Global Statistics

All countries
240,188,856
Confirmed
Updated on October 14, 2021 6:37 pm
All countries
215,765,598
Recovered
Updated on October 14, 2021 6:37 pm
All countries
4,893,161
Deaths
Updated on October 14, 2021 6:37 pm

Global Statistics

All countries
240,188,856
Confirmed
Updated on October 14, 2021 6:37 pm
All countries
215,765,598
Recovered
Updated on October 14, 2021 6:37 pm
All countries
4,893,161
Deaths
Updated on October 14, 2021 6:37 pm
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What Are Health Benefits Of Coffee In The Morning?

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Health benefits of coffee
Health benefits of coffee

What are the health benefits of coffee! It doesn’t matter if you’re sipping coffee on the go or sipping it in the morning, it’s hard enough to imagine a day without coffee. There are very few people who do not even like the taste of coffee, they drink it because it makes them feel wonderful. Caffeine will give you energy and there is something about how a cup of coffee will make you feel. But the old question comes into play.

Is coffee good for you?

There have been many studies that have shown that coffee has many health benefits. Popular with contrary beliefs, it is not bad for you if you drink it in moderation. Coffee is loaded with many substances that help protect your body from cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, and many other serious diseases.

Coffee can help you burn fat

If you’ve even looked at diet products, you’ll see that caffeine is in almost all of them, and for good reason. Although it doesn’t make you lose weight, it helps your body burn fat. There have been many studies that have shown that coffee increases your metabolic rate by up to 11 percent. Others have found that caffeine can increase fat burning by up to 10 percent in obese people and up to 30 percent in average people. Coffee is very useful when trying to lose weight.

It can improve your energy level

Almost everyone experiences this when drinking coffee and mainly why they like to drink it as it gives them an energy boost. This is because coffee contains caffeine, which is a stimulant. This is another reason why coffee is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the world. Once you drink your coffee, your bloodstream will absorb the caffeine.

Health benefits of coffee

After entering the bloodstream, it will go to your brain. While it’s in the brain, it will block your inhibitory neurotransmitter adenosine. And once this happens, the amount of dopamine and other neurotransmitters will increase. There are many studies that have shown that drinking coffee brings you many benefits such as improving your memory and many other things. But like everything in life, coffee should be consumed in moderation to get the most out of it.

Coffee contains some essential nutrients

There are many nutrients found in the coffee bean, which get into your cup after making coffee. A cup of coffee would be:

  • Manganese and potassium
  • Riboflavin also known as vitamin B2
  • Magnesium and Niacin also known as Vitamin B3
  • Pantothenic acid also known as vitamin B5

While this may not sound like a lot, they are still some of the vitamins that you should consume as a family. And let’s face it for those who love to take pills, drinking a cup of coffee is very easy and enjoyable. Drinking coffee can protect you from Alzheimer’s disease and dementia

As we all know, Alzheimer’s disease is unfortunately one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. This condition generally affects people over 65 and there is no cure. However, there are a few things that can be done to prevent it from developing in the first place.

One of those things is exercising but also drinking coffee. There have been some studies that have shown that people who drink coffee daily have a 65 percent lower risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease than those who do not drink it.

Coffee can help you live longer

If you have it, people who drink coffee are less likely to develop a serious illness. Therefore, they are less likely to die from it, so in theory they will live longer. There have been several studies that have indicated that by drinking coffee you are reducing your risk of death. Two large studies have shown that men who drink coffee are 20 percent less likely to die, while women are 26 percent less likely.

Coffee can make you smart

But those who don’t know, and rarely believe when they hear it, that coffee can actually make you smarter. As we mentioned earlier, coffee contains caffeine, which is a great stimulant. Several studies have shown that caffeine can help improve memory, alertness, cognitive function, and reaction time.

Therefore, you will be able to do it faster and with greater precision while concentrating more on your work. And that’s another reason why many companies opt for their workplace coffee machine to help their employees stay on top of their work. Drinking coffee can reduce the risk of some types of cancer

Unfortunately, cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world today. Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in your body. But there have been indications that have led people to believe that coffee can protect humans from developing two types of cancer.

Studies have shown that people who drink coffee have a 40 percent lower risk of liver cancer. Another similar study has shown that people who drink four to five cups of coffee a day have up to a 15 percent chance of developing colorectal cancer.

Coffee can reduce the risk of stroke

It has always been claimed that caffeine will raise your blood pressure and can cause stalkers and you should not drink it. This is true up to a point, but there it only increases to 3-4mm / Hg, so the effect is so small that if you are used to it, it does nothing for your body. But if you are someone who is struggling with high blood pressure, you may feel it at the least.

There have been many studies that say they do not support the view that it increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. They have also shown that women who drink coffee have a lower risk of stroke. Another study has shown that people who drink coffee reduce their risk of stroke by 20 percent.

May reduce your risk of Parkinson's

The second most common neurodegenerative condition that occurs just below Alzheimer’s disease is called Parkinson’s disease. This happens because your dopamine-producing neurons in your brain are dying. Like Alzheimer’s, it still has no cure, but you can take some precautions to reduce your chances of developing it.

There have been many studies that have shown that people who drink free alcohol on a daily basis have a 60 percent lower risk of developing it. But they have also found that people who drink decaffeinated coffee do not have a lower risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.

Coffee can protect your liver

Many people don’t think about the importance of their liver. Your liver is an organ responsible for hundreds of important functions. The most common diseases that affect the liver are fatty liver disease, hepatitis, and many other serious conditions.

Many of these conditions can lead to liver cirrhosis. This means that most of your liver has been replaced by scar tissue. What’s interesting about those studies is that they have shown that drinking coffee can prevent cirrhosis from occurring. If you drink four or more cups of coffee a day, you are reducing your risk by 80 percent.

Drinking coffee can fight depression and make you happier

As most of you know, depression is a mental disorder that reduces your quality of life. It is a very common mental disorder, as 4.1% of people in the US are diagnosed with clinical depression. Because it is a common mental disorder, there have been many studies that have shown that coffee can help with it.

They have shown that if you drink four or more cups of coffee a day, your chances of becoming depressed can be reduced by as much as 20 percent. Another study showed that people who drank four or more cups of coffee a day were up to 50 percent less likely to commit suicide than those who did not. This is mainly because caffeine blocks inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain that, as we mentioned earlier, give a stimulating effect.

