DNA In The Calcified Cartilage Of Duck-Billed Dinosaurs

DNA In The Calcified Cartilage Of Duck-Billed Dinosaurs. The scientists discovered chemical markers of DNA in the calcified cartilage of duck-billed dinosaurs in the 1980s. In the 1980s, paleontologists found dinosaur nesting grounds with dozens of nests in northern Montana and identified them as Hypacrosaurus stabingeri.

DNA In The Calcified Cartilage

Which lived 75 million years ago. Now, a team of researchers from the United States, Canada and China has investigated the molecular innervation of calcified cartilage in one of the Hypacrosaurus stabingii nestled at the extracellular, extracellular and intracellular levels.

They were found to be conserved fragments of proteins and chromosomes in dinosaur chondrocytes (cartilage cells), a chemical marker of DNA. The findings further support the idea that these basic molecules can persist for millions of years.

Reconstruction of the nesting ground of Hypacrosaurus stabingeri from two medical structures in Montana. Image by Science China Press. The bones of dinosaur skulls do not fuse when inserted, but some of them contain cartilaginous plaques.

Paleontology & Paleoanthropology

Which then fuse as bones between them, said Dr. Said Elida Baileul. Apaleontologist at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology and the Center of Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironments.

Chinese Academy of Sciences – Seeing specifically conserved microstructures that resembled only the specific type of cell found in cartilage, and that were present in the living organism in these tissues, led us to raise the hypothesis that cell conservation is at the molecular level…it can grow to.

Dr. Baileul and his colleagues performed an immunological and histochemical analysis of the skull tissues of the Hypacrosaurus stabingeri calf and compared the results of the emu skull at the same stage of development.

Bird skulls are skulls, or stern, in the same pattern as dinosaur skulls, and primitive birds (mice) like emus are the closest relatives we have today to non-avian dinosaurs,” the Professor Mary Schweitzer..said.

Natural Sciences Museum

North Carolina State University, Natural Sciences Museum of North Carolina and Lund University. Cartilaginous tissues and chondrocytes of the dinosaur skull reacted with antibodies against collagen II.

But the surrounding bone did not react with antibodies against collagen II. This is important because collagen II is found only in cartilage, while collagen I dominates in the bones. The comparison of the results with EMU confirms the conclusion. Chondrocytes isolated from Hypacrosaurus stabingeri.

And their positive response to two DNA assays: (A, B, E). Chondrocytes isolated from Hypacrosaurus stabingeri and MS are photographed under transmitted light (green arrow). Hypacrosaurus stebingeri chondrocytes were successfully isolated as individual cells (A) and cell doublets (B).

Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (C) and emu chondrocytes (F) that show a positive response to propidium iodide and a DNA interlocking dye, in a small, spherical region that detects intracellular (white arrow); Hypacrosaurus stebingeri (D) and emu chondrocytes (G) also show a similar binding.

When exposed to 4”-dimidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride. Another specific DNA stain (black arrow), although in both cases, cell staining Emu. Much more than dinosaur cells. Image by tips16.com and Journal Nature.

“These tests show how specific the antibodies are for each type of protein and support the presence of collagen II in these tissues,” said Professor Schweitzer. In addition, bacteria cannot produce collagen, which controls pollution as a source of molecules.

National Science Review Journal

The scientists also tested the presence of chemical markers compatible with the DNA in the microstructure by two complementary histochemical stains that bind DNA fragments into the cells: 4 ‘, 6’-dimidino-2-phenylindole diodocloride and propidium iodide.

These chemical markers reacted with isolated cartilaginous cells, supporting the idea that some aromatic DNA can reside within the cells. We use two different types of interleaved stains, one of which will only attach a piece of DNA to dead cells.

And the other that binds any DNA, said Professor Schweitzer. The staining points show reactivity, which means that they are bound to specific molecules within the microstructure and do not spread throughout the ‘cell’ as would be expected if they originated from bacterial contamination.

Although bone cells have previously been isolated from dinosaur bone, this is the first time that cartilage producing cells have been isolated from fossils, said Dr. Baileul. This is an exciting discovery that adds to the growing body of evidence that these tissues, cells and nuclear material can persist for millions. The findings were published in the National Science Review Journal.

