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Neanderthals And Denisovans, Which Constitute 1–4% Of Their Genome

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Neanderthals And Denisovans, Which Constitute 1–4% Of Their Genome
Neanderthals And Denisovans, Which Constitute 1–4% Of Their Genome

Neanderthals And Denisovans, Which Constitute 1–4% of Their Genome. Modern West Africans have no Neanderthal or West Africans DNA of mysterious archaic hominids. Four populations of West Africa Yoruba, Esan, Mend and Gambian have 2 to 19% of their offspring descended from species not yet discovered by archaic hominids. Who descended from modern humans and ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans.

New research from the University of California, Los Angeles. Durvasula and Shankaraman provide complementary lines of evidence for archaic introverts in four populations in West Africa. Contemporaries who have ancestors in Europe, Asia and Oceania carry DNA from two archaic species, Neanderthals and Denisovans, which constitute 1–4% of their genome.

Neanderthals And Denisovans

These genetic segments came through introversion in modern humans. The process by which members of two populations and, consequently, hybrid individuals, reproduce with members of the parental population. RECENT STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT, ALTHOUGH MODERN WEST AFRICANS HAVE NO NEANDERTHAL OR DENISOVANA ANCESTRY. Tey may have had introverts by other old housewives in the past.

In a new study, researchers Arun Durvasula and Sriram Shankaraman of the University of California, Los Angeles compared the DNA of Neanderthal and Denisovan with the genome of 405 individuals from West Africa. The scientists focused on four contemporary populations in West Africa: Ibadan to Yoruba, Nigeria to Essen, Sierra Leone to Mende and Gambian.

They found differences that could be explained intermittently by an unknown archaic hominid whose ancestors were separated from the human family tree before Neanderthal. THE DATA SUGGESTS THAT THIS INTROVERSION HAS OCCURRED RELATIVELY RECENTLY, OR MAY INVOLVE MULTIPLE POPULATIONS OF ARCHAIC HUMANS. An indication of complex and long-lasting interactions between anatomically modern humans and that of archaic hominids. There may be different populations.

By combining our results in the West African population, we estimate that the archaic population separated from the ancestors of Neanderthals and modern humans 360,000 years ago and subsequent contradictions between the ancestors of current Africans aged 0–124,000 years behind. Their descendants contribute from 2 to 19%, ”said the authors. Dr. Durvasula and Drs. Sankararaman also investigated the frequencies of the archaic DNA segments to determine whether natural selection could have shaped the distribution of Arctic genetic variants.

We found 33 loci in Yoruba with an archaic fragment frequency of more than 50% and 37 loci in Mende, he said. Some of these genes are in high frequency in both Yoruba. And including NF1 (a tumor suppressor gene), MTFR2 (a gene involved with mitochondrial aerobic respiration in the testicles), HS1717B2 (with hormonal regulation A gene involved) , KCNIP4 (a gene with potassium channels) and TRPS1 TRPS1 (a gene associated with tricorhinofofangles).

Three of these genes have been found for positive selection in Yoruba in previous explorations: NF1, KCNIP4 and TRY1. On the other hand, we did not find high frequencies in MUC7, a previously found gene that disrupts the signature of archaeological introverts. THE TEAM ASKS FOR MORE ANALYSIS OF MODERN AND ANCIENT AFRICAN GENOMES TO REVEAL THE NATURE OF THIS COMPLEX STORY.

Signs of introversion have been analyzed in West African populations, which raises questions about the identity of archaic hominids and their interactions with modern human populations in Africa, the researchers said. A detailed understanding of archaic introversion and its role in adapting to different environmental conditions will require the analysis of genomes of ancient and extinct genomes throughout the geographic range of Africa.

The results were published in the journal Science Advance. Ghost was discovered by human ancestors in West Africa. Tracing links between different species is a complex scientific discovery. Scientists say that the first humans living in West Africa may be accompanied by a mysterious “ghost population” like the now extinct ancient human. The researchers suggest that the DNA of this group represents between 2% and 19% of the genetic ancestry of modern West Africans.

They believe the crossing occurred about 43,000 years ago. The scientists found links with the Mende people of Sierra Leone, Yoruba, as well as the Essen people in Nigeria and other groups in the western regions of the Gambia. The new study was published this week in Science Advances. This suggests that the ancestors of modern West Africans intervened with as-yet-undiscovered species of archaic humans, such as ancient European Neanderthals and ocean populations with Denisovans.

The Neanderthal ‘dived into the ocean’ for shellfish was half Neanderthal girl, half Denisovan. Why we continue to underestimate Neanderthal. The research also sheds more light on how archaic housewives link genetic variation to today’s Africans. Which despite being the most genetically diverse continent, remains poorly understood. Hundreds of thousands of years ago there were many different groups of humans, including modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans.

THE NEWLY DISCOVERED “GHOST POPULATIONS” OF ANCIENT HUMAN SPECIES ARE LIKELY TO BE DISTINCT FROM THESE GROUPS. SRIRAM SANKARARAMAN. A computational biologist who led the research at the University of California, Los Angeles, told BBC Newsday that he believed more such groups would be found in the future. His team looked at the genetic makeup of West Africans and discovered that some of their DNA came from an ancient, inexplicable source. “As we get more data from various populations, and better data, our ability to examine that data and delve deeper into these ghost populations is going to improve,” said Mr. Shankaraman.

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Researchers Discovered Ten New Bird Taxa In Indonesia

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Researchers Discovered Ten New Bird Taxa In Indonesia and
Researchers Discovered Ten New Bird Taxa In Indonesia and

Researchers discovered ten new bird Taxa in Indonesia. An international team of ornithologists has discovered five new species. Researcher discover ten new bird taxa in Indonesia.

An international team of ornithologists has discovered five new species and five new subspecies of songbirds on islands slightly off the northeast coast of Sulawesi.

From November 2013 to January 2014, we conducted a bird collection expedition to three small and small exploration islands off the northeast coast of Sulawesi.

In the current center of Indonesia, doctor of the Department of Biological Sciences. Frank Rindt said. National University of Singapore and its partners in Singapore and Indonesia.

These islands are located in the Wallacean region of Indonesia, an archipelago at the interface between Eastern and Australian biographical locations that are named after Alfred R. Wallace.

Who was the best-known historical collector who discovered the region. Using genomic and phenotypic techniques, the researchers described five bird species and five subspecies that are new to science during a 6-week expedition.

In Taliabu, the largest member of the Sula Islands, they found three new species: the Taliabu grass warbler (Locostella portenta), the Taliabu mezomella (Myzomella veh.

The Taliabu leaf warbler (Phyloscopus amylsalimi)) and three new subspecies: the Taliabu eyebrow flycatcher (Fitedula hyperthra betinbiaru), the thrush of the island of Taliabu (Turdus poliocephalus Suahujan), the lulaiiler of the Sula mountain (Fullergetus cuculatus sulanus).

In Peleng, the largest island in the Benghagi group, they found two new species: the Peleng ghost (Ripidura habebei), the Peleng leaf warbler (Phylloscopus suramerdu); And a new subspecies.

The Bengai mountain herbivore (Phyllergates cucullatus relictus). In Bogudaka, one of the two main components of the Togian group. They found a new subspecies: the Togian jungle flytrap (Siornis oasisus omississimus).

Dr. Rindt said: Studying the routes and operations of historical collection expeditions and identifying gaps is a useful approach in our case to indicate focal areas. Describing so many bird species from a geographically limited area is rare.

It has been reported that most infestations tolerate some form of habitat degradation and are easily found in forests and secondary coasts, these species or subspecies cause habitat loss on these islands, he said.

Undoubtedly there is danger of large scale. As such, some of the new forms require immediate and lasting conservation action to survive for more than a few decades beyond the date of description.

These new bird taxa are described in an article published in the journal Science. Biologists discover previously unknown cell structures in the retina of birds that feed on insects.

A team of researchers has found a new retinal structure in the eyes of New World flycatchers. Called Megabitochondria-Small Oil Droplet Complex (MMOD Complex).

This structure can allow these birds to sit and wait to see their world differently from other animals, and find pests and easily track them. Help to do.

This light microscopy image of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empedonax Wierskens) retina shows five drops of conventional oil and additional orange conical structures belonging to the newly described photoreceptor.

Most birds have four cone photoreceptors for color vision, a fifth cone for non-color related functions and a night vision rod.

Each cone photoreceptor cell has a spherical structure, called an oil drop, that filters the light before the visible pigment converts it into electrical signals, which increases color discrimination. Instead of a drop of oil, the MMOD complex.

Which is found in two species of new world fly hunters of the genus Empedonax (E. virescens and E. minimus), has a high-energy cellular structure called megamecondria that Surrounded by hundreds of small orange colors – Individual drops.

We discovered that Empedonax’s flycatchers, like all birds, had four single-cone photoreceptors, each with a drop of spherical oil in the inner section of the photoreceptor, said lead author Professor Estebai Fernández-Juric. Department of Biological Sciences of Purdue University.

Like other birds, the dominant member of the Empidonax double cone also has a drop of spherical oil. Each type of cone contained droplets of oil of a different color that could be easily observed with a simple optical microscopy.

In addition to these five conventional cones and their associated oil droplets, we found that Empidonax is in the Flycatcher retina, which is probably an additional cone photoreceptor with a novel orange conical structure at the apical end of the inner segment.

The photoreceptors with this organelle lacked a drop of oil that is present in other types of cone. Image of transmission electron microscopy of oranges, conical structures reveal that they are megamitochondria dense in electrons surrounded by numerous small drops of oil.

The white asterisk denotes megamitochondria, the orange arrow indicates the small drops of oil that impart the orange color seen in the image above, and the blue arrow indicates a drop of conventional oil from the neighboring photoreceptor.

The researchers studied the MMOD complex using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry.

They discovered that this structure acted as a long-pass filter, allowing light with wavelengths to pass 565 nm long, or yellow, orange and red, and absorb shorter wavelengths of green, blue and violet.

“The retinas of fly hunters, which are predatory birds sitting on hold, have developed a new cellular structure in a photoreceptor that allows them to detect, track and capture prey that grows rapidly like insects,” said the professor. Fernández-Jurisic said.

A researcher from the Department of Biological Sciences, Dr. Luke Tyrell said: This new conical organism has not been described before in any other vertebrate retina and these birds can see their world differently from other animals.

In SUNY Plattsburgh. The results are published in an article in the journal Scientific Reports. A six-week expedition discovered ten new songbird species and subspecies in Indonesia.

A six-week expedition to three small islands near Sulawesi, Indonesia, has produced five new songbird species and five new subspecies. The new species and subspecies were described in an article published in Science last week.

Frank Rindt, a professor at the National University of Singapore, led the research team that explored geological history and historical explorers using notes as a guide in discovering new bird species.

While the locals already knew about some species, some birds may go unnoticed as they sound like insects. A six-week expedition to three small islands near Sulawesi, Indonesia, has produced five new songbird species and five new subspecies.