Pure black coffee can help prevent tooth decay

If you can tell now, Coffee is a superhero. If you are one of those who drink pure black coffee without any type of sweetener or milk, it can help your teeth. This is because they help destroy something called Streptococcus mutans. They are the bacteria responsible for your cavities. There have been many studies that have shown that if you drink at least one cup of plain black coffee, you are reducing your chances of developing a tooth decay by 40 percent.

Coffee can increase your libido

There are many people who think that coffee has a negative effect on your libido and that is just a myth. There have been many studies that have shown that caffeine will actually increase your libido rather than decrease it. As we have said many times before, coffee is a simulation. If you are healthy, you can consume this magical drink without worry, but if you are someone who is struggling with things like the adrenal gland, you should consult your doctor first.

Coffee is a great natural source of daily vitamins

As we said earlier, coffee contains some very important daily vitamins. Many people don’t like to take pills or they just can’t get into a bunny or drink them every morning, coffee is for them. Coffee is packed with amazing liquid nutrients. Vitamin B2 is essential to relieve chronic pain such as migraine.

This is why your head tends to pound until you drink your daily dose of coffee. Another very beneficial thing about coffee is potassium. This is great as it helps reduce bloating, which is also known as water retention. It can also help prevent kidney stone formation.

After all those wonderful vitamins comes magnesium. Magnesium is a great source of vitamins that can help fight depression symptoms and lower blood pressure. These are some of the most beneficial vitamins that you can put into your body with your morning coffee.

Coffee can help you with acne

Every human being has ever struggled or experienced acne in their life. But what they don’t know is that coffee can help you with this. This is because coffee is packed with antioxidants and helps reduce bacteria and redness on the skin. This is also because it is loaded with anti-inflammatory compounds, like chocolate, that will help prevent cancer and other types of skin conditions.

So if you are battling acne, coffee is not all you need to get rid of it. Just make sure it doesn’t contain sugar or fatty cream and it will work wonders. As you can see, drinking coffee has many amazing benefits. If you are someone who enjoys drinking coffee, it does not make sense to limit yourself to one cup a day.

As long as you don’t overdo it and drink more than seven cups, you’re good to go. But it is important that you understand that these studies that have been conducted are epidemiological in nature. They can only show that there is a connection between the two, they are not saying that drinking coffee will cure you or prevent diseases from forming.

To ensure that you are getting the full benefits of coffee, try to stay away from sweeteners and other things that would clash with its benefits. As you can see now, coffee is not the villain everyone created.

Health benefits of coffee
Health benefits of coffee

Benefits Of Coffee In The Morning

Why Coffee is a healthy food! When people think of coffee, they generally think of their ability to increase energy. However, according to some research, it can also provide some other significant health benefits. And such as a lower risk of liver cancer, type 2 diabetes and heart failure. Worldwide, experts estimate that people consume about 2.25 billion cups of coffee per day.

Researchers have seen the benefits of drinking coffee for conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease and liver disease. There is evidence to support some, but not all, of these claims. Coffee contains many useful nutrients.

Including riboflavin (vitamin B-2), niacin (vitamin B-3), magnesium, potassium and various phenolic compounds or antioxidants. Some experts suggest that these and other ingredients in coffee can benefit the human body in several ways. This article discusses the health benefits of drinking coffee, the evidence supporting those benefits and the risks of drinking coffee.

5 benefits of drinking coffee

Potential health benefits associated with coffee consumption include: Protection against type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, liver disease and liver cancer. In the sections below, we cover these benefits in more detail.

1. Coffee And Diabetes

Coffee can help prevent type 2 diabetes and some other conditions.  Coffee can help protect against type 2 diabetes. In 2014, researchers who collected data on more than 48,000 people found and that those who increased their consumption of at least one cup of coffee per day for 4 years had an 11% lower risk of type 2 diabetes than those who consumed it. A 2017 meta-analysis concluded that people who drink four to six cups of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee every day have a lower risk of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes.

2. Coffee and Parkinson’s disease

Several studies have shown that the caffeine present in coffee and many other drinks can help protect against Parkinson’s disease. A team concluded that men who drink more than four cups of coffee per day are at fivefold lower risk than Parkinson’s who do not. In addition, caffeine in coffee can help control movement in people with Parkinson’s, according to a 2012 study.

The results of a 2017 meta-analysis suggested a link between coffee consumption and a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease, even among people who smoke. This team also discovered that people who drink coffee are less likely to experience depression and cognitive conditions such as Alzheimer’s. However, there was insufficient evidence to show that drinking decaffeinated coffee would help prevent Parkinson’s disease.

3. Coffee and liver cancer

Italian researchers found that coffee intake reduced the risk of liver cancer by approximately 40%. Some results suggest that people who drink three cups per day may have a 50% lower risk. In addition, the review of the 2020 literature concludes that “coffee intake possibly reduces the risk of liver cancer.”

4. Coffee and other liver diseases

A 2017 meta-analysis concluded that consuming any type of coffee seemed to reduce the risk of liver cancer, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cirrhosis. People who consume coffee may also have a reduced risk of gallstone disease. In 2014, researchers analyzed coffee consumption among people with persistent sclerosing colitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). These are autoimmune conditions that affect the bile ducts in the liver.

They discovered that people with PSC were more likely to have less unconditional coffee. There was no evidence to suggest that coffee intake differed among people with or without PBC. In addition, a 2014 study suggested a link between coffee consumption and a lower risk of dying from cirrhosis unrelated to hepatitis. The researchers suggested that drinking two or more cups of coffee every day could reduce the risk by up to 66%.

5. Coffee and heart health

A 2012 study concluded that drinking coffee daily or consuming approximately 8 ounces per day can protect against heart failure. Those who drank moderate amounts of coffee every day had an 11% lower risk of heart failure than those who did not. A 2017 meta-analysis found that caffeine intake may have minimal benefits for heart health, including blood pressure. In some studies, high levels of blood lipids (fats) and cholesterol were found in people who drink more coffee. Are there benefits or risks for Def Coffee?