The skin of the penguin
The skin of the penguin

The skin of the penguin suggests the full dinosaur, a widespread form of a fossil penguin wing that is found in Antarctica and resembles a dinosaur. Penguin hints at full dinosaur: There is no direct evidence of this, the Allosaurus had doubts, but the current location of the evidence does not rule out the possibility.

The skin of the penguin

Riley black Penguins are dinosaurs. It’s true Back in the Jurassic, birds were just one, one of many dinosaur lineages. The extinction annihilated everything else, leaving avian dinosaurs that still stand. Or clicks, as the case may be. This means that every bird alive today is a dinosaur in the same way that you and I are mammals and knowing more about birds can provide essential information about dinosaurs.

For example, the skin of fossil penguins found in Antarctica underlines the hypothesis that non-avian dinosaurs were much younger than before. The fossil in question, described by Carolina Hospeche and his colleagues, is a specimen of an ancient penguin, called Palaudipteus gunnari, who lived around the island of Seymour about 47–41 million years ago. It is not a complete skeleton.

But an artificial wing that is included in the remains of the soft tissues of the bird. This is almost everything we can expect to see the anatomy of the live penguin’s wing. However, despite the impressive conservation. The fossil does not retain any feathers. In contrast, the report of Hospitaleche and co-authors is the only sign of feathers, derived from the feathers of the birds of Rome.

Dinosaur skin such as Tyrannosaurus

Without the halo of feather fluff, preserved skin is seen with stings and scabs. If you don’t know what you were looking for, you might think it was the skin of a non-avian dinosaur. And that raises an important point. Now we know that many non-avian dinosaurs play some kind of complete, fluff or feather.

The distribution of these body linings in the dinosaur family indicates that the fluff evolved more than once. It goes back to the last common ancestor of the whole family. However, paleontology can be conservative when revived. The scales are the default ones, with wings often only represented in cases where we have definitive fossil evidence of their presence. But maybe we are missing something.

There are probably remains of dinosaur skin such as Tyrannosaurus or even Hadosaurus with shovel beads, which preserve the pores. Perhaps they were lost because we never expected them to be there in the first place. On top of that, we know that Palaeeudyptes were the gunnari wings. But in itself it was not preserved.

Geological biases

Feathers and their evolutionary precursors do not always reach the fossil record, even when the rest of the body looks well intact and we know relatively little about the circumstances behind these geological biases. With this in mind, think of the announcements that the size of the Tyrannosaurus was too small because some pieces of skin have been found.

Do we know where they fit in the body?

Is it possible that covering the feathered body of such dinosaurs faced barriers to conservation? Personally, I think we are seriously underestimating how diffuse dinosaurs can be. We are also reading the fossil record literally.

If the dinosaurs separate from the illustrations I grew up with, then say you can’t hit me with a pen. The largest study of dinosaur population growth shows how myasauras lived and died. Decades of research on the fossils of the state of Montana.

The ‘good mother lizard’ Mayasaura pibelsorum, have resulted in the most detailed history of the life of any dinosaur and have created a model that can be compared to all other dinosaurs. Which is in agreement with a new investigation published today in the Journal Paleobiology.

Researchers at Oklahoma State University, Montana State University and Indiana Purdue University used a giant fossil collected from bones in western Montana for their studies. According to newly published research, decades of research on the state fossil of Montana.

The “good lizard mother” Mayasaura pibalsorum, has learned the most detailed history of the life of any dinosaur and has created a model that compares with others. Can do with dinosaurs.

The Paleobiology magazine

Researchers at Oklahoma State University, Montana State University and Indiana Purdue University used a giant fossil collected from bones in western Montana for their studies. It is one of the most important paleontology pieces associated with MSU in the last 20 years, said Jack Horner, curator of the Rockies Museum at MSU. 

This is a dramatic step beyond the study of fossil organisms to understand their life cycle as a single individual. We are moving away from the novelty of a single example, the way we see animal populations today. Look at the dinosaur population.

Histology of the fossil bone

The study was led by Holly Woodward, who conducted a research at MSU as a doctoral thesis in paleontology. Woodward is now an anatomy professor at the Center for Health Sciences at Oklahoma State University.

Paleobiology studies examined the microstructure or histology of the fossil bone of 50 tibiae of Mysaura (calf bones). Bone histology reveals aspects of development that cannot be achieved simply by observing bone size.

Including growth rates, metabolism, age of death, sexual maturation, skeletal maturity and reaching the size of a species. It contains information about. Histology is the key to understanding the dynamics of the development of extinct animals, Woodward said.

