary for the usual elements. The HabEx mission will be the logical next step in finding planets similar to our Earth. The HabEx telescope will be able to sensitize ultraviolet, optical and near infrared photons to all kinds of planets.
The telescope will measure the atmospheric content of the Earth-like exoplanet by measuring the spectra of these planets and discovering the signature of the habitat like water. HabEx will be sensitive to gases in the atmosphere, indicating biological activity, such as oxygen or ozone.
The Frontiers New Specialty section is one of the most fascinating questions that humans have tried to answer for centuries. Our galaxy contains more than 30 billion planets and the observable universe contains more than 100 billion galaxies. As I read these numbers, I naturally have a question.
life in the universe
From scientists and philosophers to writers and filmmakers, from believers to agnostics and devotees, to artists, poets and ordinary people, we have all wondered if anyone else while clear signs of life have never been detected, astronomers look for answers, using a combination of astronomical, chemical, geological and biological sciences.
Isik Kanik is a Senior Research Scientist at Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, California. His main research interests are astrobiology, detection techniques and laboratory spectroscopy.
The new chief editor of Astrobiology, Professor Issik Kanik, says that now is the time to study the existence of life in the universe: Space science has developed rapidly in recent decades, combining new discoveries made through space exploration and in conjunction with laboratory and field research in terrestrial environments such as fuel, extreme space.
new scientific discoveries
We have already made incredible discoveries: evidence of liquid water in nearby planetary bodies, identification of new planets outside our solar system, the discovery of a wide variety of novel microbial life forms in highly terrestrial environments and the emergence of life on Earth. New theories, to name a few. Everything seems to be waiting for more and more new sensational discoveries. Thanks to the latest discoveries.
NASA and other international research institutes are encouraging research in the field, and open access is the right tool to promote the delivery of results from the scientific community as objectively and quickly as possible. Open access will help scientists develop new hypotheses and new perspectives in the field. Which provide the basis for new scientific discoveries, says Professor Kanik.
astronomy to explore our own solar system
The new special section of Frontiers in Astrobiology, Astronomy and Space Science is now open for presentation and receives high quality articles and proposals for research topics. The purpose of the section’s inaugural research topic is to emphasize the importance of astronomy to explore our own solar system while examining the possibility of life on Mars, Europe, Titan and Enceladus.
We are alone: The search for new planets continues. Exoplanets, a new special section of Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, is now open for presentation. A senior scientific researcher at NASA’s Ames Research Center, Dr. Directed by Steve B. Howell, this section will provide a focus for research on the discovery and characterization and understanding of planets that orbit the alien sun, as well like those who are stellar.
A growing scientific field with Nobel Prize recognition
The study of exoplanets began only 25 years ago, but their scientific impact has been widely recognized, especially at the 2019 Nobel Prizes. The purpose of exoplanet research is to address one of the fundamental human questions about the universe: are we alone?
Dr. Howell explains: Given the vastness of heaven, one can feel small and insignificant, or can feel a deep connection. I think both. So, my desire, then and now, is to learn and share that knowledge.
A platform to solve great exoplanet challenges The mission of Exoplanets is to bring together leading scientists around the world, providing them with a platform to connect and share ideas and results. The exoplanet community is more diverse than any other in astronomy and makes it incredibly vibrant, powerful and a fantastic platform of human interest.
We hope that global partnerships, new and substantial partnerships, without borders, and that the great scientific challenges of the exoplanet we face can be solved. Follow Frontiers in Astronomy and Astronomy on Twitter and sign up for our article alerts to receive new research and updates. Alma discovers rare carbon isotopes in 49-game debris discs.
Using the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA).
Astronomers have detected radio emissions from two carbon isotopes (12C and 13C) in a massive gas-rich debris disk of about 49 cm, located 186 lights A star of 40 million years – Away in the constellation of Situs. We found nuclear carbon gas in debris disks around 49 SETIs using observations for 10 hours with the 10-meter ASTE radio telescope in Chile, said Dr.