Nutritional value

Coffee has fewer calories, but adding sugar and cream will change its nutritional value. Normal black coffee (without milk or cream) is low in calories. In fact, a normal cup of black coffee contains only 2 calories. However, adding cream or sugar will increase the caloric value. Coffee beans also contain polyphenol, which is a type of antioxidant.

Antioxidants can help the body eliminate free radicals, a type of waste product that the body produces naturally as a result of certain processes. Free radicals are toxic and can cause inflammation. Scientists have found a relationship between various aspects of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes and obesity.

In 2018, some researchers suggested that coffee’s antioxidant content may provide protection against metabolic syndrome. The author of a 2017 article notes that, although scientists can demonstrate that certain compounds are present in coffee beans, it is not clear what happens to them after entering the human body.

The risk

Drinking too much coffee can also cause some adverse effects. In the following sections, we cover some of these risks.

Bone Fracture

Some studies have found that women who drink too much coffee may have an increased risk of bone fractures. On the other hand, men who consume more coffee have a slightly lower risk.

Pregnancy

The researchers said that coffee intake during pregnancy may not be safe. In fact, there is evidence that suggests a link between high coffee consumption and pregnancy loss, low birth weight and premature delivery.

Endometriosis

Women who drink coffee may have an increased risk of endometriosis, but there is insufficient evidence to confirm this link. People who drink too much coffee may have a slightly higher risk of the condition.

Anxiety

Consuming excessive amounts of caffeine may increase the risk of anxiety, especially in people with panic disorder or social anxiety disorder. Less frequently, it can trigger mania and psychosis in susceptible people.

Mental health

A 2016 study concluded that excessive consumption of caffeine during adolescence can lead to permanent changes in the brain. The scientists behind the study expressed concern that this may increase the risk of anxiety-related conditions in adulthood.

Presence of toxins

In 2015, researchers found relatively high levels of mycotoxins in commercial coffee. Mycotoxins are toxins that can contaminate coffee as a natural product. Some people worry that acrylamide, another chemical present in coffee, can be dangerous. Find out more here.

Summary

A 2017 meta-analysis concluded that it is “generally safe” that most people consume three to four cups of coffee per day, and doing so could reduce the risk of certain health conditions. However, the study authors caution that smoking can cancel any benefit of drinking coffee.

Caffeine is an important characteristic of coffee. But coffee contains many compounds, and there are different ways to drink it. This makes it difficult to determine how coffee affects a person and what components have benefits and risks.

A person who wants to get health benefits from coffee should avoid exceeding the recommended daily intake and try to control those ingredients, such as sugar, cream or flavoring, as they may not be healthy. Pregnant women and people at risk of fractures can avoid coffee. If you want to buy coffee, there is an excellent selection online.

  • Buy coffee beans here
  • Buy ground coffee here
  • Buy here for instant coffee

We collect the linked items based on the quality of the products and list the pros and cons of each one to help you determine which one will work best for you. We partner with some companies that sell these products. Which means that Healthline UK and our partners can receive a portion of the revenue if you make a purchase using the links above.

Coffee is a healthy food

Coffee is popular worldwide and studies generally reported inverse associations (moving in opposite directions) between consumption and the risk of chronic diseases & mortality. But what about people who drink too much coffee and people with genetic variation can affect the way they metabolize caffeine?

The rigidity of caffeine metabolism varies widely among people, said Dr. of the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics at the National Cancer Institute. They said Ericca Loftfield and her colleagues at Northwestern University, Chicago, and the National Cancer Institute.

Previous data from case-control studies suggested that drinking coffee may increase the risk of hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, these previous studies evaluated coffee consumption after having the disease and did not examine overall or cardiovascular mortality.

Caffeine & to reassure coffee

Dr. Loftfield and his co-authors assessed the coffee consumption habits of 502,641 people using the demographic, lifestyle and genetic data of the UK Biobank. The UK biobank is a population-based study that invited around 9.2 million people from the UK to participate, he explained.

We use demographic, lifestyle and genetic reference data as a cohort of biobanks in the United Kingdom, which began in 2006 and ended in 2016, to estimate the risk ratios for coffee consumption and mortality. We investigated the possible modification of the effect by the metabolism of caffeine.

Which is defined by the genetic scores of polymorphisms previously identified in AHR, CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and POR that impact on the metabolism of caffeine. Participants who drank were less likely to die of heart disease and cancer than non-drinkers. Similar findings were observed for participants who drink ground, instant and decaffeinated coffee.

Together, these findings suggest that the inverse association between coffee and mortality can be attributed to the components without caffeine and to reassure coffee drinkers. The researchers said. In addition, research is required to understand the underlying mechanisms of the observed associations. The results appear in the Medicine Journal.

Health benefits of coffee
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Aquatic Animals Spend Most Of Their Lives In Water

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Spinosaurus Aegyptiacus
Spinosaurus Aegyptiacus had an aquatic lifestyle, confirming the fossil discovery

Spinosaurus aegyptiacus had an aquatic lifestyle, confirming the fossil discovery. The remarkably high tooth abundance of the giant dinosaur Spinosaurus Aegyptiacus, compared to the dental remains of terrestrial dinosaurs and some aquatic animals, largely supports this 15-meter-long predator in the Kem Kem river system of the Cretaceous period in Morocco. . Aquatic animals spend most of their lives in water where they shed and retain their teeth.

spinosaurus aegyptiacus

The only known dinosaur adapted to life in water, Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, swam the rivers of North Africa about 95 million years ago. Spinosaurus aegyptiacus is a giant theropod dinosaur that lived about 95 million years ago (Cretaceous period) in what is now North Africa. This magnificent dinosaur has been interpreted as a semi-aquatic and fish-eating animal, and has recently been shown to have a highly modified tail suitable for propelling the animal through water.

However, the hypothesis that this dinosaur was semi-aquatic or perhaps fully aquatic has faced some opposition, not least because it challenges decades-long views on the ecology and evolution of dinosaurs. The discovery of hundreds of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus teeth in a new area near Tarda on the northern edge of the Tafilalt in southeastern Morocco supports this hypothesis.

spinosaurus aegyptiacus dinosaur

The study’s corresponding author, Professor David Martil of the University of Portsmouth, said that the large number of teeth we collected from the prehistoric riverbed suggests that Spinosaurus Aegyptiacus was in large numbers, accounting for 45% of total dental remains. We do not know of any other place where such a mass of dinosaur teeth has been found in bony rock.