The new species and subspecies were described in an article published in Science last week. Frank Rindt, a professor at the National University of Singapore, led the research team that explored geological history and historical explorers using notes as a guide in discovering new bird species.

Rindt and his colleagues, a joint research team from the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI), aimed to discover new species around the islands of Taliabu and Palen.

As the water from the depths of the sea stretched near them and to the south. Great Sulawesi Island in the west. Deep waters mean that even during glacial cycles, land bridges and islands cannot form between nearby bodies.

Because deep-sea islands like Taliabu and Paleng have always been isolated, species with a high degree of endemism are also more likely to disturb. Both Teliabu and Peleng are located in the Wallasey region of Indonesia.

An archipelago named after British biologist and explorer Sir Alfred Wallace, who collected his own specimens in the region.

By examining the accounts of historical collectors like Wallace, Rindt, and the team, they were able to determine that the islands they had chosen to focus on were not extensively explored in the past.

The Sula Islands, including Teliabu, have been visited in the past by only eight collection expeditions, none of which went inland, but mainly adhered to coastal areas.

The Bangai Group, which includes the Paleng, was visited only by three historical collectors, who similarly did not explore the interiors of the islands.

Rindt and his team collected ten new bird species and subspecies during a six-week fieldwork, from November 2013 to January 2014, on the Sula and Banggai Islands, as well as on the Togian Islands.

The researchers found three new species in Taliabu: Taliabu Grasshopper-Warbler, Taliabu Mezomela, and Taliabu Leaf-Warbler. Three subspecies were also discovered in Tilababu:

Snow Flycatcher-broide, Thrush from Taliabu Island and Leftoiler from Sula Mountain. Peleng fentale and Peleng’s leaf warbler, two new species, were discovered in Peleng, as was a new subspecies.

The Leftoiler of Bangai Mountain

Another new flytrap subspecies from the Togian rainforest was found on Togian Island. Studying historical collection expedition routes and identifying gaps is a useful approach to indicate focal areas in our case, Rindt said in a statement.

A description of various species of this bird from a geographically limited area is rare. While the locals already knew about some species, some birds may go unnoticed as they sound like insects.

Rindit told the New Scientist that the grasshopper warrior Taliabu, for example, sounds like a cricket, and heard his call before he could see one of the birds. When I heard it, I knew it was a kind of lobster warrior.

But it was very different from the people I knew, says Rindt. I think it will be a new species, but it took me a week or more to see them for the first time.

Birds are one of the most famous animal groups in the world, and not only that, over the past two decades, an average of five or six new species have been discovered each year.

Randit suggests that the methods his team employs can be successfully applied to other regions and other wildlife:

Moving forward, the use of land history and bathymetric information in other land fauna and regions beyond the Indonesian archipelago. Can be done. Identify promising islands that can discover new taxa.

Ten new birds may already require conservation intervention. During their time on the islands, researchers first noticed the massive deforestation that has occurred in both Taliabu and Paleng.

The islands’ primary lowland forest has been completely destroyed, according to the research team, while the highlands of most islands are subject to forests or forest fires.

While most Avifuna reported that we appear to tolerate some form of habitat erosion and that it is readily found in secondary forests and coasts, some species or subspecies are undoubtedly threatened by the enormous level of habitat loss on these islands, said Randit.

Therefore, immediate and lasting conservation work is required for some new forms to survive for a few decades beyond the date of their description.

Tilababu Grasshopper-Wobbler is one of the new bird species discovered by the NUS-LIPI team led by Associate Professor Frank Frank, during his expedition to the Wallacea region of Indonesia.

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300 Million-Year-Old Tree Was An Orderly Line

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Lizard Fossils Tucked Into The Trunk Of A 300 Million-Year-Old Tree
Lizard Fossils Tucked Into The Trunk Of A 300 Million-Year-Old Tree

Lizard Fossils Tucked Into The Trunk Of A 300 Million-Year-Old Tree Was An Orderly Line. Lizard fossils may represent evidence of animal husbandry of 306 million years. Shortly after the transition from sea to land, our ancestors who lay eggs must have started raising their young.

Artistic representation of Dendromaya anamkensis, a 310 million-year-old vertebrate that lives on earth and looks like a modern monitor lizard, with its offspring (Henry Sharp) represented here. The first fossil was so surprising that Brian Hebert almost missed the second.

Tucked into the trunk of a 300 million-year-old tree was an orderly line of vertebrae, which encompassed a series of delicate and sensitive ribs. A piece of abdominal scales covered the space below, paving the way for a pelvis and a pair of beautiful thigh bones.

These were the first known remains of Dendromaya unmikinesis, a vertebrate that inhabited the Earth and probably resembled a long-standing monitor lizard. “I can close my eyes and remember it as if it were yesterday,” says Hasbert, who happened in a tree in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia in 2017.

It was three-dimensional just in front of my face. Then, Hebert noticed another set of bones, which left him dead: a small skull an inch long, which was nested in a place where a left femur joined with a pubic bone.

This skull, Hebert felt, belonged to a teenager who was probably against his mother.

Dendromaya anamkensis fossil recovered from the trunk of a tree in 2017. The juvenile skull can be seen in panel B, just below the left femur, near the right corner (Madin et al., Nature Ecology and Development, 2021).

Hebert did not know at that time, but what he found would soon become the Prime test in an article published today in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution that states that parental care: investing in offspring after birth Resources – At least 306 million years.

Rich in today’s amniotes, groups that include mammals, birds and reptiles infest their young. While the evolutionary strategy is expensive, it increases the chance that an animal’s progeny will succeed, and researchers believe that breeding is characteristic of modern animals.

But this ancient fossil couple, dating back to the pre-dinosaur era, when our ancestors who laid eggs first dragged the ashes, suggests that this nutritional behavior originated much more deeply in this branch of the tree of life. Is implicit

We tend to think of animals [in this part of the past as 'primitive' or 'simple'. says Jackie Lungmus.

A vertebrate paleontologist at the University of Chicago, who was not involved in the study. “But they deserve more credit. Still these animals were probably doing a lot of the work that animals still do today.”

Before leaving Stump, Hebert, who had been looking for fossils in the landscape of Nova Scotia since his childhood, knew that he had discovered something big.

To confirm this finding, paleontologists Hilary Madin and Arjan Mann were recruited, who carefully transferred the bones to their laboratory at Carleton University, Ottawa, for a more detailed analysis.

Under the microscope, the fossils were infallible in nature, says Mann. They belonged to two individuals of the same species, one fully developed and the other young, and had the distinctive feature of the extinct family of the pre-mammal ancestor.

The varanópidos, with reptile features that lived about 300 million years ago. But adults looked different enough from their relatives to earn their own gender name: Dendromaya, or “mother in the tree.”

The exaggeration of the fossils indicated that the couple had died suddenly.

Perhaps during a storm that flooded their strong base, preserving their last moments in the frozen frame. Leaning between the tail and the hind leg of the adult, the small specimen appeared as if it were protecting it from damage.

“It looks a lot like denying the behavior,” says Maddin, who found it difficult not to think of a protective mother who is raising her son. A representation of the fossil of Dendromaya anammakensis, labeled in several parts of the anatomy.

The juvenile specimen is marked, the position near the adult’s thigh bone (Fe) and the pelvis (Pu). (Madin et al. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 2019). Mann, his graduate student, joked casually that he found “early evidence of parental care.”

He joked, but his words reminded Madine of a similar fossil in South Africa a decade ago: the Hellesorus specimen that was surrounded by four tails during the Permian 260 million years ago, died with a tail.

Although separated by some 45 million years, both fossils were varrenopid, and both, apparently, died while harboring smaller versions of themselves.

The researchers who documented the Heliosorus had pointed out the remains to Mann and Madine as a possible family group, making them more reliable and older.

Mann had attacked not a key phrase, but a viable hypothesis: from its earliest days, Warnopids would have preferred child rearing. Some researchers have also previously presented older evidence of parental care in invertebrates, but dendromaya may represent the first known example of a young father who is a living child.

Without the time machine, researchers could not know what these animals were doing at the time of their death. After all, the behavioral evidence cut in the study “is not something that is preserved in the rocks,” says Stephanie Drumheller-Horton.

A vertebrate zoologist at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, who is not participating in the study. For example, it is possible that two Dendromaya are not a family unit, but two unskilled refugees seeking a safe harbor against a storm.

Vertebrate paleontologist Eva Hoffman of the American Museum of Natural History, which was not included in the study, points out that similar powers have been seen previously among unrelated adults and adolescents in the fossil record.

Even the wrapping tail guarantees nothing: perhaps both had little space. Until more examples of possible associations of parents and children arise, says Hoffman, caution can be exercised.

But Drumheller-Horton believes that a mother who cuddles with her child remains the most likely explanation. Fossil placement was also unlikely to be a coincidence.

Bones are not introduced in such intimate settings and if both Dendromaya and Heliosaurus were guardians, “that tells us that this behavior could have existed in a common ancestor of this group,” says Madin. Perhaps paleontologists have yet to discover the most affectionate mothers and fathers.

Whatever was clearly trapped around its origins, education and its advantages. In many ways, this is a sensible strategy, says Mann. By transporting their children at an early age, ancient animals helped ensure their survival and the continued persistence of generations to come.

Parental care is a strategy with a long seniority, he says. Clearly, it has worked many times in evolutionary history and we should appreciate it. A Carboniferous-period fossil found in Nova Scotia, Canada, shows an ancient creature called the varnopid synopsid (family Varnopidae) caring for its young.

Parental care is a behavioral strategy where parents make an investment or divert resources by themselves to increase their chances of health and survival for their offspring, said paleontologist Professor Hilary Madin and her colleagues at Carlton University And told Funkar Treasures.

While there are a variety of parental care strategies, long-term postnatal care is the most expensive for a parent.

This form of parental care is particularly common in mammals, as all mammalian offspring demand nutrition from their mothers. However, there is still little understanding of the evolutionary history of this behavior.

305 million year old specimen of Dendromaya unmykinesis. Professor Madin’s team found the remains of an adult creature and an allied juvenile within the stump of a tree tree on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.

The specimen not only represents a new species, but also belongs to an entirely new genus Vernopid synapsid. The researchers named the ancient animal Dendromaya namakimenesis. This is the earliest evidence of long-term postnatal care in a vertex, Professor Madin said.

The adult animal appears to hide and protect the juvenile in a den. Today this behavior is very common in mammals. It is interesting to see this animal, leading to mammals on the evolutionary line, displaying this behavior so quickly.

This discovery is reported in a paper in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution. Lizard fossils may represent evidence of animal husbandry of 306 million years. The first fossil was so surprising that Brian Hebert almost missed the second.

Tucked into the trunk of a 300-million-year-old tree, an orderly line of vertebrae formed, spanning a series of delicate and sensitive ribs. Space out a piece of abdominal scales, paving the way to a pelvis and a pair of beautiful thigh bones.