An astronomer at the National Astronomical Observatory in Japan. Aya explained to Higuchi. As a natural extension, we used ALMA to get a more detailed view and this gave us a second surprise. Carbon gas turned out to be 10 times more abundant than our previous estimate of around 49 SET. The amount of nuclear carbon gas was so high that Drs. Higuchi and his colleagues detected radio signals not only from the common 12C isotope.
But also in the very rare 13C form. This is the first emission detection of 13 C at 492 GHz in an astronomical object. Which is usually hidden behind the normal emission of 12 C, he said. The amount of 13C is only 1% of 12C, so the detection of 13C in the waste disk was completely unexpected, said Dr. Higuchi. This is clear evidence that the 49 Seti contains a surprisingly large amount of gas.
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Astronomers offered two possible explanations for the origin of this carbon gas. One is that it is the remaining gas that survived the dissipation process in the final stages of the planet’s formation, he said. However, the amount of gas around 49 SETI is comparable around very small stars in the active formation phase of the planet.
There are no theoretical models that explain how much gas can persist for so long. Another possibility is that the gas has been released when small objects such as comets collide. But the amount of collisions necessary to explain the large amount of gas around 49 SETs is too large to accommodate current theories.
The findings appear in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. For millennia, people turned their eyes to the stars and wondered if there were others like them.
Is there life, similar to ours or not, elsewhere in our solar system?
Our galaxy! In 1992, when the first exoplanet was confirmed, it was unclear whether there were planets outside of our own solar system. Today we know of over 3,850 planets around other stars and thousands of planet candidates.
Are any of these planets in a position that will sustain life?
What conditions are favorable for the formation of terrestrial planets in the development of planetary systems? NASA can help address these questions by developing missions designed to find and characterize extrasolar planetary systems. Before we can determine if other planetary systems are capable of supporting life, we must first find them.
NASA Science pursued this goal by supporting a focused set of Earth observations through the Kepler mission. A retired space observatory that studied the propagation and the number per star of extralater planets, and the prospecting satellite of Exoplanets in transit through from the TESS operation.
Which is conducting an inspection of the entire sky to search for transplanets that vary in size from Earth to gas giants. The search for life outside the earth is totally ready to accelerate.
Indian astronomers have developed a new technology to discover if any of the recently discovered exoplanets (planets outside our solar system) are potentially habitable. Big Data algorithms can help find answers. The artist’s impression of the particular region around each star where liquid water may be present on the surface of their planet is called the habitable zone.
The technique developed
More than 3,500 exoplanets have been discovered so far, and scientists estimate that this number could reach billions in our galaxy and trillions in the observatory universe. According to astronomers, Earth is actually an average planet and our solar system may not be unique in terms of its ability to support life. In this scenario, trying to find out if there are planets that are friendly to life and similar to Earth.
The technique developed by Indian scientists is based on the emerging understanding that habit should not be defined only from the perspective of Earth or the Solar System. Until now, the search for life has been limited to habitable regions only where liquid water exists on the surface. But now it has expanded to galactic and even cosmic habitable zones.
Habitability depends on understanding the parameters of physical planets, such as orbital properties, chemical composition, mass, radius, density, surface temperature, distance from the original star, and the temperature or mass of parents. Applying these criteria to each of the recently discovered exoplanets will be a slow and time consuming task. Indian researchers have automated this process using data analysis and machine learning techniques.
astronomy and computer science
An exercise that combines astronomy and computer science. Which represents an emerging discipline. The new technology was presented at the 36th session of the Astronomical Society of India (ASI) to be held here at the University of Osmania. The current approach to looking at life on planets outside the solar system is to search for Earth-like conditions or planets.
What we call ‘Earth-like’ and also the possibility of life in a way known or unknown to us.
Which means “habit”. For this, two indices are used, namely the Earth Parity Index (ESI) and the Planetary Habits Index (PHI). We have proposed a different metric, a Cobb-Douglas habitability score (CDHS). Which calculates the usual scores using measured and predicted planetary input parameters, such as radius, density, exhaust velocity, and surface temperature of a planet.