The greater abundance of Spinosaurus Aegyptiacus teeth, relative to other dinosaurs, is a reflection of its aquatic lifestyle. An animal that lived most of its life in water is more likely to have contributed teeth to river deposits than dinosaurs, who probably only visited the river bed to drink and feed. With this research, we can confirm this location as the place where this giant dinosaur not only lived but also died. The results are fully in line with the idea of a “river monster” that lives in water.

dinosaur

However, the hypothesis that this dinosaur was semi-aquatic, or even perhaps purely aquatic, has met with some opposition, mostly because it challenges a decade-long ideas about the and evolution of dinosaurs. The discovery of hundreds of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus teeth at a new locality near Tarda on the northern margin of Tafiltal in southeastern Morocco further supports this hypothesis.

lifestyle

According to the same study author, Portsmouth professor David Martill said: The large number of teeth collected from the floor of the prehistoric river suggests that Spinosaurus Aegyptis was in large numbers. We do not know of any other place where such a mass of dinosaur teeth has been found in a rock with bones. The higher abundance of Spinosaurus Aegyptiacus teeth relative to other dinosaurs is a reflection of their aquatic lifestyle.

giant dinosaur

An animal that lives its life in water is more likely to contribute teeth to river reservoirs than dinosaurs that probably visited the river just to drink and feed along its banks. With this research, we can confirm this location because this giant dinosaur was not only alive but also dead. In fact, the results are consistent with the idea of a “river monster” that lives in water. In the Moroccan Tarda there are different vertebrae from two localities:

  • (A) rostral dentary of oncoprecipites. numidus;
  • (B) Lick shark
  • (C) Pycnodont Vomarin tooth fragment
  • (D) teeth of unknown large fish
  • (E) Lungfish dental plaque
  • (F) abilicorid teeth
  • (G) indeterminate theropod teeth
  • (H) tooth of Spinosaurus sp.
  • (I) tooth of Carcharodotosaurus sp.
  • (J) titanosauroid sarcoprod dentition
  • (K) indeterminate thyme tooth
  • (L) Phospholosaurus crocodile tooth
  • (M) tooth of Allosuchus sp.
  • (N) Column fragment of the hybrid shark’s dorsal fin.
  • (O) vertebral probability attributed to Onchopristis number
  • (P) Indeterminate carpet turtle piece
  • (Q) Telest vertibra
  • (R) Holstein scale
  • (S) Indeterminate bone break. Scale bar – 10 mm.

After preparing all the fossils, we evaluated each one in turn, co-author Aaron Quigley, a master’s student at the University of Portsmouth, added to the study. Spinosaurus aegyptiacus has a different tooth surface. They have a smooth round cross section that glows when the light is hit. We classify the 1,200 teeth of the species and then we literally count them all. 45% of our total finding were Spinosaurus azipiacus teeth.

Spinosaurus aegyptiacus

The Chem Chem river beds are an amazing source of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus remains, said first author Thomas Beaver, a master’s student at the University of Portsmouth. They also preserve the remains of many other Cretaceous creatures. And including ara, coelacanths, crocodiles, flying reptiles and other terrestrial dinosaurs. With such an abundance of Spinosaurus eziziacus teeth, it is highly likely that this animal lived primarily within the river rather than on its banks. The study was published in the Cretaceous Research Journal.

Scientists identify new snail species, a new species of snail caenogastropod that lives in the rain forests of the lowlands of Borneo. A team of professional scientists and citizens discovered a new species of caenogastropod snail that lives in the rain forests of the lowlands of Borneo and named it in honor of climate activist Greta Thunberg.

A new snail species

An individual of Craspedotropis gretathunbergae. The newly described snail belongs to the so-called caenogastropods, a group of land snails that are known to be sensitive to drought, extreme temperatures and forest degradation, said Dr. Menno Schilthuizen, snail expert and co-founder of Taxon Expeditions. All individuals were found very close to the Kuala Belalong Field Studies Center.

At the foot of a steep hill, beside the river bank, while feeding at night on the green leaves of the undergrowth plants. The researchers decided to name the new species Craspedotropis gretathunbergae in honor of the young climatic activist Greta Thunberg, because the caenogastropod snails of the rainforests are very sensitive to droughts and extreme temperatures that are likely to be more frequent as climate change continues.

the first of the new species

“Naming this snail as Greta Thunberg is our way of recognizing that her generation will be responsible for solving the problems they did not create,” said citizen scientist J.P. Lim, who found the first individual of the new species and it is a promise that people of all generations will join her to help her. The team also approached Ms. Thunberg, who said: she would be delighted that this species bears her name.

This is not the first time that the Taxon Expeditions team names a species in honor of an environmental defender, the scientists said. In 2018, we named a new species of beetle in honor of the famous actor and climate activist Leonardo DiCaprio. “Sir. DiCaprio temporarily changed his profile picture on Facebook to his beetle’s photo to recognize this honor.

abundance of limestone

Terrestrial molluscs from Cape Delgado and adjacent continental regions of northeast Mozambique. 19 stations were studied and 46 species of terrestrial molluscs were recorded in an area of 18 × 55 km in the northeast corner of Mozambique. Three stations in Cabo Delgado (a peninsula in the extreme north of the Quimbas archipelago) yielded 19 species not found in the inland sampling area, and 18 species found inland were not found in Cabo Delgado, with nine in both regions.

The main ecological difference between Cabo Delgado and the interior region is the abundance of limestone in the first and its total depletion in the second. References to the original publication, type locality, type sample size (s) and summary geographic distribution are provided and as well as color photographs for each registered species.

A new species of Gulela (Pulmonta: Streptaxidae) from Cobo Delgado has been described. W. between the 18th century and 1847. Based on a collection made by Peters, e. Von Martens dates from the mid-19th century, when E.W. Von Martons had not published a series of documents (1860, 1869a, 1879) until it had been thoroughly examined.

land snails and slugs

The list of terrestrial mollusks given by Peter by von Martens in Mozambique and Lorenzo Marquis totaled 16 species. However, only ten of these were recorded in Mozambique in the strict sense (north of Zambezi). J. between 1858 and 1863. Kirk’s collection effort resulted in the addition of three species, which H. were recorded by Dohorn (1865). Five species on the list are JS Gibbons (1879). F.L. Stuhlmann visited the area in 1889 and added another species to the list (von Martens, 1897).