These were the earliest known remains of Dendromaya unmakinesis, an early land-dwelling vertebrate, possibly similar to a foot-long monitor lizard. In 2017, as it happened in a tree in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Hubert says:

I can close my eyes and remember it like yesterday. Then Hebert saw another set of bones, which left him dead: a small skull an inch long, located where a left femur met a pubic bone. This skull, Hebert felt, belonged to a teenager who was probably against his mother.

Hebert didn’t know it at the time, but what he found soon became the most evidence in an article published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, arguing that parental care, investment of resources in offspring after birth, was scarce. . Less than 306 million years old.

Rich in today’s amniotes, groups that include mammals, birds, and reptiles infest their young. While the evolutionary strategy is expensive, it increases the chance that an animal’s progeny will succeed, and breeding is often seen by researchers as a symptom of more modern animals.

But this ancient pair of fossils, dating back to the pre-dinosaur era, when our egg-laying predecessors first indicated creeping ashes.

The origin of this nutritional behavior lies much deeper in this branch of the tree of life. We started thinking about animals because it is past as ‘primitive’ or ‘simple’, says Jackie Lungmus.

A vertebrate paleontologist at the University of Chicago who was not involved in the study. “But they are credited for more characters’ characters. Still … these animals were probably doing a lot of the work that animals still do today.

Before leaving Stump, Hebert, who had been searching for fossils in the Nova Scotia landscape since childhood, knew that he had discovered something great. To confirm this discovery, they recruited paleontologists Hilary Madin and Arjan Mann.

Who carefully transferred the bones to their laboratory at the University of Ottawa Carton for further analysis. Under the microscope, the fossils were infallible in nature, says Mann. They belonged to two individuals of the same species.

One fully developed and the other young, and characterized the identity of the extinct family of the ancient ancestor of mammals, the varanopids, with reptilian features that lived about 300 million years ago.

But the adults looked different enough from their relatives to earn their gender name: dendromaya or “mother in the tree.”

The exaggerated preservation of the fossils indicated that the pair had died suddenly, perhaps during a storm that flooded their grueling hiding place, preserving their last moment in the frozen frame.

Between the tail and the hind leg of the adult, the small, soaked specimen appeared as if it were purposefully protected from damage. Her graduate student Mann casually joked that she found “early evidence of parental care.”

He was joking, but his words reminded Madine of a similar fossil in South Africa a decade ago: the Helleosaurus specimen that was surrounded by four tails during the Permian 260 million years ago.

Although about 45 million years apart, both fossils were varrenopid, and both reportedly died while harboring smaller versions of themselves.

Researchers documenting Heliosorus point to the remains of Mann and Madin as a possible family group, leading them to believe that they had stumbled upon something similar and ancient.

Mann attacked the feasible hypothesis, not the auction. From its earliest days, Vernopids may have preferred parenting. (Some researchers have also previously presented evidence of invertebrate parental care, but dendromaya may represent the earliest known precedent for a young father who is a living young man.)

Without the time machine, researchers could not know what these animals were doing at the time of their death.

After all, the behavioral evidence cut in the study “is not something that is preserved in rocks,” says Stephanie Drumheller-Horton, a vertebrate zoologist at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, who is not involved in the study.

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How To Choose A Domain Name?

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How To Choose A Domain Name
How To Choose A Domain Name

How to choose a domain name for your blog. Choosing a domain name is not something you can take lightly. Today, a domain name is as important as a business name, and ideally, they are similar. In this guide, we’ll walk you through the ups and downs of choosing a full domain name.

Altogether, there are 20 tips to make sure you come out on the other side with a domain name you’re proud of: one that’s attractive, memorable, and relevant to your business. What is a domain name?

A domain name is the address of your website that people type in the URL bar of the browser to visit your site. In our case, tips16.com – Without a domain name, people cannot find you. Notice, how the domain name has two parts.

Reading from right to left, you can see:
  • The Top Level Domain (TLD) is an extension of, p. .COM
  • The second level domain (SLD) is the identity of your site, eg. Eg tips16

TLDs are required for domains to work, and you can choose from hundreds of different extensions. The basic top level domains (TLDs) are: .com .net .org .int .gov .gov .edu .mil etc.

Then country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) include: .au (Australia) .de (Germany) .fr (France) .in (India) .jp (Japan) .ph (Philippines) .uk (Kingdom Kingdom)) etc

And since 2011 we have more common Top Level Domains (gTLDs), including: .tech. However, as you can see from this table, .COM is by far the most popular TLD:

SLD is a place where you can choose almost any name that goes before the domain extension unless it is already registered by someone else. So let’s take a look at how to choose and register your domain name.

20 tips for choosing your domain name

In the next section, we will walk you through the process of choosing your domain name. We have divided the process into four steps. Things to consider before choosing your domain name:

  • How to create brand domain names
  • Things to verify with your domain name
  • How to choose the best domain extension

Note: The following tip is based on purchasing a new domain name instead of an existing park or domain name. However, many of the tips below will still apply.

Step 1 – Things to consider before choosing your domain name

# 1 – Should I use my name?

If your website is about you, be it a personal blog or your company’s website, then it makes sense to consider using your own name. For example, consider my fellow editors Amy Boylan and André Spiteri:

  • Amy chose to use her name: amyboylan.com
  • André decided to use a brand: maverickwords.com

Both options work. But one of the main advantages of using the brand is that it is more flexible. For example, she says that Andre decided to expand her business and run a copywriting agency, the dissident term could still be used.

# 2 – Should I use a keyword domain or a brand domain?

A keyword domain is a domain name that contains keywords, such as BuyGuitars.com. A branded domain, like Apple.com, has a domain name without keywords.

A few years ago, it was considered beneficial from an SEO point of view to choose a keyword domain in order to rank your website faster and higher.

This is not the case today, as Google’s John Muller has explained, and the general consensus is that a brand domain works better. However, it will not be as ambiguous as Apple.com.

# 3 – Should I use a common or specific domain name?

This is difficult because nobody knows what the future holds. For one thing, it is good to choose a domain name that describes your brand. On the other hand, you don’t want to be too specific in terms of offering more services or products in the future.

For example, if you provide SEO services and opt for StarSEOServices.com, what if you want to provide more digital marketing services in the future? If possible, give yourself a little “wiggle” if you want to change. Always consider long term.

Step 2: create a branded domain name

In this section, you will learn how to get inspired and create your brand-worthy domain name. At this stage, it is best to come up with several possible ideas.

# 4 – Choose a short name

Short names work best for many reasons. For starters, they are easy to remember, spell, and write. All you have to think about is the most popular sites like Google, Bing, Yahoo, Amazon, Apple, to realize that there must be a logical reason to choose a short domain name.

However, finding a word name can be challenging until you create a new word. (More on that later).

# 5 – Make it attractive and memorable

The two word combo works particularly well. Here are some examples:

  • MaverickWords
  • FunnelOverload
  • ProfitBlitz

I think it gets into rhythm when you say the name. Try saying something out loud and you’ll see what I mean. And because it feels good, it sticks. It is fascinating and memorable.

# 6 – Check your competitors

It’s always worth checking what type of name your contestants are using. If you examine a niche or industry, you will see that they often follow the pattern.

For example, in the tech industry, there are TechRadar and TechCrunch. And instead of grooming your beard, you’ll find Beardbrand and Beardoholic.

Note: Have you noticed the examples that all occur in a two-word combo?

# 7 – Brainstorm

Now that you’re getting into the flow, it’s time to get a pen and paper and start writing down some ideas below. Don’t think too long or too long, just write something. Choose words related to your niche, products, services. Or just make up a word.

Try to put ten words on paper and if you want, ask your friends and family to come up with some ideas, too.

# 8 – Try naming fonts

Over the years, Adam has managed some websites with some big names. So how does he do it?

  • When creating a domain name, it uses its magic formula:
  • Blog name = [topic or audience group] + [end goal or change]
  • For example, this is how you implemented the formula on your last site:
  • Funnel Overload = [Marketing Funnel] + [Construction and Execution]
  • Go once and see if you can use your domain name formula.

# 9 – Create new words

Sometimes it seems that all the best names have been taken. But don’t despair. You can flex your creative muscles and make new words. These are well-known brands like Google, Bing, and Yahoo, so why can’t you do this?

If you want a little help forming words, try using Wordoid. The tool has some input parameters on the left side where you select your language, quality, pattern, length and domain, and generate views.

For example, there are a few suggestions for high-quality English wordoids that are no longer than 10 charactersAn alternative to Wordoid is Panabi.

Here, enter some words, like icks guitar leaks’, and Panaby Phonemes generates lots of syllables, abbreviations, suffixes, prefixes and suggestions of popular domain trends.

Panabi also lists related terms for each topic, which can give you ideas you haven’t thought about, in addition to checking the availability of domains, app names, and social media profiles:

# 10 – match the words

Combining two words to create a new word is another way to create a single word. The technique is called an acronym and the idea is to combine the sounds and meanings of two words. for example:

  • Alcohol, alcohol and pop
  • From blogs, web and records
  • Freemium, free and premium

# 11 – Use a domain name generator

If you still need some inspiration, why not try a domain name generator? All of these tools work similarly when you enter a topic and get a list of domain name ideas. This is what everyone created for the theme of ‘Soccer‘:

Automatic – LeanDomainSearch

Lean Domain Search

Shopify – Business name generator

Name generator store

hings to check with your potential domain name.. By now, you should have had some ideas for your domain name. But before we go any further and start registering names, it’s worth checking a few things.

# 12 – Avoid using dashes and numbers

Ideally, avoid using hyphens and numbers in your domain name. The number seems a little cheery, p. Eg tips16.com. And the scripts (or scripts) don’t look very good either, p. 123-reg.co.uk, furthermore, there is a possibility for users to forget them and enter 123reg.co.uk instead.

# 13 – make sure it looks good

Another check is to make sure that your domain name is not inadvertently spelled in other words. For example, the Who Represents brand was fine until the term was merged to form the domain name Whorepresents.com. This is one of many embarrassing cases.

# 14 – Make sure it’s easy to write

After the theme looks good, try to avoid using double letters in your domain name, which you can find when you join two words, like Magiccats.com. Again, there is a possibility that users will forget that the two letters are the same and that the name is incorrect.

# 15 – Make sure it’s easy to pronounce and spell

Away from typing, you should also make sure that your domain name is easy to pronounce. When your website appears in conversation, people must instinctively know how to speak and spell the name.

Note: I made this mistake with my first byte of data from the website and constantly making sure people used byte instead of byte.

# 16 – Make sure the name is available on social media

If your domain name ideas still look good, now is a good time to see if they’re available on all social media. As part of your overall brand, it makes sense to have the same social media control as your domain name, so that people become familiar with it and know how to find it on each channel.