The value of the input parameters is normalized to units of land. The metric has analytical properties along with an exponent representing the elasticity metric that guarantees a global optimum, and can be extended to accommodate more input parameters and based in Bangalore Margarita Safonova from MP Birla Institute of Fundamental Research and research member explained. The team, speaking to India Science Wire.
The Cobb - Douglas habitability score is actually derived from an economic theory proposed before 1920.
Our sophisticated models predict a score for each planet by comparing it to Earth, using known parameters of each exoplanet, such as density, radius, migration speed and surface temperature. These scores are incorporated into machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms that can group these planets into different kinds of potential habitat, said Jayant Murthy, a professor at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics in Bangalore.
exoplanet Proxima B
The new metric has been applied to the exoplanet Proxima B that orbits the closest star to the Sun (Proxima Centauri). There is an expectation that Proxima B is potentially habitable because it is in the star’s habitable zone and its mass is 1.27 the mass of Earth. Although it orbits its star eight times more than Mercury, the amount of energy it receives is 2/3 of the Earth from the Sun, which increases the possibility that there is liquid water on the surface.
We calculated the Proxima B CDSH habit score using radius, density, escape velocity, and surface temperature, only surface temperature and radius, stellar flux and radius, and flux and stellar mass. According to our classification algorithm, Proxima enters the Earth League-League B, “Saffonova said. Earth’s ability to live the value of the floor function ‘is 1, and the difference between its CDHS and the CDHS of Earth is within an acceptable range.
discovered exoplanets in general
“Our algorithm demonstrates the possible habituation of praxima B, which coincides with the estimation of the University of Puerto Rico’s planetary habituation laboratory, which maintains the list of all exoplanets,” he said. This indicates that the model can be scaled up to quickly examine the potential habitat of recently discovered exoplanets in general. We have created a website to host all relevant data and results for this project.
Including the dataset, Figures, animation videos and a graphic summary. Snehashu Saha, Kakoli Bora, s. Aggarwal, Swati Ruth and Anand Narasimhamurthy are also members of the research project, carried out by astronomers from the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, PES University and MPBIFR. Financed and supported by the Vision Group on Science and Technology (VGST).
The Government of Karnataka and the Interuniversity Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA). I don’t think there is anyone in the whole world who, when they are in a good place on a good starry night and look up, feel nothing. Some simply experience the sensation of feeling epic beauty, some think of the greatness of the universe. Someone drowns in a well-stocked pool, feeling uncomfortable for at least half an hour.
But everyone feels something. Physicist Enrico Fermi also felt something:
Where are they all?
The starry sky looks huge, but everything we see is part of our little yard. At best, when there are no nearby settlements, we see around 2,500 stars (i.e. one millionth of the stars in our galaxy), and about 1,000 light-years away (1%) in the Milky Way. Diameter). In fact, we see this: When faced with the issue of stars and galaxies, people inevitably begin to wonder “is there an intelligent life”? Let’s take some numbers.
In the observable universe, there are almost as many galaxies as there are in our galaxy (100-400 billion), so each star in the Milky Way galaxy has its own galaxy. In total, there are 10 ^ 22 – 10 ^ 24 stars in total, for every grain of sand on earth, there are 10,000 stars. The scientific community has not yet reached general agreement on what percentage of these stars is represented by the sun (similar in size, temperature and light).
Earth-like planets rotate
Opinions generally range from 5 to 20%. If we take the most conservative estimate (5%) and the lower limit of the total number of stars (10 ^ 22), the universe will have 500 quintillion or 500 billion trillion stars at sunset. There is also controversy over what percentage of these sun-like stars would be an earth-like planet (a terrestrial planet with temperature conditions that allow liquid water to exist and a possible support for life).