Only 24 species of land molluscs were known from Mozambique (except Lorenzo Marques). When M. Connolly published his main criticism in Portuguese East Africa in 1925. The last list of non-marine molluscs from Mozambique l. Published by Jermaine (1935). The northern part of the country shows 46 species of land snails and slugs. The last published record of a land snail from northeast Mozambique (van Bruggen 2006).

It is based on a collection of. Van Hopen made in 1970. Except for these scattered aggregates, our knowledge of mollusk fauna in northeast Mozambique is the same as it was 75 years ago. The team published an article describing Craspedotropis gretathunbergae this week in the Biodiversity Data Journal.

Discovered a new species of snail

Discovered a new species of snail, named after Greta Thunberg. London: Scientists discovered a new species of land snail in honor of Swedish activist Grata Thunberg for her efforts to raise awareness of land change, and named it ‘Crespedotropis Gratthunberga’. According to the study, published in the ‘Journal of Biodiversity Data’, the newly discovered species belongs to the so-called Coyogastropods.

A group of land snails known to be sensitive to drought, extreme temperatures and forest degradation. Scientists, including evolutionary ecologist Meno Schilthuijn from the ‘Naturalis Biodiversity Center’ in the Netherlands, said the snails were found very close to the research station at Brunei’s ‘Kualaal Belang Field Study Center’.

discovery of species

She said that snails are found on the banks of a mountain, on the banks of a river, on the green leaves of plants that make sense at night. In support of the amateur scientist JP Lim, who found the first person of the snail. Naming this snail after the Great Thunberg is our way of recognizing that its generation would be responsible for solving the problems that were not done.

It is a promise that people of all generations will come together to help you. Investigators said they contacted Thunberg, who said she would be ‘happy’ on behalf of this species. The scientists said that the study work, field work, morphological studies and classification of the identified samples were carried out in a field center with basic equipment and Internet access.

According to the study, a ’10-day taxon campaign was carried out by untrained’ citizen scientists led by experts. Although we know that this way of working has its limitations in terms of production quality. For example, we were unable to break down or do an exhaustive search in the literature. The advantage is the rapid discovery of species and the processing in situ. It’s included. Materials, ‘the researchers wrote in the study.

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Denisovans And Neanderthals Made Long-Term

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neanderthal and denisovan
Neanderthal and denisovan found near the autism gene in modern humans.

Neanderthal and denisovan found near the autism gene in modern humans. One of the most interesting questions about hominid evolution is how much of our missing cousins live in us. Between 1 and 4 percent of the modern human genome is derived from Neanderthals everywhere except in sub-Saharan Africa.

neanderthal and denisovan

Furthermore, between 4 and 6 percent of the modern Melanesian genome has been shown to be derived from a different species of archaic hominids, the Denisovans. Now, a new paper focused on comparing a specific type of genetic variation has found evidence that Denisovans and Neanderthals made long-term, large-scale positive contributions to the human genome.

Our understanding of the impact of these changes is currently limited, but they occur in an interesting place. Most studies comparing differences in human populations (or differences between archaic and modern hominids) focus on adaptive single nucleotide variants (SNVs). It was a single nucleotide variation that gave archaic Northwestern Europeans the ability to digest lactose, and the ability to do so is a textbook case of human natural selection.

denisovan and neanderthal

The image below shows the prevalence of lactase persistence in adults as a percentage of the total population. The single nucleotide variations found in Tibetan genomes are associated with greater adaptation to high-altitude conditions. These originated in the Denisovan genome. While the addition of Denisovan occurred long before the adaptation for adult lactase digestion, both have been conserved (meaning they have been maintained since early evolution).

This new research does not focus on SNVs. Instead, he analyzed the modern Melanesian genome for signs of copy number variants (CNVs). Copy number variation occurs when the copy number of an entire gene differs between individuals. For example, Huntington’s disease occurs when a specific subclass of the huntingtin gene is duplicated to the point of causing an alteration in protein production.

Denisovan or Neanderthal genomes

CNVs are much larger than SNVs and exert very strong selective pressure. Any evidence of conserved CNV in Melanesian populations that could be traced back to Denisovan or Neanderthal genomes would therefore be evidence that these variants provided an advantage. One thing to keep in mind is that the impact of CNVs on the human genome is an active area of study.

Historically, SNVs have attracted much more attention. The discovery of conserved CNVs in Melanesian populations of archaic Denisovans and Neanderthals is significant in itself. However, it is not yet clear what the variations actually do. Part of the difficulty in analyzing CNVs is the fact that they are much larger than SNVs, with many potential effects.

Denisovan and Neanderthal contribution

The researchers found two different CNVs: one linked to the Denisovan genome and one linked to Neanderthal. Seventy-nine percent of Melanesian chromosomes carry repeats at 16p11.2> 383,000 base pairs (kbp) that originated in Denisovans and were introduced into the original population 60,000-170,000 years ago.

The second variation was introduced by Neanderthals and is followed by about 44 percent of modern Melanesians. It is located on chromosome 8p21.3 and contains a -6 kbp deletion and a -38 kbp duplication. What’s particularly interesting about Denisovan other than the human genome is its location.

neanderthal and denisovan DNA

According to the researchers, the specific region of 16p11.2 that they originally identified as Denisovan is part of a locus that “shows an enrichment of complex recurrent structural rearrangements that predispose humans to another form of autism,” attributed to the most common genetic cause… represents about 1% of patients.

To be more specific, Denisovan’s CNV is directly adjacent to the region of the chromosome where genes have been associated with autism.

This specific segment of the human genome is known to be unstable and prone to breakage errors. Previous research on 16p11.2 found that a previously repetitive transfer of the BOLA2 gene approximately 282,000 years ago “simultaneously increased the number of copies of genes associated with iron homeostasis and made our species predisposed to disease-associated recessive rearrangements.”

human genome

The fact that Denisovans’ contribution to the human genome is 1). Huge 2). 16p11.2, and built in the metaphorical swamp of 3). The highly preserved suggests that it was important to maintain it. Neanderthal CNVs include TNFRSF10D (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 10D). According to the researchers, “TNFRSF10D has been reported to be one of the primate-specific genes preferentially expressed in progenitor cells of the human embryonic neocortex.”