# 17 – Avoid copyright and trademark issues

The last thing you need is a copyright or trademark infringement lawsuit, so be sure to check your potential domain name on these government websites – the US Copyright Office and the Patent Office. and US Marks

Also, don’t be tempted to try using a well-established brand in lesser-known gTLDs, like Facebook.agency, as the company will challenge you more, and you’ll be fighting a losing battle.

Step 4: use the best domain name extension

The final step, once you are satisfied with your domain name ideas, is to find the best domain extension.

# 18 – First select “.com”

As we saw earlier, .COM is by far the most popular domain extension, and users write effortlessly. When they enter a website in their browser. It is the most established and trusted domain extension.

So if available always go to the .com extension. If it’s not available, you can consider using another TLD like .NET or .ORG. But you face the possibility of losing traffic to the existing .COM site.

For example, tips16.com is an American dubbing artist website. Imagine the confusion and possible loss of traffic if you decided to use davidhartshorne.net. (Also, trust me, people always remember my name!)

# 19 – Choose your ccTLD

Depending on your business, it may make more sense to choose the country code top level domain (ccTLD). For example, if you have a French restaurant in Paris, serving traditional French food, then .FR ccTLD may be more appropriate.

# 20 – Consider other domain extensions

There are now hundreds of domain extensions to choose from, so you may want to consider choosing one of the new gTLDs. For example, .io is quite popular with extension technology and SaaS startups, like parlor.io. But, our advice is still there. When it is possible.

How to buy your domain name

With everything checked out in the previous section, the time has come to buy your domain name. Make sure you have purchased your domain from an accredited domain registration company that is registered with ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers).

There are many places to buy your domain name, but we recommend the namespace. Note: Many web servers also offer domains, sometimes grouped as part of the first year package. But for security and convenience.

We recommend purchasing your domain name separately.

Check availability

Go to Namecheap and enter the desired domain. If .COM is available, you can register it directly. Otherwise, you will see a list of all optional gTLDs.

Check domain name

Consider buying other extensions too… You may consider buying other TLD extensions, such as .COM, to establish a place of competition or to prevent misuse of your brand.

Consider buying misspellings

Some people also buy potential domain name errors and redirect to the correct site. When they bought Flicker.com, this is what Flickr.com did.

Set up your domain to automatically renew

Usually, you register your domain name for 12 months. At the end of that period, you should receive an email reminding you to pinch someone else and “steal” them before renewing your domain.

But with Namecheap, you can configure your domain name to automatically renew itself, so there is no chance that you will forget it.

Register your respective social media managers

Now that you have purchased your new domain name, be sure to register the same social media identifier to complete your branding package.

final thoughts

Your domain name should last a long time and make a good first impression. It is an integral part of your brand that cannot be taken lightly. Take the time to review all of the suggestions above to help you choose a domain name that you are proud of. One that is attractive, memorable, and relevant.

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The Straight Line Pattern Of The Radii Of A Circle

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The Straight Line Pattern Of The Radii Of A Circle
The Straight Line Pattern Of The Radii Of A Circle

Stars Detect The Straight Line Pattern Of The Radii Of A Circle. Spitzer Space Telescope CG Protesters NGC 2264: NASA has published a photograph taken by its Spitzer space telescope that shows several newborn stars or prototypes in NGC 2264.

NGC 2264 is about 2,600 light years away in the constellation Monoceros.

This astronomical object includes the so-called groups of Christmas trees, groups of snowflakes, cones and fox fur nebulas. Spitzer’s infrared image reveals newborn stars hidden behind a thick dust in NGC 2264.

Astronomer Spitzer stated

Since the stars detect the straight line pattern of the radii of a circle, we believe that these are protostars. With only 100,000 years of age.

These structures for babies have not yet” dragged “from their place of birth. Over time, the natural movement of each star will break this sequence, and the design of the snowflakes will no longer exist.

While most of the stars that give the group of Christmas trees their name and triangular shape do not shine in Spitzer’s infrared eyes, all the stars formed by this cloud of dust are considered part of the group.

He explained. Like a dusty cosmic finger pointing at groups of newborns. Spitzer also alternately illuminates the dark, dense nebula of the cone, whose tip can be seen towards the lower left corner of the image.

Spitzer Space Telescope Stains Protosters 2,600 light years away! Star-forming clouds are dynamic and evolving structures. When they give birth to newborn stars.

An incredible amount of dust is expelled in the process, through which the newborn stars appear as a touch of light.

Recently, NASA’s Spitzer space telescope hooked several rising stars or prototypes surrounded by dense clouds of dust on NGC 2264, located 2,600 light years away in the constellation Monoceros.

According to NASA, the infrared astronomical image shows baby stars as pink and red spots that move towards the center, which are formed with regular spherical intervals, similar to the pattern of a wheel or a snowflake.

Therefore, astronomers have called it a "group of snowflakes."

At only 100,000 years old, these baby structures have not yet been “tracked” from their place of birth. Over time, the natural drifting movement of each star will break this sequence, and the design of the snowflakes will not be too much.

Although most of the stars that give their name to the so-called cluster of Christmas trees and the triangular shape do not shine in Spitzer’s infrared eyes, all the stars formed by this dusty cloud are considered part of the cluster. NASA reported:

Like the dusty cosmic finger pointing to groups of newborns, Spitzer also alternately illuminates the dark and dense cone nebula, whose tip can be seen towards the lower left corner of the image.

This impressive photograph is perhaps one of the last observations made by the NASA telescope. Spitzer has mapped the Milky Way, and has also taken beautiful images of nebulae and seen incredible things.

And such as a new ring around Saturn and the exoplanet. Congratulations to Spitzer, who is approaching his incredible journey as the James Webb space telescope in 2020.

CG demonstrators of the Spitzer Space Telescope NGC 2264: NASA has published a photo taken by its Spitzer Space Telescope that shows several stars or prototypes newborn in NGC 2264.

NGC 2264 is about 2,600 light years away in the constellation Monoceros. This astronomical object includes the so-called groups of Christmas trees, snowflakes, cones and groups of fox fur nebulas.

Spitzer’s infrared image shows newborn stars hidden behind a thick dust in NGC 2264. Astronomer Spitzer said: Since the stars detect the pattern of a straight line of a circle’s radius.

We believe they are protostars.

‘For babies with only 100,000 years of age, these structures have not yet been dragged’ from their place of birth. Over time, the natural circulation of each star will break this sequence.

The design of snowflakes already there will not be.. While most of the stars that name a group of Christmas trees and their triangular shape do not shine in Spitzer’s infrared eyes.

All stars formed by this cloud of dust are considered part of the group. He explained, Like a dusty cosmic finger pointing towards groups of newborns, Spitzer also alternately illuminates the dark and dense nebula of the cone.

Gaia (Mother Earth in Greek mythology) is part of the Horizon 2000 Plus long-term science program, an ESA pivotal space astro-mission, with a target> 3D space catalog> 1 billion stars.

Or a compilation of approximately one 1% stars. In our home galaxy, the Milky Way. Gaia will monitor each of its target stars approximately 70 times the magnitude of G = 20 over a 5-year period.

This will accurately record changes in your position, distance, gait, and brightness.

It is expected to discover hundreds of thousands of new celestial objects, such as extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs, and observe hundreds of thousands of asteroids within our own solar system.

The mission will also study approximately 500,000 distant quasars and provide rigorous new evidence of Albert Einstein. Listing the night sky is an essential part of astronomy.

Before astronomers can examine an astronomical object, they must know where to find it. Without this knowledge, astronomers are rendered powerless over what Galileo once called dark laboratory mazes.

During the satellite’s expected five-year lifespan, Gaia will observe each star approximately 70 times, each time recording its brightness, color, and most importantly, its position.

The precise measurement of the position of an astronomical object is known as astronomy, and since humans began studying the sky, astronomers have devoted much of their time to this art.

However, Gaia will do so with extraordinary precision, beyond the dreams of those ancient astronomers. By comparing the series of precise observations of Gaia.

Astronomers today will soon be able to make precise measurements of the apparent motion of a star in the sky, allowing them to determine its distance and speed in space.

The resulting database will allow astronomers to trace the history of the Milky Way. While charting the sky, Gaia’s higher instruments are expected to study a host of previously unknown celestial objects.

As well as ordinary stars. Its expected path includes asteroids in our solar system, icy bodies in the outer solar system, failed stars, baby stars, planets around other stars, distant stellar explosions.

Black holes in the process of feeding, and supermassive black holes. Other galaxies.

Gaia’s goal is to provide a highly accurate dynamic 3D map of our galaxy using global astronomy from space, complemented by multi-colored photometric measurements from various epochs.

The goal is to complete a catalog of star magnitudes of up to 20, which corresponds to more than one billion stars, or about 1% of the stars in our galaxy.

The sensitivity of the instrument is such that a distance greater than 20-100 kilopores (kpc) will be covered, thus including the bulge of the galaxy (8.5 kpc) and the spiral arms.

The measurements will not be limited to the stars in the Milky Way. These include the study of the structure, dynamics and stellar populations of Magellanic clouds, space motions of galaxies.

And local clusters supernovae, galactic nuclei and quasars. Which are then used to materialize inertial frames for Gaia measurements. Gaia is ESA’s second space mission dedicated to astronomy. 

It builds on the legacy of the successful Hippocross Mission (1989-1993). 7) Like Hipparcos, Gaia’s observation strategy is based on detecting stellar positions in two fields of view separated by a ‘basic angle’, which is 106.5º for Gaia.

This strategy allows astronomers to establish a coherent frame of reference across the sky, a by-product of high-precision measurements of stellar positions.

After a detailed study of concept and technology during 1998-2000, Gaia was selected in October 2000 as a confirmation mission within ESA’s science program.

This was confirmed by ESA’s Science Program Committee after reevaluation of the science program in June 2002, and reconfigured in November 2003 after another reevaluation of the program.

The project entered Phase B2 / C / D in February 2006. As of summer 2012, Gaia is in Phase-D (qualification and production) and will be launched in another.

In June 2013, ESA’s Arab-Star Surveyor, Gaia, completed final preparations in Europe and is scheduled to depart for its launch site in French Guiana.

On August 23, 2013, the Gaia spacecraft boarded the Antonov 124 aircraft and arrived at Cayenne in French Guiana. On October 23, 2013, ESA postponed the launch of the Gaia mission.

This decision was made due to a technical problem that has already been identified on another orbiting satellite. This problem concerns the components used on Gaia in two transponders that generate “time signals” for downlink scientific telemetry.

To avoid potential problems, they will be replaced. The transponders were removed from Gaia in Kaurau and returned to Europe, where potentially faulty components were replaced and verified.

After the replacement is made, the transponder will be refined to Gaia and a final verification test will be performed. As a result of these precautionary measures.

It will not be possible to launch Gia within a window that includes a pre-scheduled release date of November 20. The next available release window is December 17 – January 5, 2014. 11

The precise measurement of the position of an astronomical object is known as astronomy, and since humans began studying the sky, astronomers have devoted much of their time to this art.