Some say they can go as high as 50%, but a conservative estimate from a recent PNAS study showed that no more than 22% would be less. This suggests that potentially inhabited Earth-like planets rotate at least 1% of the total stars in the universe, a total of 100 billion Earth-Like-Planet. So for every grain of sand in our world there are a hundred terrestrial planets.
civilizations directly to our galaxy
Next time think about meeting you on the beach. In the future, we have no choice but to remain within a purely theoretical approach. Let’s imagine that, after billions of years of existence, 1% of the terrestrial planets have evolved (if true, each grain of sand would represent a planet with life) and imagine that 1% of these planets have managed to reach the level of intelligence, similar to the terrestrial.
This would mean that there are 10 trillion or 10 million intelligent civilizations in the observable universe. Let’s go back to our galaxy and do the same trick with the lower limit of star ratings in the Milky Way (100 billion). We will only have a billion terrestrial planets and 100,000 intelligent civilizations in our galaxy. SETI “The Quest for Supernatural Wisdom” is an organization dedicated to trying to hear signs of another intelligent life.
If we send 100,000 or more intelligent civilizations directly to our galaxy, and even some of them radio waves or laser beams, then trying to communicate with each other, the SETI must at least once. The signs had to be captured. This is strange..our Sun is relatively young by the standards of the universe. Terrestrial planets are also very old stars, which in theory speak of the existence of much more developed civilizations than ours.
For example, let’s compare our earth to the imaginary planet X of 7.5 trillion years, with the age of 7.56 trillion years. The knowledge of technology and civilization, which is over a thousand years old, can surprise us as much as our world. A man of the Middle Ages. For a million years, the civilization that awaits us may be reckless for us, because human culture is for chimpanzees.
And Planet X, for example, is 3.4 billion years ahead of us. The so-called Kardashev is the scale. Which will help us identify appropriate civilizations in three broad categories, depending on the amount of energy they use. Civilization I uses all the energy on our planet. We have not yet reached that type of civilization, but we are reaching it (Carl Sagan called us a type 0.7 civilization).
civilization on planet X
The Civilization II guy uses all the energy from his own star. Our weak minds can hardly think what it is like, but we try to represent something like Dyson Sphere. It absorbs the energy emitted by the Sun and can be redirected to the needs of civilization.
The Type III civilization destroys the previous two, using energy to produce the entire Milky Way. If such a level of development is hard to believe, don’t forget that Planet X has a level of growth that exceeds our 3.4 billion years. If the civilization on planet X were similar to ours and III could evolve to typify civilization, then it stands to reason that by now they have exactly reached an interstellar journey, and perhaps colonized the entire galaxy.
One of the hypotheses about how you can colonize the galaxy is to create a machine that can fly to other planets, spend approximately 500 years doing it, using the planet’s raw materials, and then do the same to send two replicas. Even without traveling at the speed of light, this process would have colonized the entire galaxy in just 3.75 million years, a time by the standards of existence of billions of years of planets.
We keep reflecting. If 1% of intelligent life is long-lasting, becoming a galaxy potentially colonized by a Type III civilization. Then our previous calculations indicate that only our galaxy should have at least 1000 types of Civilization III – Y given the power of such civilizations, their presence would hardly go unnoticed. But there is nothing.
We don’t see anything, we don’t listen, nobody visits us. We don’t have the answer to the Fermi paradox: the best we can do is “a possible explanation and if you ask ten different scientists, you will get ten different answers. What would you think of the people of the past who are discussing a round or flat earth, or the sun revolves around it or is round.
Is given by the Ray the Almighty Zeus?
They look so primitive and dense. The same can be said to us, discussing the Fermi paradox. Given the most contested possible explanations for the Fermi paradox, it’s worth dividing them into two broad categories. Those explanations show that there are no signs of Type II and III civilizations because they simply don’t exist, and which ones we suggest not looking at for some reason: Group of explanations.
There are no signs of superior civilizations (second and third type), because there is no superior civilization. Those who follow Group I’s explanation indicate what is called the problem of non-specificity. She rejects any theory that says: There are great civilizations, but none of them tried to contact us. People in the group look at the math, which says there must be thousands or millions of high civilizations.