What does this all mean?

Honest answer: nobody is sure. The researchers believe that these genes likely gave the Melanesians an evolutionary advantage, perhaps related to their life in a different tropical environment. The study authors wrote:

Our results collectively suggest that large CNVs originating in archaic hominids and introgressing into modern humans may have played an important role in local population adaptation and represent a source of large-scale genetic variation. inadequately studied scale.

The problems of the CNV’s analysis have made its implementation difficult until now. The application of these technologies suggests that we may see them becoming more widely used in the future, but the novelty of the approach means that we may be exploring what these versions do for some time. Written with the help of Jessica Hall. Comparison of featured images of early Homo sapiens with Homo neanderthalensis.

Neanderthal male and female

Neanderthals’ ears were designed to hear speech, just like modern humans. Reconstruction of Neanderthal men and women. Virtual reconstructions of Neanderthal ears show that our extinct cousins had the same physical ability to hear as modern humans, and that we could make the same sounds inferentially, although it is still unknown whether they actually spoke a language.

“We don’t know if they had a language, but at least they had all the necessary bodily parts for the type of speech we have,” says Mercedes Conde-Valverde of the University of Alcalá in Spain. “It’s not that they had a single language, not English, not Spanish, anything like that. But if we could listen to them, we would recognize that they are human.”

Denisovan

Conde-Valverde and her colleagues used medical imaging software to create virtual reconstructions of the Neanderthal middle and outer ear cavities based on CT scans of their skulls. With these models, they could determine the range of sounds Neanderthals could hear, and thus likely originated as speech. This technique has previously been used to study speech and hearing in other ancient humans and chimpanzees.

The team did the same with a group of fossils called Sima de los Huesos hominids, which are believed to be the immediate ancestors of Neanderthals. The results showed that, unlike these ancestors, Neanderthals had hearing abilities similar to modern humans. Neanderthal hearing was adapted to produce the consonants that often appear in modern human languages, such as “s,” “k,” “t,” and “th,” in the same way that we have hearing, says Condé. Valverde.

archaeological evidence

While we don’t know if this means they had the mental capacity for language development, Conde-Valverde says that recent archaeological evidence, including the use of stone tools, jewelry-making, and art, alludes to complex behavior in Neanderthals. language ability. “It makes it harder to dismiss the fact that they probably had some kind of speech,” says Dan Dedieu of Lumiere Université Lyon 2 in France. It was probably similar to ours, but not identical, he says.

neanderthal

Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestors met hominid “supernaturalists” who were separated from other humans approximately 2 million years ago. A new study by researchers at the University of Utah’s Anthropology Department suggests that it is more than 700,000 years ago. The ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans interbred with their Eurasian predecessors who were members of a ‘super-Achaia’ population separated from other humans approximately 2 million years ago.

The first Neanderthals lived in Sima de los Housos. A cave site in the Atapurca Mountains, Spain. Image from Scientific Films. The study’s lead author, Professor Alan Rogers of the University of Utah, said: We never knew about this episode of mistaken identity and we could never estimate the size of the overpopulated population. We are highlighting an interval in human evolutionary history that was previously completely obscure.

Denisovan

Professor Rogers and his colleagues studied the ways in which mutations are shared between Neanderthals and modern African and European and ancient Denisovans. The pattern of exchange included five episodes of misunderstanding, with one unknown. The newly discovered episodes include an incorrectly related “superchat” population over 700,000 years ago that separated from all other humans approximately 2 million years ago, and the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans.

modern humans and Neanderthals

The ancestral superchain and Neanderthal-Denisovan populations were more remotely related than any other pair of human populations to cross first. For example, modern humans and Neanderthals separated for approximately 750,000 years when they crossed. The super-cystic and Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestors were separated for more than a million years.

Professor Rogers said: This is about the time the crossing in the human lineage occurred, something that is said about how long it takes to develop.

The researchers used other clues in the genome to separate ancient human populations and estimate their effective population size. They estimated that superchaics diverged in their species approximately 2 million years ago. This corresponds to 1.85 million years of human fossil evidence in Eurasia. An evolutionary tree consisting of four proposed gene flow episodes.

Neanderthal-Denisovan

An earlier unknown event 744,372 years ago (orange) indicates that there was a cross between the Superchoike and Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestors in Eurasia. Scientists also proposed that there were three waves of human migration to Eurasia. The first was more than 2 million years ago when Superchaikos migrated to Eurasia and spread to a large population.

Then, 700,000 years ago, the Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestors migrated to Eurasia and quickly crossed paths with the descendants of the Supercheat. Finally, modern humans expanded 50,000 years ago to Eurasia, where we know that they interbred with other ancient humans, including Neanderthals. Professor Rogers said: I have been working for the past few years on this different method of analyzing genetic data to learn history.

Neanderthal and Denisovans

It’s gratifying that you can think of a different way to look at the data and discover things that people haven’t seen in other ways. Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestors interfered with a distant hominid. Previous research has shown that modern Eurasians interfere with their Neanderthal and Denisovan predecessors. We show here that hundreds of thousands of years ago.

The ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans interfered with their Eurasian predecessors. Who were members of a “supercica” population distinct from other humans 2 million years ago. The population of the supercarica was large, with an effective size of between 20 and 50 thousand people.

We confirm previous findings that –

  • (i) Denisovans also interfered with supercarics
  • (ii) Neanderthals and Denisovans diverged in the early Middle Pleistocene
  • (iii) Their ancestors suffered population size restrictions Y
  • (iv) Neanderthal’s population was higher than before
  • (v) But then it decreased in size. We provide qualified support for the view that..
  • (vi) Neanderthals interfere with the ancestors of modern humans

During the past decade, we learned about interactions between hominid populations when modern humans expanded to Eurasia (1-3) more than 50,000 years ago. Here, we had to focus on the events that took place a year and a half ago. In this early period, the ancestors of modern humans separated from Neanderthals and Denisovans.

Neanderthals and Denisovans separate

After a time, Neanderthals and Denisovans separate. Significant changes have been recorded in mythology and archeology of the time, as large-brained hominids appear in Europe and Asia, and Echlin’s instruments (4, 5) appear in Europe. However, it is unclear how these large-brain homicins relate to other modern or arctic human populations (6–9).