However, Gaia will do so with extraordinary precision, beyond the dreams of those ancient astronomers (Ref. 21).

By comparing the series of precise observations of Gaia, astronomers today will soon be able to make precise measurements of the apparent motion of a star in the sky, allowing them to determine its distance and speed in space.

The resulting database will allow astronomers to trace the history of the Milky Way. While charting the sky, Gaia’s higher instruments are expected to study a host of previously unknown celestial objects.

As well as ordinary stars. Its expected path includes asteroids in our solar system, icy bodies in the outer solar system, failed stars, baby stars, planets around other stars, distant stellar explosions.

Black holes in the process of feeding, and supermassive black holes. Other galaxies. Gaia will be a search engine. To fully understand the physics of a star, one must know its distance from Earth.

This is more difficult than it sounds because the stars are so remote. Even the closest is 40 trillion kilometers away, and we can’t measure the pace of the spacecraft as it goes.

We also cannot bounce off radar signals, a method used to measure distances within the solar system. Instead, astronomers have developed other techniques to measure and estimate distances.

The most reliable and direct way to measure the distance of a star is to determine its ‘parallax’. By obtaining extremely precise measurements of the position of the stars, Gaia will produce parallax for a billion stars.

More than 99% of these have never correctly measured their distance. Gaia will also make precise measurements of other important stellar parameters.

Including brightness, temperature, composition, and mass. The observations will evolve into many different types of stars and many different phases.

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Researchers Has Created A Camera That Doesn’t Need To Focus

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Researchers Has Created A Camera That Doesn’t Need To Focus
Researchers Has Created A Camera That Doesn’t Need To Focus

Scientists Developed A Focus-Free Camera With Flat Lenses. University of Utah, Salt Lake City, and Oblate Optics, Inc. A team of researchers has created a camera that doesn’t need to focus. The new flat lens can significantly reduce the weight, complexity, and cost of cameras and other imaging systems, increasing its functionality.

University of Utah scientist Drs. Rajesh Menon said: Our flat lenses can reduce the weight, complexity, and cost of cameras and other imaging systems. Such optics can allow for thinner smartphone cameras, enhanced biomedical imaging such as endoscopy, and more compact automotive cameras.

The kit’s flat lenses can focus on objects about 6 meters (20 feet) apart from each other. They use nanostructures modeled on a flat surface instead of heavy glass or plastic to obtain important optical properties that control the way light travels.

Dr. Menon said: This new lens can have many interesting applications outside of photography, such as making highly efficient lighting for LIDAR, which is important for many autonomous systems. The design approach we use can be extended to create optical components with any number of properties, such as excessive bandwidth, simple manufacturing capacity, or low cost.

Traditional cameras, whether used in smartphones or for microscopy, must be focused to ensure that the detail of an object is sharp. If there are multiple objects at different distances from the camera, then each object should be focused differently.

The new lens eliminates the need to focus and allows any camera to focus on all objects simultaneously, said Dr. Menon. Traditional cameras use multiple lenses to simultaneously retain different colors of focused light. Since our design is very general, we can also use it to create a single flat lens, which focuses all light colors, further simplifying the cameras.

To focus light, conventional lenses convert parallel light waves into spherical waves that become a focal space. Dr. Menon and colleagues felt that waves with other shapes can produce a similar effect, increasing the number of possible lens designs.

“Unlike what is taught in optics textbooks, our research has shown that light transmission is influenced by an ideal lens, a concept known as pupil action,” he said. This lens opened up essentially infinite possibilities for pupil function, and we looked for one through these possibilities that achieved extreme depth of focus.

After choosing the best lens design for depth of focus, the researchers used nanofibrification technology to create a prototype lens. Experiments confirmed that the new lens performed as expected and focused on several orders of magnitude larger than a similar conventional lens.

Scientists demonstrated new lenses using infrared light and relatively low numerical apertures, a number that marks the range of angles at which the lens can accept or emit light. They plan to extend the lens to larger numerical pores and use it with a full spectrum of visible light.

Work to ensure that the lenses can be manufactured on a large scale before they can be marketed. This research is a good example of how abandoning traditional assumptions can enable devices that were previously considered impossible. Dr. Menon said it serves as a good reminder to ask questions of the past.

Focusless camera made with ultrathin lens. Scientists have created a camera that does not need to focus using a one-inch lens that is about a thousandth of an inch thick. They believe that the technology offers considerable advantages over traditional cameras, as in most smartphones, which require multiple lenses to create high-quality focus images.

Our flat lenses can reduce the weight, complexity, and cost of cameras and other imaging systems, said Rajesh Menon, leader of the University of Utah research team. Such optics can allow for thinner smartphone cameras, enhanced biomedical imaging such as endoscopy, and more compact automotive cameras.

The new flat lens can focus on objects that are about 6 meters apart. Flat lenses use nanostructures formulated on a flat surface instead of heavy glass or plastic to achieve significant optical properties that control how they fly. Menon said: This new lens can have many exciting applications outside of photography, such as building highly efficient lighting for LIDAR, which is important to many autonomous systems, including autonomous cars.

The researchers say the design approach they use can be broadened to create optical components with any number of properties, such as excessive bandwidth, easy manufacturing capacity, or low cost. Traditional cameras, whether used in smartphones or for microscopy, must be focused to ensure that the detail of an object is sharp. If there are multiple objects at different distances from the camera, then each object should be focused differently.

“The new lens eliminates the need to focus and allows any camera to hold all objects together,” said Menon. Traditional cameras use multiple lenses to simultaneously retain different colors of focused light. Since our design is very general, we can also use it to create a single flat lens, which focuses all light colors, further simplifying the cameras.

To focus light, conventional lenses convert parallel light waves into spherical waves that become a focal space. In a significant advance. The researchers realized that waves with other shapes can produce a similar effect, increasing the number of possible lens designs. Contrary to what is taught in optics textbooks, our research has shown that light transmission is influenced by an ideal lens.

A concept known as student work, Menon said. This lens opened up essentially infinite possibilities for pupil function, and we looked for one through these possibilities that achieved extreme depth of focus. After choosing the best lens design for depth of focus. The researchers used nanofibrification technology to create a prototype lens. Experiments confirmed that the new lens performed as expected and focused on several orders of magnitude larger than a similar conventional lens.

The researchers demonstrated the new lens using infrared light and relatively low numerical apertures. A number that marks the range of angles at which the lens can accept or emit light. They plan to extend the lens to larger numerical pores and use it with a full spectrum of visible light.

Work to ensure that the lenses can be manufactured on a large scale before they can be marketed. This research is a good example of how to abandon traditional assumptions that allow devices that were previously considered impossible, Menon said. It serves as a good reminder to dictate from the past. The team’s work was published in the Optica magazine.

Focusless camera made with ultra slim lens

Focusless camera made with ultra slim lens. Scientists have created a camera that does not need to focus using a one-inch lens that is approximately one thousandth of an inch. They believe that the technology offers considerable advantages over traditional cameras, as in most smartphones, which require multiple lenses to create high-quality focus images.

Our flat lenses can reduce the weight, complexity, and cost of cameras and other imaging systems, said Rajesh Menon, leader of the University of Utah research team. These optics can allow for thinner smartphone cameras, improved biomedical imaging like endoscopy, and more compact automotive cameras.

The new flat lens can maintain focus for objects that are approximately 6 meters away from each other. Flat lenses use nanostructures formulated on a flat surface instead of heavy glass or plastic to achieve significant optical properties that control how they fly. “This new lens can have many exciting applications outside of photography, such as building highly efficient lighting for LIDAR, which is important for many autonomous systems, including autonomous cars,” Menon said.

The researchers say the design approach they use can be extended to create optical components with any number of properties, such as excessive bandwidth, easy manufacturing capacity, or low cost. Traditional cameras, whether used in smartphones or for microscopy, require focus to ensure that the details of an object are sharp. If there are multiple objects at different distances from the camera, each object must be focused separately.

The new lens eliminates the need to focus and allows any camera to hold all objects together, said Menon. Traditional cameras use multiple lenses to keep different colors of light in focus simultaneously. Since our design is very general, we can also use it to create a single flat lens that focuses all light colors, further simplifying the cameras. To focus light, conventional lenses convert parallel light waves into spherical waves that become a focal space.

In a significant advance, the researchers realized that waves with other shapes could produce a similar effect, increasing the number of possible lens designs. Contrary to what is taught in optics textbooks. Our research has shown that light transmission is more than one way to be affected by an ideal lens: a concept known as the pupil function, “Menon.” This lens opened up infinite possibilities for pupil function.

And we sought through these possibilities one that would achieve an immense depth of focus. After choosing the best lens design for depth of focus, the researchers used nanofibrification technology to create prototype lenses. Experiments confirmed that the new lens performed as expected and focused on several orders of magnitude larger than similar conventional lenses.

The researchers demonstrated the new lens using infrared light and relatively low numerical apertures, a number that marks the range of angles at which the lens can accept or emit light. They plan to extend the lens to larger numerical pores and use it with a full spectrum of visible light.

Work to ensure that the lenses can be manufactured on a large scale before they can be marketed. Menon stated, This research is a good example of how to abandon traditional assumptions that allow devices that were previously considered impossible. This serves as a good reminder to dictate from the past.

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Astronomers discovered 7 Earth-sized planets published in the Journal Nature

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Astronomers discovered 7 Earth-sized planets published in the journal Nature
Astronomers discovered 7 Earth-sized planets published in the journal Nature

Astronomers discovered 7 Earth-sized planets that orbit around nearby stars, According to a study published Wednesday in the journal Nature.

Astronomers have found at least seven planets the size of the Earth that orbit 40 light years from a single star. The findings were also announced at a press conference at NASA headquarters in Washington.

This discovery is rare outside our solar system because the planets are a combination of being the same size as the Earth and being all temperate.

Which means that there may be water on their surfaces and possibly support life. “This is the first time that so many planets of this type are found around a single star,” said Michel Guillon.

A leading study writer and astronomer at the University of Liège in Belgium. Seven exoplanets were found in closed formation around an ultrapool dwarf star called TRAPPIST-1.

Their mass estimates also indicate that they are rocky planets instead of being gaseous like Jupiter. The three planets are in the habitable zone of the stars, known as TRAPPIST-1e, f and g, and may even have oceans on the surface.

The TRAPPIST-1 star, an ultra-cold dwarf, has seven planets the size of Earth in orbit. Researchers believe that TRAPPIST-1f in particular is the best candidate to support life.

It is slightly colder than Earth, but it may be adequate with the right atmosphere and enough greenhouse gases.

If Trappist-1 is familiar, it is because these researchers announced the discovery of three early planets that orbit the same star in May. New research increased that number to a total of seven planets.

Three Planets Like Earth Orbiting The Dwarf Star

I think we have taken an important step to discover if there is life there, said Amauri Triad, the study authors and astronomer at the University of Cambridge. I don’t think we had time before that when we could discover what it was life.