So there must be an exception to at least one rule. Although the theory supports the existence of 99.9% of the superior civilizations, the remaining 0.01% will be different, and we know it. Therefore, follow the explanation of the first group, underdeveloped civilizations do not exist and since our calculation, thousands have spoken in our galaxy, there must be something else & this is something else called the Great Filter.
The Great Filter theory states that from the beginning of life to the third type of civilization there is a fixed wall at a certain point, on which practically all life strives. It is a definite phase in a long evolutionary process, through which life practically cannot pass. And this is called the Great Filter. If this theory is correct then the big question is at what time interval does the Great filter appear?
It turns out that when it comes to the fate of humanity, this topic becomes very important. Depending on where the Great Filter occurs, we live with three possible realities: we are rare, we are the first or those who cover us.
1. We are a rarity (behind the big filter)
There is an expectation that the Great Filter is behind us; We did it and that would mean that life is extremely difficult to develop our level of intelligence, and this occurs very rarely. The following diagram shows that only two species have done so in the past, and we are one of them. This scenario may explain why there are no Type III civilizations, but it would also mean that we can be one of the many exceptions.
I mean, we have hope. At first glance, it resembles what people thought 500 years ago that Earth was at the center of the universe: they thought they were special, and today we might think so. But the so-called “selective observation effect” states that, whether our condition is rare or fairly general, we will try to see first. This leads to the fact that we allow the possibility that we are special and, if we are special. When exactly have we become special, that is, have we gone to the stage..
Where others stagnate?
One of the possibilities: a great filter can occur in the beginning, therefore the beginning of life was a very unusual event. This option is good because it took billions of years to finally appear. We tried to replicate this phenomenon in the laboratory, but were unsuccessful. If the error is caused by the Great filter, it would not mean that there can be no intelligent life in the universe.
It would say that life in general does not exist outside our planet. Another possibility: a great filter may be the transition from simple prokaryotic cells to complex eukaryotic cells. After prokaryotes are born, they need at least two billion years before they can take an evolutionary leap, become complex, and reach their origin.
If it’s all the Great Filter, you can tell that the universe is full of simple eukaryotic cells and that’s it. There are many other possibilities, some even believe that our last jump to current intelligence can also be a sign of a great filter. Although the jump from a semi-intelligent life (chimpanzee) to a suitable life (people) does not seem like a miraculous step, Stephen Pinker rejects the idea of the inevitable “apogee” in the evolutionary process.
Earth is a technical reason
Since evolution does not set a goal, it only uses adaptation that would be useful for a specific ecological niche, and the fact that its cause on Earth is a technical reason may already indicate that natural selection. Such a result is very rare and not it is a habitual result of the growth of the tree of life. Most jumps are not considered candidates for the Grand Filter.
Any possible big filter has to be a billionth thing, when something incredibly strange has to happen to provide a crazy exception. For this reason, the transition from a single-cell to a multi-cell life is not taken into account. Because Only 46 occurred once as isolated incidents on our planet. For the same reason, we do find fossilized eukaryotic cells on Mars. They would not be indicative of the Great Filter (as nothing else had happened before in the evolutionary series.
Because if it happened on Earth and Mars, it would be where something else would happen. If we are really rare, this may be due to a strange biological phenomenon, and also to what is called the “rare earth” hypothesis. Which says that there may be many terrestrial planets with similar terrestrial positions, but different positions on Earth: specificity of the solar system, relationship to the moon (the big moon is rare for such small planets) or something on the planet itself. favorable for life.
2. We are the first?
Followers of Group I believe that if the great filter is not behind us, there is an expectation that conditions in the universe have recently become, for the first time since the Big Bang, such that they have allowed the development of a adequate life. In this case, we and many other species may be on their way to superintendency, and none came before that. We were at the right time to become one of the highest civilizations for the first time.