We studied the period using genetic data from modern African and European peoples and two archaic populations, Neanderthals and Denisovans. Configure1 reflects our belief. The capital letter refers to the pop erection, and combinations such as XY refer to ancestral populations of X and Y. X represents an African (Yoruba) population.

random nucleotides

Y is a European population, N is Neanderthal and D is Denisovan. S. is a random “superchurch” population that is distantly related to other humans. 1 label “nucleotide site pattern” in the lower letters of fig. A nucleotide site shows an X and N site pattern if populations of X, Y, and N populations have alleles derived from random nucleotides.

But samples from other populations are ancestral. The site pattern probabilities can be calculated from population history models, and their frequencies can be estimated from the data. Our Legofit (10) software estimates the parameters of these relative frequencies using a fitted model. The nucleotide site pattern contains only part of the information available in the genome sequence data.

Cave in Croatia

This is particularly relevant to the study of the part. The history of deep populations. Site pattern frequencies are unaffected by recent population history because they neglect the population component within variation. This reduces the number of parameters we must forecast and allows us to focus on the distant past.

Current data includes two high-coverage Neanderthal genomes: one from the Altai Mountains of Siberia and the other from Scindia of Cave in Croatia. Instead of assigning our Neanderthal fossils to different populations, our model assumes that they inhabited the same population at different times. This implies that our estimate of the Neanderthal population size would refer to any other latset rather than the Neanderthal metapopulation.

Neanderthal population

Altai and Vindeja appear on the Neanderthal site tag as “A” and “V”. Therefore, the AV site is the pattern in which the derived allele appears only in the sample nucleotides of the two Neanderthen genomes. Figure shows the site pattern frequencies studied here. In contrast to our previous analysis, the current analysis includes singleton, X, Y, V, A and D site patterns, as recommended by Amphasani and Proofer.

A simple table, excluding the Vindhya genome, is included as fig. S2.Image graphic characters. Label Entry Episode. We build the model by drawing Greek letters to indicate the letters we include. Our model does not include Denisovan gene flow in Modern-Orns, as there is little evidence of such gene flow in Europe. Two years ago, we studied a model that included only one episode.

Denisovans

Which refers to gene flow from Neanderthal to European. The left panel of 3 shows the residuals of this model using new data. Many are far from zero, suggesting that something is missing from the model. The relevant literature suggests some that may be missing. There is evidence of a supercaric population entering Denisovans. Which was distantly related to other humans and also to the entry of early modern people into Neanderthals.

These episodes from entry number 1 are as follows and presume. Adding to the model improved the fit, although none of the resulting models was satisfactory. For example, the model example estimates (presumably) that isolated superacts from other hominids before 7 million years (Ma) make sense considering what might still be missing and  considering that we might have been in the early Middle Pleistocene.

The first European Neanderthal ancestors

Right now, big-minded hominins appear in Europe with Aceh-lean stone tools (4, .5). They were probably African immigrants, with fossils and similar instruments previously found in Africa. According to one hypothesis, these were the first European Neanderthal ancestors. The “Neanderson” descendants of the Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestors were separated from the lineages that led to modern humans.

Neandersovans are separated from the African population and can then spread to Eurasia. The results were published in the Journal Science Advance. Why are we closer to human development than ever! Dating when our ancestors separated from Neanderthals and other relatives has long been a puzzle, but advances in DNA are clearing up our evolutionary journey.

advances in DNA

Artistic representation of the hominids of Sima de los Hussos, estimated to have lived around 400,000 years ago. Anthropologists and geneticists had a problem. And when they looked back, the problem got worse. Over the past few years, there have been two main genetic methods for dating evolutionary divergences, when our ancestors were separated from Neanderthals, chimpanzees, and other relatives.

The problem was that there was almost a double difference in the results of these methods. According to one estimate, modern humans separated from Neanderthals about 300,000 years ago. On the other hand, the division was closer to 600,000 years ago. Similarly, modern humans and chimpanzees may have strayed about 6.5 or 13 million years ago.

Establish evolutionary relationships

Surprised by this wild disagreement, researchers with different backgrounds study it from different angles. Their joint findings, recently reviewed here and here, have described how genetic differences increase over time and advanced methods of genetic dating. If in doubt, yes, they’ve also outlined important events in our evolutionary timeline. Everyone is alive today, sharing ancestors with Neanderthals 200,000 years ago and 765,000-550,000 years ago.

Molecular Clock Dating

Go back in time to find the Homo sapiens population that were the ancestors of everyone living today. Coming and going and our lineage meets Neanderthals, then chimpanzees, and finally all primates, mammals, and life. To date, these evolutionary divisions, geneticists have relied on the molecular clock: the idea that genetic changes accumulate at a constant rate over time.

Of particular concern are mutations that become neutral substitutions, or permanent changes in the letters of the genetic code that do not affect the chances of survival and regeneration of the organism. If such mutations occur clockwise, then calculate the time from the common ancestor that the two organisms shared should be as easy as dividing the number of genetic differences between them by the mutation rate, the same rate as that..

Anthropologists

Dividing the distance gives you travel time. For decades, anthropologists used fossil calibration to generate the so-called phylogenetic rate (a phylogeny is a tree that shows evolutionary relationships). They took the geological age of the fossils from the evolutionary branch points and calculated the intensity of the mutations that would have occurred with the resulting lineage.

For example, the first fossils in the human branch after our separation from chimpanzees are identified by the fact that they walk on two legs; Bipedalism is the first clear distinction that separates our descendants from the evolution of chimpanzees. These fossils are between 7 and 6 million years old, and therefore the division between chimpanzees and humans must be around that age.

modern humans from Africa

Dividing the number of genetic differences between living and human chimpanzees by 6.5 million years provides a mutation rate. Determined as well applied to the genome with 6 billion base pairs, this means that, on average, millions of years of chimpanzees and human evolution, there has been an average of six changes in the letters of the genetic code per year.

This rate can be used to date evolutionary events that are not evident from fossils, such as the spread of modern humans from Africa. But genetic dating went wild in 2010. When improvements in DNA sequencing allowed researchers to determine the amount of genetic differences between parents and their children.

Known as genealogical analysis, it provides a more direct measurement of current mutation rates within a generation rather than an average of millions of years. The pedigree analysis counts mutations of 60-something in each generation. This rate becomes about half of the phylogenetic estimate, which means that evolutionary events will be twice as old.