Here, if life thrives and leaves the gases we have on Earth, then we know it will go.

The researchers said that life can begin and develop differently on other planets, so it is important to detect gases that indicate life.

This discovery can be an important part in the puzzle of finding habitable environments, life-friendly places, said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator of the NASA Scientific Mission Directorate.

The answer to the question 'Are we alone'?

It is a scientific priority, and finding many planets like these for the first time in the habitable zone is a remarkable step towards this goal and as we have previously learned from the study and discovery of exoplanets, where there is one.

There is more, said Sarah Seeger, a professor of planetary science and physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Seeger and other researchers are encouraged by the discovery of this system because it improves our chances of finding another habitable planet like Earth in the future, knowing where to look.

What we know: The planets are so close to each other and the stars that at a distance of seven from space are five times smaller than the distance of Mercury from our Sun.

This proximity allows researchers to study planets and obtain information on planetary systems other than ours. The seven Trappist-1 planets compared Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.

The planets revolve around a year and a half to approximately 13 Earth days, starting from the closest to the star and leaving. The farthest planet’s orbit is still unknown.

When you stand on the surface of a single planet, you will receive 200 times less light than what you receive from the Sun, but you will still get the same amount of energy that will keep you warm even after being so close to the star.

You will also have some picturesque views, since other planets will appear as large (or even double) as the moon in the sky. In Trappist-1f, the star will appear three times larger than the sun in our sky.

And due to the red nature of the star, researchers have speculated that the light will be salmon. Researchers believe that planets form together beyond the stars. Then, they moved to their current lineup.

It is incredibly similar to Jupiter and its billions of moons. Like the Moon, researchers believe that the planets closest to the star are happily closed. This means that planets always face the same path near the star.

One side of the planet is always at night. What a TRAPPIST-1 planetary system would look like. According to preliminary weather models, researchers believe that the three planets closest to the star may be too hot to withstand liquid water, while the outermost planet.

And TRAPPIST-1h, to withstand water on the surface Probably too far and cold. But more observations are needed to know for sure.

How was the search performed?

Trappist-1 classifies the mass of the Sun as a star and a tenth at just half the temperature. It is red, dim and slightly larger than Jupiter. But these small ultrapool dwarf stars are common in our galaxy.

Strange and surprising planets beyond our solar system. They were largely ignored until Gillon decided to study the space around one of these dwarves.

The researchers used a telescope called TRAPPIST (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope) to observe changes in their starlight and brightness.

The team observed shadows, like small eclipses, periodically interrupting the constant pattern of starlight. This is called transit. The shadow indicated the planets, and subsequent observation confirmed them.

In July, the team was able to determine that two of the planets closest to the star had more compact and comparable atmospheres to those on Earth, Venus and Mars by observing the stars through the planet’s atmosphere.

A closer look at the new Earth-like planets for the first time.

Like Spitzer, using global network terrestrial telescopes such as TRAPPIST and space telescopes, the researchers continued to look towards the TRAPPIST system and were able to determine the distance from the orbital period, its stars, radii and planetary masses.

What will happen next?

Over the next decade, researchers want to define the atmosphere of each planet, as well as determine if they really retain liquid water on the surface and look for signs of life.

Although the sound of 40 light years away is not far away. It will take us millions of years to reach this star system. But from a research perspective, this is a close opportunity and the best goal to discover life beyond our solar system.

The painters look closely at us with ‘Tatoin’ and other alien planets. “If we learn something now, it can determine if we look at the right place,” Gillon said. In 2018.

The James Webb space telescope will launch and be located 1 million miles from Earth with an unprecedented view of the universe. You can observe large exoplanets and detect filtered stars through its atmosphere.

Researchers are also exploring similar star systems to conduct more atmospheric research. Four telescopes called Speculos based in Chile (search for habitable planets that eclipse the ULtra-COOl stars) will examine the southern sky for this purpose.

This star system will probably overtake us because this type of star develops very slowly. When our sun dies, TRAPPIST-1 will remain a young star and will live for another billion years. After we are gone, if there is another part of the universe to pursue life.

It may be in the TRAPPIST-1 system. This is the most exciting result I’ve seen in 14 years of Spitzer operations, said Sean Carey, manager of NASA’s Spitzer Science Center at Caltech / IPAC in Pasadena, California.

Spitzer will continue the decline to further refine our understanding of these planets, following the James Webb space telescope. Greater observation of the system will surely reveal more secrets.

NASA discovers 7 Earth-like planets: some interesting facts you should know. This photo from NASA shows the Astronomer of the Baltimore Space Telescope Science Institute, Nicole Lewis, while presenting the research findings during the TRAPPIST-1 planetary informational meeting.

Talk about the discovery of the destruction of the Earth. Scientists have observed seven planets the size of the Earth around a nearby star, some or all of them can alter water and possibly life. The largest group of such planets has not yet been found.

The ultrafresh star in the center of this system shines 200 times less than our sun, since we know it is a continuous twilight. And the star will glow red, perhaps the color of salmon, researchers speculate. Here is a quick look:

This star system is 40 light years less than Earth, or 235 billion miles away, in the constellation Aquarius. The center has a small, weak star known as TRAPPIST-1. The seven planetary circle Trappist-1, which revolves around 1 20 to 20 days.

If Trappist-1 were our Sun, then all these planets would fit into the orbit of Mercury. How close they are to their star and why their orbit is so low. The planets have no real name. They are only known by the letter “b” a “h”. The word “A” refers to the star itself.

An artist’s illustration shows a possible surface on one of the seven newly discovered planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system discovered by scientists using the Spitzer space telescope and terrestrial telescopes.

An artist’s illustration shows a possible surface on one of the seven newly discovered planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system discovered by scientists using the Spitzer space telescope and terrestrial telescopes.

The three planets are hard dub in the so-called habitable zone, also known as the Goldilocks zone, where conditions are good for water and life to thrive, not too much and too little stellar energy.

Four other planets are so temptingly close to the Goldilocks zone that they can also disturb water and potentially life. But only because a planet is in this sweet spot, life does not exist or never existed.

If aliens observed our solar system from the Trappist-1 network, they could say, “Hey, there are three habitable planets, Venus, Earth and Mars,” said Sarah Seeger.

An astrophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who was not involved in the study. The point is: “Wait and see what’s there,” he warns.

Trappist-1, one of several ultrapolitical dwarfs that leave the galaxy, lights red. If you stand on one of the planets, the star may appear colored like a salmon. Their planets are so close together that they will appear twice as large as our moon in the sky.

Temperatures can be as beautiful as Earth, at least on one of these planets. Scientists need to study the atmosphere of rocky planets almost predictably before reaching conclusions about water and life.

The Hubble Space Telescope is already in the case. The James Webb space telescope, still under construction, will be included as soon as it is launched next year.

The web will look for gases that can be a byproduct of life: oxygen, ozone and methane. Scientists say it should take five years to control all these atmospheres and discover if there is water and maybe life.

In total, astronomers have confirmed 3,600 planets outside our solar system since the 1990s, but their stars are barely four dozen in their habitable zone, and only 18 of them are about the size of the Earth.

Phosphine can signal alien anaerobic life on Roxy planets: A team of MIT researchers discovered that phosphine, one of the most toxic gases on Earth, cannot be produced in any way other than anaerobic organisms.

Which makes it a biosignation gas of pure ignition. Life uses thousands of volatile compounds that can contribute to the biosphere. Some of these compounds can accumulate in the planet’s atmosphere and be remotely detectable.

These are commonly called aces biosafety gases. There are important biofirma gases on Earth that are relatively abundant and spectroscopically active (mainly oxygen, ozone, methane and nitrous oxide.

Here on Earth, oxygen is an impressive sign of life, said Dr. Clara Susa-Silva, a scientist at the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at MIT.

“But other things besides life also produce oxygen. It is important to consider more strange molecules that often cannot be formed, but if you find them on another planet, there is only one explanation.”

In a new investigation, Drs. Susa-Silva and his colleagues discovered that phosphine is a promising marker for life if detected in a rocky exoplanet. But to be sure, they have to rule out any possibility that this gas originated from something other than life.

To do this, he spent the last few years running several phosphorus species.

The essential basic components of phosphine, in increasingly extreme scenarios, through a thorough theoretical analysis of chemical routes, to see how can phosphorus become phosphine in any abiotic way?

The researchers worked to observe the chemical and thermodynamic pathways involved in many scenarios on Earth to see if they could produce enough energy to convert phosphorus to phosphorus.

At some point we were seeing less and less admirable mechanisms, as if the tectonic plates were rubbing each other, could I get a plasma spark that produced phosphine?

They said “Or if lightning strikes somewhere that contains phosphorus, or a meteorite contains phosphorus, can it cause effects to produce phosphine?”

And we go through many years of this process to discover that there is nothing more than life than the amount of phosphine that is detectable.

Scientists have discovered that phosphine has no significant false positives, which means that any phosphine detection is a sure sign of life.

According to the team, if phosphine is produced in relatively small quantities equivalent to the amount of methane produced on Earth today.

It would produce a signal in the atmosphere that could be detected by an advanced observatory like the next James Webb. Space Telescope, if that planet was 16 light years from Earth.

Since the establishment of phosphine as a viable biology in the search for extraterrestrial life, said Esosa-Silva.

Our results provide a pipeline, or for researchers to follow one of the other 16,000 candidates for the biological signature. Process. “Sosa-Silva said. The team article was published in the journal Astrobiology.

7 Earth-Sized Exoplanets

7 Earth-sized exoplanets in the hunt for extraterrestrial life. TRAPPIST-1 Planetary System Art – This artist’s illustration shows what seven TRAPPIST-1 planets can see based on available data on their diameter, mass, and distance from the host star.

Click here for latest news tips16.com blog… The discovery of seven Earth-sized worlds orbiting a nearby star could be a watershed moment in finding extraterrestrial life in search of humanity, scientists say.

On Wednesday (February 22), an international team of astronomers announced that seven planets the size of our TRAPPIST-1 orbit, a small, cold star just 39 light-years from Earth.

Search team members said three of these planets rotate in the star’s “habitable zone,” where lakes, rivers and oceans may exist on the world’s surface, but all seven potentially damage surface water.

Sarah Seeger, a planetary scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said during a press conference: “With this discovery, we have made a giant and rapid leap to explore the habitable world and life on other worlds, potentially speaking.

According to Seeger, who is not part of the research team, the discovery is exciting for several reasons. First, with many potentially water-bearing worlds, the TRAPPIST-1 system is a promising candidate to harbor life.

And even if researchers don’t have a completely accurate understanding of its habitable zone. You can say, colloquially, that it’s like this planetary system, Goldilocks has many sisters, Seeger said.

This artist’s depiction shows what the seven TRAPPIST-1 planets would look like based on available data on their diameter, mass, and distance from the host star.