An example of an event that could make this explanation possible is gamma brightness, the prevalence of massive explosions that we see in distant galaxies. Just as it took young Earth several hundred years before asteroids and volcanoes died, opening the way to life. The universe could be filled with gamma rays, like gamma rays that burned everything that became life. occasionally. Given, up to a point. Now, perhaps, we are in the midst of the third astronomical stage of infection, when life can go on for so long and nothing prevents it.
3. We cover (large front filter)
If we are not infrequent and not before, among the possible explanations for Group I is the fact that the Great Filter awaits us. Perhaps life unfolds regularly as we stop. But something is preventing me from advancing and reaching higher intelligence in almost all cases, and we are unlikely to be an exception. One of the possible excellent filters is a regularly occurring catastrophic natural phenomenon, similar to the gamma eruptions mentioned above.
Perhaps they are not finished yet, and it is only a matter of time before they suddenly share the emptiness of all life on Earth. Another candidate is the potential imperative for self-destruction of all civilizations developed after reaching a certain level of technology. That is why Oxford University philosopher Nick Böstrom says “lack of news is good news. Discovering even the simplest life on Mars will have disastrous consequences, as it will cut many possible large filters behind us.
If we find fossils of a complex life on Mars, in Bosrom’s opinion, it would be the worst news in the history of humanity, published in the newspaper. Because it would mean that the great filter would surely be ahead. Bossom believes that when the Fermi paradox comes, “the night sky is gold.” II Group of explanations: There are civilizations II and III, but there are logical reasons not to listen to them.
history is only 5,500 years old
The second group of explanations removes any mention of our rarity or uniqueness; On the contrary, his followers believe in mediocrity theory, the starting point of which is that nothing is rare in our galaxy, solar system, planets, intelligence unless the evidence shows otherwise. They are not quick to say that the lack of high intelligence evidence speaks to their absence, and underscores the fact that our search for signals has only increased 100 light years (0.1% of the galaxy) from us.
Here are ten possible explanations for the Fermi paradox from the point of view of Group II. The supreme life has come to earth long before us. In this scheme of things, living people have been around for almost 50,000 years. Which is relatively small. If the contact happened first, our guests drowned in the water alone, and that’s it.
Furthermore, the recorded history is only 5,500 years old. Perhaps a group of ancient hunter-gatherer tribes collided with unknown supernatural garbage, but no way was found for future descendants to recall or capture the event. The galaxy is colonized, but we only live in some uninhabited country. Americans may have been colonized by Europeans long before a small Inuit tribe in northern Canada.
Perhaps there is an urban moment in the colonization of the galaxy. When species gather in the neighborhood for convenience, and it would be impractical and futile to try to contact someone in the part of the spiral galaxy we are in. The whole concept of physical colonization is a fun idea of antiquity for the more advanced species. Remember the image of a Type II civilization around your star!
physical world of biology
With all this energy, they could create an ideal place for themselves that would satisfy all needs. They can incredibly reduce the need for resources and live in their joyous utopia instead of exploring the cold, empty, and underdeveloped universe.
An even more civilization could see the entire physical world as a very primitive place, long ago conquering its biology and charging its mind into virtual reality. A paradise for eternal life. Life, mortality, wants and needs in the physical world of biology may seem primitive to such creatures because it seems to us primitive life in the cold, dark ocean.
Somewhere there are hunter-gatherer civilizations. The smartest life knows that it is highly inappropriate to transmit any outgoing signal, thereby giving it its place. This unpleasant moment may explain the absence of any signal received by SETI satellites. It can also mean that we are new and naive people, who leave their risky place because of their stupidity.
any developed civilization
There is controversy over whether we should try to approach a supernatural civilization, and most people conclude that no, it’s not worth it. Stephen Hawking warns: If aliens come to us, the consequences will be worse when Columbus lands in the United States, which was clearly not very good for Native Americans.
Even Carly Sagan (who piously believed that any developed civilization that would dominate interstate travel rather than hostile) called the SETI practice “highly inappropriate and immature” and recommended that strange and inconsistent Newborns sit in space and listen in Silence for a long time.