You can learn a lot from a bone just by looking at its shape. But the whole evolutionary history of the animal is recorded inside the bone. A specimen of 50 may not seem like much, but for dinosaur paleontologists who often deal with the fossil fossil record.

The Mayasaura fossil is a treasure. No other histological study of individual dinosaur species reached our sample size – Woodward said. Holly Woodward points to the Mysoura fossil. Decades of research on the fossils of the state of Montana.

Paleobiology Magazine

The ‘good mother lizard’ Myasaura Pibelsorum, have resulted in the most detailed life story of any dinosaur’s life and have created a model that can be compared to all other dinosaurs. According to new research published today.

Paleobiology Magazine The study was led by Woodward, who conducted a research at MSU as a doctoral thesis in paleontology. Sincerely: Karen Chin With this, the researchers discovered a great deal of new information about the growth of Myasaura.

Paleontology at the Museum of Dinosaurs

It had growth rates at the level of the birds throughout its life and had the closest proximity to bone tissue. Such as hot and hot modern large mammals Like the moose. The main events of life are recorded in bone development and death rates of animals of different age groups.

When studying clues in bone histology and observing patterns in the assembly of death, we found several tests that support similar times of sexual and skeletal maturation, “Elizabeth Freedman Fowler. Paleontology at the Museum of Dinosaurs of the Great Plains The curator said that the professors assistants in Malta and in MSU.

Who did mathematical analyzes for the study. Sexual maturity occurred within the third year of life, and Myasaura reached an average adult mass of 2.3 tons in eight years. Life was particularly difficult for young and old.

The average mortality rate was 89.9 percent for those under one year of age and 44.4 percent for people over 8 years. If Mayasaura individuals could survive until their second year, they would enjoy a six-year window of extreme physical and reproductive fitness, when the average mortality rate was only 12.7 percent.

Woodward said – Looking inside the bones, and previous studies have shown that we now know more about the history of myasaura’s life and sample size than any other dinosaur.

Dinosaur species

Our study turns Myasora into a model organism, with which other dinosaur populations will be compared with biology studies. The tibia 50 also highlighted different size variations within dinosaur species.

Previous studies of dinosaurs histologically examined a small subset of dinosaur bones and assigned age to the entire specimen based on the length of some histologically aged bones. Research published in the journal Paleobiology shows more about the life story of Myasaura pibelsorum than any other known dinosaur.

Sincerely: Holly Woodward. Our results suggest that you cannot measure the length of a dinosaur’s bone and assume that it represents an animal of a certain age, said Woodward. Within our sample, there is a lot of variability in the length of the tibia in each age group.

Histological dinosaurs

It would be like trying to assign an age based on your height because you know the height and age of another person. Age in histological dinosaurs The only way to determine. Horner is a research sub-writer and curator of the Rocky Museum at MSU, where Mayasaura fossils are republished, discovered and named in 1979.

Mayasaura was news announcing the world’s first discovery of fossilized dinosaur embryos and eggs. Based on the immature growth of the fossils of baby dinosaurs found in the nests, Horner speculated that they were unable to hate and that they had to take care of the parents, so they named the dinosaur Myasaura, in Latin, as a good mother lizard.

The study revealed aspects of the biology of Mayasaura, in which they had their roots in the social and colonies. Mayasaura used to walk on two legs when he was young and used to walk when the four grew up. His favorite foods included rotten wood.

Paleobiology study

Its climate was warm and semi-arid, with the possibility of a long dry season. The tibia included in the paleobiology study comes from a single bone that covers at least two square kilometers in western Montana.

After more than 30 years of excavation and thousands of fossils, there are no signs that the bone fragment moves. Woodward plans to lead the annual Mayasaura summer excavations to gather more data.

Our study closes The Myasaura Life History Project, which seeks to learn as much as possible about Myasaura and its surroundings 76 million years ago, collecting bones and histologically examining bone fossils.

Life History Project

Continue doing so, adding strength to the sample,  he said. We plan to examine other skeletal elements to create a histological ‘map’ of Mysaura, to see if different bones in his body have grown at different rates, which gives us an idea of his biology and behavior.

It allows us to study more aspects of him. We also want to improve. The environment, including the life history of other animals in the ecosystem in which Myasaura lived. Mjen – he said.

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