Also, about 15 percent of the stars in the vicinity of the sun are ultra-cool dwarfs like TRAPPIST-1, which is only slightly larger than Jupiter. If TRAPPIST-1 is a guide, many of these nearby dwarfs can harbor potentially habitable, rocky planets.

With this amazing system, we know there must be many more possible worlds to lead lives, just waiting, Seeger said. Discovering such a world is only the beginning. TRAPPIST-1 is close enough to Earth that astronomers will soon be able to expand to the seven planetary atmospheres.

An important step in exploring the world’s habits, and its potential for oxygen, ozone, methane, and other possible signs of life. In fact, NASA’s $ 8.8 billion James Webb Space Telescope is likely to start shortly after launch in late 2018.

We can see the results in early 2020, said Nicole Lewis, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore.

Lewis is also not part of the TRAPPIST-1 search team, although he was co-leader of a group that used NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope to begin studying the atmospheres of two planets in the system.

The researchers first announced the detection of three planets around TRAPPIST-1 in 2016; the new discovery confirmed those two previously seen worlds and raised the total planet of Milan to seven.

You should also be able to study three large ground-based observatories that will be online in mid-2020.

The extremely large European telescope, the giant Magellan telescope (both in Chile), and the thirty-meter telescope (in Hawaii). Nearby planetary environments like the TRAPPIST-1 world, telescope builders have said.

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Paleontologists Discover New Fossils Of Gigantic Freshwater Turtles

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Paleontologists Discover New Fossils Of Gigantic Freshwater Turtles
Paleontologists Discover New Fossils Of Gigantic Freshwater Turtles

Paleontologists discover new fossils of gigantic freshwater turtles, an international team of paleontologists has unearthed several well-preserved shells and the first known jaw specimen of Stupendemys Geographicus.

A species of side-neck freshwater turtle that lived 5-10 million years ago (Miocence period). ) in South America. Together, fossils shed new light on the biology, past distribution and phylogenetic position of the giant tortoise.

Reconstitution of Stupendemys Geographicus male (front) and female (center-left), with the giant alligator Purussaurus mirandai and the great catfish Phractocephalus nassi.

Reconstitution of Stupendemys Geographicus male (front) and female (center-left), with the giant alligator Purussaurus mirandai and the great catfish Phractocephalus nassi. Image by Jaime Chirinos.

Since the extinction of dinosaurs, northern neotropics have housed missing vertebrates today that were extremely large within their respective clades, said team director Dr. Marcelo Sánchez, director of the Institute and Museum of Paleontology at the University of Zurich and colleagues.

Among them are the largest snake, the alligator crocodile, the gavial and some of the largest rodents. One of the most emblematic species of these species is the gigantic geographic turtle of Stupendemys.

Because it is the largest non-sea turtle ever known from a full shell. Stupendemys Geographicus was first described in 1976 from the Urumaco formation in northwestern Venezuela.

But our knowledge of this animal was based on partial specimens that led to a problematic taxonomy, in particular due to the lack of specimens with elements skull and shell associates.

Paleontologist Rodolfo Sánchez and an 8 million-year-old shell of Stupendemys male geography of Urumaco, Venezuela.

Dr. Sánchez and his co-authors have discovered and examined new specimens of Stupendemys geography in the Urumaco region in Venezuela and in the La Tatacoa desert in Colombia.

The findings included the largest shell reported by any existing or extinct turtle, with a shell length of 2.4 m (8 feet) and an estimated mass of 1,145 kg, almost 100 times the size of its closest living relative.

The shell of some Stupendemys Geographicus individuals has reached almost 3 m (10 feet), which makes it one of the largest turtles, if not the largest, that ever existed, said Dr. Sanchez.

In some specimens, the researchers observed a particular and unexpected feature: the horns.

The two types of shells indicate that there were two sexes of geographical Stupendemys: males with shells with horns and females with shells without horns, said Dr. Sanchez.

This is the first time that a sexual dimorphism in the form of horned shells has been reported for one of the lateral neck turtles, one of the two main turtle groups in the world.

Scientists have also been able to review the evolutionary relationships of this species within the tree of life of the turtles. Based on studies on the anatomy of turtles.

We now know that some live turtles in the Amazon region are the closest living relatives, said Dr. Sánchez. In addition, new discoveries and research on existing fossils from Brazil.

Colombia and Venezuela indicate a much wider geographical distribution of Stupendemys Geographicus than previously thought. The animal lived throughout the northern part of South America.

Despite its enormous size, the turtle had natural enemies, the authors added. In many regions, the presence of geographical Stupendemys coincides with Purussaurus, the largest alligators.

It was probably a giant tortoise predator, not only for its size and food preferences, but also as suggested by bite marks and perforated bones in the fossilized shells of Stupendemys Geographicus.

The research is described in an article in the journal Science Advances.

Paleontologists discover new fossils

Paleontologists discover new fossils of gigantic freshwater turtles and scientists have fossils to prove it. Huge extinct animals lived 5-10 million years ago. The freshwater turtle today is almost 100 times larger than its closest living relative.

The turtle roamed through present-day Venezuela and Colombia during the late Miocene era. Fossils of a giant tortoise that were as big as a car in South America, scientists said in a study published this week.

It is the largest, if not the largest, tortoise ever, said study lead author Marcelo, a paleontologist at the University of Zurich. The giant, extinct animals lived 5 million to 10 million years ago and were 9 1/2 feet, about the size and shape of a medium-sized automobile.

Known by the Latin name Stupendemys Geographics, the freshwater turtle today is almost 100 times larger than its closest living relative, the Amazon River’s big-headed turtle. She had a body mass of approximately 2,500 pounds.

Fossils suggest that the male of the species had horns, while the female did not. There are two types of indications that two sexes of stupendemies were present: horned spheres and female horned spheres, Sanchez said.

Artist’s concept of the giant tortoise Stupendemies Geographics: Male (front) and female (left) swim in fresh water. Horns, which are rare in turtles, can be used to protect their massive skulls during the man-to-man fight, the researchers said.

Predators include Purim, similar to a giant crocodile, known as Purusaurus, the study noted that turtle fossils cite not only the size and dietary preferences of the caymons, but also the bite marks and drilled bones.

The turtles’ diet included fish, snakes, and mollusks. The study findings have greatly expanded the known range of turtles, which developed in Venezuela and Colombia during the late Miocene era.

Although the first giant tortoise specimens were identified from the remains discovered in Venezuela in 1976.

The giants’ knowledge of these reptiles has been stunted so far due to the lack of complete specimens. The study was published in the scientific journal Science Advance on Wednesday.

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Technology to use the outer basin of the stars

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A Larger Mirror Than Hubble And Will Use Origami Technology
A Larger Mirror Than Hubble And Will Use Origami Technology

Hubble and it will use origami technology to use the outer basin of the stars. The HabEx Observatory will use a telescope with a larger mirror than Hubble. Which will block the light of the target stars and will look like Earth and this will allow characterization.

Exoplanets around it & the Habucks Observatory (Habucks) will use a telescope with mirrors larger than the Hubble and will use origami technology to use an external ‘star basin’. Which will block the light from the target stars and look like Earth and it will allow characterization.

Exoplanets around it. HabEx, a space telescope with ultraviolet (UV), optical and near infrared (near IR) and spectroscopic capabilities, will have three main scientific objectives. Search the surrounding world and discover its habitat.

Prepare a map of nearby planetary systems and understand the diversity of the world. New discoveries of astrophysics systems from our own solar system to galaxies. The universe by increasing our access to UV rays through nearby IR.

“Our goal is to see if we can find a planet that is similar to Earth, one that can support life,” said Professor Scott Gowdy, a researcher at Ohio State University. While we have identified many planets outside our solar system.

So far, none has proven to have the necessary elements for the usual elements. The Habucks mission will be the next logical step in the search for planets similar to our Earth.

The habucks will have a 4 meter wide mirror, compared to the Hubble 2.4 meter mirror, and will be used along with a stellar shadow to search for light from other planets.

Professor Gaudi said: This light usually comes out of the bright light of the surrounding stars, including our Sun. But the Habucks will deflect the starlight with a star head, a 52-meter flower-shaped disk that will move origami similar to space in a tight spiral.

Once the satellite reaches its orbit and blocks the light of the stars, the light of the stars is blocked, but allows the light of other planets to be reflected to reach the instruments of the telescope.

Then, henchmen would look for signs of planets with stars like the Sun that contain water or carbon dioxide, two signs that could be habitable for a planet.

The telescope will also have a camera that can take pictures of nearby planets. Those paintings will be the first familiar drawings of those systems, said Professor Gaudí. HabEx will have additional instrumentation.

Including a crown paragraph, which can also characterize planets outside our solar system and record images of them. The project is one of the four mission concepts proposed by NASA as the next large observatory.

A large-scale mission that will play a key role in space science over the next decade of the United States. The Federal Decadal Survey was intended to make a recommendation on which project should receive funds by 2021.

If you prefer, the HabEx mission will be launched in the 2030s.

It is estimated that it will cost approximately $ 7 billion for 10 years. Gaudi and his colleagues at the MIT Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA presented the mission concept at the AGU Fall Meeting 2019 in San Francisco, CA, on December 13.

Our goal is to see if we can find a planet similar to Earth that can support life,” said Professor Scott Gowdy, a researcher at Ohio State University. “While we have identified many planets outside our solar system, so far no one has demonstrated the essential elements for common elements.”

“HabEx’ mission will be the next logical step in the search for planets similar to our Earth.” The Hubble will have a 4 meter wide mirror, compared to the Hubble 2.4 meter mirror and will be used with a stellar shadow to search for light from other planets.

Professor Gaudí said: This light generally emanates from the bright light of the surrounding stars.

Including our Sun. But the habucks would deflect the starlight with a star head, a 52-meter flower-shaped disk that would move origami similar to space in a tight spiral.

Once the satellite reaches its orbit and blocks the light of the stars, the light of the stars is blocked, but allows the telescope instruments to reflect the light of other planets.

Then, the minions will look for signs of planets with stars like the Sun that contain water or carbon dioxide, two signs that can be habitable for a planet. The telescope will also have a camera that can take pictures of nearby planets.

Those images would be the first familiar images of those systems, said Professor Gowdy. Habucks will have additional instrumentation, including a paragraph from Crown.

Which can also characterize planets outside our solar system and record their images. The project is one of the four mission concepts proposed by NASA as the next great observatory.

A large-scale mission that will play an important role in space science over the next decade of the United States. The goal of the Federal Decade Survey was which project should receive funding by 2021.

If desired, the HabEx mission will be launched in the 2030s. It is estimated that it will cost around $ 7 billion for 10 years. Gauty and his colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at MIT and NASA presented the mission concept.

NASA prepares a HabEx mission to search for another Earth-like exoplanet. NASA has designed a mission to directly search for Earth-like exoplanets using the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission or the HabEx Space Telescope.

HabEX visualization: a telescope that will search for Earth-like exoplanets. NASA has proposed a mission to image planets directly around Sun-like stars to search for Earth-like exoplanets.