They study patiently and absorb, before shouting into the unknown, that we do not understand. There is only one representative of the higher intellectual life: the civilization of the “hunters” (like the people here on earth). Which is much more advanced than all the others, and avoids destroying any intelligent civilization as soon as it arrives.
Fixed level of development
It would be very bad It would be very unfair to destroy civilizations, to spend resources on them. Because most of them died alone. But after a certain point, intelligent species can begin to multiply like viruses and soon populate the entire galaxy. This theory implies that whoever populates the first galaxy wins, and no one else has a chance.
This may explain the lack of activity, as it would reduce the number of supernatural civilizations for one. There is activity and noise somewhere, but our technologies are much more primitive and we try to hear something else.
You go to a modern building, turn on the walkie-talkie and try to listen to something, but everyone sends a message and you decide that the building is empty. Or as Carl Sagan said, our brains can run slower or faster than other smarter brains: it takes 12 years to say “hello,” but when we hear that, this is white noise for us. We are exposed to a wise life, but the authorities are hiding it.
national nature reserve
This theory is completely silly, but we must mention it. The high civilizations know us and observe us (“zoo hypothesis”). As far as we know, there are known civilizations in a tightly controlled galaxy, and our Earth is considered a national nature reserve, preserve and a great thing, a sign that it is “seeing but not touching.” We don’t notice them, because if some intelligent species wants to see us.
They will know how to hide from us easily. Perhaps, in fact, there is a “Star Trek” “directive” that prevents superintelligent creatures from coming into contact with young species until they reach a certain level of intelligence. We have high civilizations here. But we are too primitive to understand them.
Michio Kaku explains it like this: Suppose we have an anthill in the middle of the forest. Near the anthill, a ten-lane high-speed road was built.
The question is:
Do the ants understand that ten lanes tall. -Speed? Can ants understand the techniques and intentions of the creatures that build the road alongside them?” Therefore, not only can we not pick up signals from planet X using our techniques, but we also cannot understand what organisms on planet X do. On their behalf, an effort will be made to tell us that we are trying to train ants to use Internet. You can also answer the question.
Well, if there are so many amazing Type III civilizations. Why haven’t they contacted us yet? To answer this question, let’s ask ourselves:
- When Pizarro went to Peru, did he stop in front of Antheil to speak?
- Was he generous trying to help ants in their difficult cases?
- Was it hostile and prevented anthill burning from time to time?
- Or was it deep in the drum?
Is the same!..we are completely wrong in our thoughts about reality. There are many options that can completely divide our thoughts to zero. The universe can be something like a hologram. Either we are aliens, and they put us here as an experiment or fertilizer. There is even a chance that we are all part of computer simulations of some otherworldly scientists.
And that other life forms are not just programmed to appear. As our path continues, we continue to seek supernatural intelligence, it is not entirely clear what to expect. If we find out that we are alone in the universe, or if we officially enter the galactic community, both options are equally terrifying and equally awaken consciousness.
conversations about civilizations
In addition to its surprisingly bright component, the Fermi Paradox leaves people feeling profoundly humble. It is not the usual “I am a microbe and I live three seconds”, which originates from the idea of the universe. The Fermi paradox leaves a more distinct personal delicacy that can only appear after spending hours studying the most incredible theories put forth by the best scientists who constantly turn their minds and mutually refute each other.
It reminds us that generations to come will look at us the same way we see people of old who thought that the stars had collided with the wooden sky and wondered, “Wow, they really didn’t know what was happening.” All of this is hurting our self-esteem, along with conversations about civilizations II and III. Here on Earth we are the kings of our little palace, proudly ruling over the few fools who share the planet with us and there is no competition in this bubble and no one will condemn us.
We have no one to discuss the problem of being, except ourselves. All of this suggests that humans are probably not that smart, we sit on a small rock in the middle of a desert universe and we don’t even think we could be wrong. But perhaps we are wrong, let us not forget this in an attempt to justify our greatness.