The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission or HabEx is one of four mission concepts that the space agency is currently studying in preparation for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

Professor Scott Gowdy, a researcher at the Ohio State University and Habex Community of Science: Our goal is to see if we can find a planet that is similar to Earth, one that can support life.

He and his colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at MIT and NASA presented the mission concept at the AGU Fall Meeting 2019 in San Francisco on December 13.

Habitable Exoplanet Mission, HabEx, habex telescope, nasa, nasa Earth like planet search, habex mission A diagram of the Exoplanet Habitable Observatory.

The NASA website described HabEx as a large space-stationary optical telescope with “exclusive resolution”, an “unprecedented resolution” for direct image exoplanets and enabling galactic, extrasalactic and solar system astrophysics.

The agency says the HubX concept is ready for development, which will be applied technically and scientifically for the next decade. Compared to Hubble’s 2.4 meter mirror, habucks will have a larger mirror that is 4 meters wider.

It will be used in conjunction with a star shadow to search for light from other planets. Gaudi explains that the light is generally submerged by the bright light from nearby stars, including our Sun.

But the Habucks will deflect the stars with Starshade, a 52-meter flower-shaped disk that travels into Origami-like space will go tight. Habitable exoplanet image missions.

Habex, telescope, NASA Earth as planetary search, habex mission illustration of star day deployment steps. Gowdy said: Once the satellite reached its orbit and flew about 77,000 km from the telescope.

The light was blocked by the stars, but light was allowed to reflect from other planets to reach the instruments of the telescope, said Gaudi. Although Habucks’ primary goal is to characterize planets like Earth.

He will also study the full range of exoplanets, particularly around our closest Sun-like neighbors. The first complete family portrait of planets,” says NASA. In addition to Starsday, HabEx will also have a coronography.

A device that can also characterize planets outside our solar system and record images of them. Habitable exoplanet imaging mission, Habex, habex telescope, planetary search like nasa, nasa Earth.

Habex mission The HabEx study is being conducted by a science and technology definition team. While we have identified many planets outside of our solar system, so far, none have proven necessary for the usual elements.

The HabEx mission will be the logical next step in finding planets similar to our Earth. The HabEx telescope will be able to sensitize ultraviolet, optical and near infrared photons to all kinds of planets.

The telescope will measure the atmospheric content of the Earth-like exoplanet by measuring the spectra of these planets and discovering the signature of the habitat like water. HabEx will be sensitive to gases in the atmosphere, indicating biological activity, such as oxygen or ozone.

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The Scientists Made A Molecular Map Of The Striatum

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The Scientists Made A Molecular Map Of The Striatum
The Scientists Made A Molecular Map Of The Striatum

Scientists created a molecular map of the striatum. The striatum, the inner part of the brain, is considered essential for decision making and the development of various addictions.

Methods used in mouse models and to map brain cell and tissue types. A team of researchers from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden were able to visualize the organization of various opioid islands in the striatum.

Focusing on the characterization of patches and matrix compartments. Genetic labeling of neurons that express the Mu opioid receptor reveals the identity of the neuron subtypes.

And also establishes spatial markers for the identification of subparts in the striatum.

Molecular Map Of The Striatum

 

In the study, Drs. Constantine Melatis and his colleagues created a 3D molecular map of the nerve cells attacked by opioids and showed how they organize in the striatum.

Our map is the basis for a new understanding of brain networks, arguably the most important for decision making, said Dr. Meletis said.

This may contribute to a better understanding of common reward processes and the effects of various addictive substances on this network.

To find this molecular code, the researchers used single-core RNA sequencing, a method of studying small differences in individual cells and mapping the expression of the separation gene.

The results provide the first demonstration of molecular codes that divide the striatum into three main levels of classification: a spatial organization, a patch matrix, and a specific cell-type organization.

With this new knowledge, we can now begin to analyze the function of different types of nerve cells in different molecularly defined regions, said Dr. Meletis said.

This is the first step to directly define the role of networks in decision making and addiction control with the help of optogenetics.

The scientists said this new knowledge could also form the basis for the development of new therapies based on a mechanistic understanding of brain therapy.

The development of the new Salem map is described in an article in Cell Reports magazine. Scientists made a molecular map of the stratum.

The striatum, the inner part of the brain, is considered central to decision making and the development of various addictions. Using methods used in mouse models and to map brain tissue and cell types.

A team of researchers from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden were able to visualize the organization of various opioid islands in the striatum.

Märtin et al define the molecular identity of striatal projection neurons, focusing on the characterization of patches and matrix compartments.

Genetic labeling of neurons that express the Mu opioid receptor (Oprm1) reveals the identity of the neuron subtypes and also establishes spatial markers for the identification of subclasses in the striatum.

Märtin et al define the molecular identity of striatal projection neurons. And focusing on the characterization of patches and matrix compartments.

Genetic labeling of neurons expressing the opioid receptor Mu (Oprm1) reveals the identity of the neuron subtypes, and also establishes spatial markers for the identification of subclasses in the striatum.

In the study, Drs. Constantine Melatis and his colleagues created a 3D molecular map of the nerve cells attacked by opioids and showed how they organize in the striatum.

Our map forms the basis for a new understanding of arguably the brain’s most important network for decision making, said Dr. Meletis said.

This may contribute to a better understanding of common reward processes and the impact of various addictive substances on this network. To find this molecular code, the researchers used single-core RNA sequencing.

A method of studying small differences in individual cells and mapping striatal gene expression. The results provide the first demonstration of molecular codes that divide the striatum into three main levels of classification.

A spatial organization, a patch matrix, and a specific cell-type organization. With this new knowledge, we can now begin to analyze the function of different types of nerve cells in different molecularly defined regions, said Dr. Meletis said.

This is the first step to directly define the role of networks in decision making and addiction control with the help of optogenetics.

The scientists said that this new knowledge may also become the basis for the development of new treatments based on the mechanistic understanding of the brain network. The development of the new Salem map is described in an article in Cell Reports magazine.

Striatum

The corpus striatum, or corpus striatum, also known as the nucleus striatum, is a nucleus or group of neurons in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.

The striatum is an important component of the motor and reward systems. It receives glutamateric and dopaminergic inputs from a variety of sources; And the rest serve as the main entrance to the basal ganglia.

Functionally, the striatum coordinates various aspects of cognition, including motor and action planning, decision-making, motivation, reinforcement, and perception of reward.

The striatum is made up of the caudate nucleus and the lenticular nucleus. The lenticular nucleus is composed of a large putamen and a small pale globe.

In primates, the striatum is divided into a ventral striatum and a dorsal striatum, subdivisions based on function and connection. The striated ventricle is made up of ambulate nuclei and olfactory tubercles.

The dorsal striatum is made up of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. A white substance in the dorsal striatum, the neural tract (internal capsule) separates the caudate nucleus and the putamen.

Anatomically, the term stripum describes its striped (striped) appearance of gray and white matter.

The Structure

The striatum is the largest structure of the basal ganglia. The striatum is divided into a ventral and a dorsal subdivision, which is based on function and connection.

The ventral striated nucleus accumbens and is composed of olfactory tubercles. The nucleus accumbens is composed of the nucleus of the nucleus accumbens and the nucleus is the accumbens layer.

Which is separated by different populations.

The olfactory tuber receives information from the olfactory bulb, but it has not been shown to play a role in odor processing. Non-primate species include the Calleja Islands.

The abdominal striatum is associated with the limbic system and has been implicated as an important part of the circuits for decision-making and rewarding behavior.

The dorsal striatum is composed of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. Staining can distinguish the corpus striatum into two different compartments from a corpus striatum or patch and a surrounding matrix.

This is particularly evident in the acetylcholinesterase and calbindin components. More studies have been done on the dorsal striatum, but compartments have also been identified in the ventral striatum.

Dorsal striatum stripsomas comprise 10 to 15 percent of the striatum volume.

Cell type

Dendritic spine in the middle luminous neuron of the striatum

The cell types of the striatum include:

Medium spiny neurons (MSN), which are the main neurons in the striatum. They are GABAergic and are therefore classified as inhibitory neurons. Mid-spin projection neurons comprise 95% of the total neuronal population of the human striatum.

The median neurons of the spine are of two types: MSN of type D1 and MSN of type D2. A subset of MSN contains D1 and D2-like receptors, and approximately 40% of striated MSNs express DRD1 and DRD2 mRNA.

Cholinergic interearnon releases acetylcholine, which has several important effects on the striatum.

In humans, as in other primates and rodents, these interneurons respond to stereotyped responses to homogeneous environmental stimuli that are temporally aligned with the responses of dopaminergic black thinking neurons.

The large aspini cholinergic interneurons themselves are affected by dopamine through dopamine D5 receptors. There are several types of GABAergic interneurons. The best known are the expressed parvalbumin interneurons.

Also known as fast-spike intrins, they participate in a powerful inhibition of major neurons by feedforward. In addition, there are GABAergic interneurons that express tyrosine hydroxylase, somatostatin, nitric oxide synthase, and neuropeptide-y.

Recently, two types of GABAergic interneurons expressing neuropeptide Y have been described in detail, one of which results in the synchronous activity of cholinergic interneurons in inhibiting dominant neurons.

These neurons in the striatum are not evenly distributed. There are two areas of neurogenesis in the brain: the subventricular zone in the lateral ventricle and the dentate cirrus.

Neuroblasts formed in the lateral ventricle adjacent to the strobe integrate into the striatum. It has been observed in the human striatum after ischemic stroke.

The injury caused by the striatum stimulates the migration of the neuroblast from the subretinal area to the striatum.

Where they differ in adult neurons. The normal path of the SVZ neuroblast is to the olfactory bulb, but this traffic is diverted to the striatum after an ischemic stroke. However, some newly developed neurons are alive.

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The Researchers Detect Ozone Mini-Holes In The Arctic

Ozone mini-holes in the Arctic and a team of scientists

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The Researchers Detect Ozone Mini-Holes In The Arctic
A New Genus And Species Of LungFish That Lived About 365 Years Ago

A New Genus And Species Of LungFish That Lived About 365 Years Ago

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A New Genus And Species Of LungFish That Lived About 365 Years Ago
The Eggshells Suggest That The Dinosaurs Were Really Warm Blooded

The Eggshells Suggest That The Dinosaurs Were Really Warm Blooded

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The eggshells suggest that the dinosaurs were really warm blooded
What Is Benefits Of Coffee In The Morning

What Is Benefits Of Coffee In The Morning?

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What Is Benefits Of Coffee In The Morning?
Our Milky Way Also Have A Maximum Spin Speed

Our Milky Way Also Have A Maximum Spin Speed

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Our Milky Way Also Have A Maximum Spin Speed
Hungarian Researchers Claim To Have Seen Biosigns

Hungarian Researchers Claim To Have Seen Biosigns

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Hungarian Researchers Claim To Have Seen Biosigns
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