The uncertain molecular clock

Solving this disagreement led researchers to reassure and revise their initial beliefs. How accurately did they count the difference between the genomes of parents and children! Were fossils assigned to the correct branches of the evolutionary tree and above all, how stable is the molecular clock!

This suggests that among primates, the molecular clock varies significantly by species, sex, and type of mutation. A recent study found that New World monkeys (i.e., monkeys from the Americas. Such as marmosets and squirrel monkeys) have a replacement rate of approximately 64% higher than that of monkeys (including humans.

Within apes, there are approximately 7% more gorillas and 2% more chimpanzees than humans. Calculation of the date of the division of the human chimpanzee. But even among humans, mutation rates vary, especially between the sexes with age. As parents grow older, they acquire one additional DNA mutation per year that they can pass on to children.

developmental & reproductive variables

Mothers, on the other hand, change significantly less with each passing year. When you consider what these species and sex differences do. Most inherited mutations are the result of errors when DNA copies itself in the germline or in the cells that produce eggs and sperm. Many times the germline DNA itself has to be copied, depending on developmental and reproductive variables.

Including age at puberty, reproductive age, and the sperm production process. These traits differ in primates today, and certainly in primate development. For example, the average generation time for New World monkeys is six years, 19 years for gorillas, 25 years for chimpanzees, and 29 years for humans. What about those additional mutations as the father ages!

Sperm are produced continuously after puberty. So sperm formed later in life are the result of more rounds of DNA replication and opportunities for replication errors. By contrast, a mother’s egg broth is formed from birth. Rather than replication errors, small increases with maternal damage may be due to mutations of DNA damage.

Backward dating methods

It is now clear that a mutation rate cannot determine dates for all differences related to human development. However, researchers can secure the timeline for important evolutionary events by combining new genetic dating methods with fossil and geological ages. Newer computational methods have included reproduction variables in the calculations. Taking into account reproductive age, the age of male puberty, and sperm production rates.

The researchers have estimated the partial time that accompanies the fossil record. Another new approach has looked at mutations that are primarily independent of DNA replication. Some kinds of DNA damage-related mutations appear to behave more clockwise and some researchers have focused on ancient DNA. Comparison of current human fossils from the past 50,000 years suggests a mutation rate that is consistent with genealogical analysis.

Neanderthal dynasty by morphological

At least one evolutionary division was knocked down in 2016 after ancient DNA was extracted from a 430,000-year-old hominid fossil from Sima de los Housos, Spain. Sima’s hominids looked like early members of the Neanderthal dynasty by morphological similarity. This hypothesis is adjusted for the time of division between Neanderthals and modern humans according to hereditary analysis 550,000 years ago.

But they did not work with plant genetic estimates 275,000 years ago. Where are the hominids of Sima in our family tree! Were they the ancestors of Neanderthals and modern humans, only Neanderthals, or neither? DNA definitely answered this. Sima hominids belong to the Neanderthal branch as it divides with modern humans.

Furthermore, the result provides a firm time point in our family tree, suggesting that pedigree rates work for this period of human development. Neanderthals and modern humans probably date from 765,000-550,000 years ago. Other evolutionary divisions may be clarified soon, thanks to advances brought about by the mutation rate debate. Someday, when you see a chimpanzee, you can greet your great-great-grandparents with the correct number of greats.

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The New Fossil Is The First Fossil Biggest Egg Found In Antarctica

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biggest egg
Antarctica's 'deflated football' fossil is world's biggest egg.

Antarctica’s ‘deflated football’ fossil is world’s biggest egg. The new fossil is the first fossil egg found in Antarctica. Paleontologists explore the giant cold-shelled eggs of marine reptiles from the Cretaceous period in Antarctica. In Antarctica, a huge fossil egg of extinct marine reptiles has been found in nearby marine deposits 68 million years old. An artist made a couple of mosques and their eggs. Under the name of Antarcticulithus Brady.

biggest egg

The new fossil is the first fossil egg found in Antarctica. The sample exceeds all known non-avian dinosaur eggs in quantity and differs from them in composition. Measuring 11.4 by 7.9 inches (29 cm by 20 cm) and weighing 6.5 kg, it is the largest soft shell egg ever discovered and the second largest egg of any known animal. Although the elephant bird’s egg is slightly larger, its egg is about five times as thick.

University of Texas paleontologist Austin Legend Lucas and colleagues from the United States and Chile think that Antarcticulithus brady was placed by a giant marine reptile, such as a mosasaur, a discovery that challenges the prevailing belief that such organisms thought that such creatures did not lay eggs. The fossil egg is a dinosaur with a shape larger than an animal.

what is the biggest egg in the world

It is completely different from a dinosaur egg. It’s similar to the eggs of lizards and snakes, but it’s from a really huge relative of these animals, said Dr. Legend said. A diagram showing the Antarcticulithus Brady egg, its portion and shape relative to an adult human. The researchers found several layers of membranes, confirming that Antarcticulithus bradii was an egg.

The structure is very transparent, rapid hatching, similar to the eggs laid by some snakes and lizards, said Dr. Legendre. However, because fossilized eggs hatch and do not contain skeletal material, the scientists used other types of reptiles to focus on them. Artist’s rendering of a baby mossaurus growing from an egg. They created a data set to compare the body size of 259 living reptiles with the size of their eggs.

biggest egg in the world

They discovered that the snake that laid the egg was 7 meters (23 feet) long from the end of its body to the end of its body, not counting the tail. In addition to that evidence, the rock formation where the Antarcticulithius Brady egg was discovered houses adult specimens, as well as the skeletons of baby Mosauer and Plesiosaurus. Many authors hypothesized that it was like a nursery with protected shallow water.

A cove environment where young people would have a peaceful environment to grow, said Dr. Legend said. The study was published in the Journal Nature. Paleontologists explore the giant cold-shelled eggs of marine reptiles from the Cretaceous period in Antarctica. Dinosaurs and soft shell eggs from Antarctica. This is a great day for great egg stories, as if both the egg and the story are great.

In separate articles in the journal Nature, a team of scientists reports that it is the second largest egg of any known animal, and another suggests that, contrary to established thinking, the earliest dinosaurs made soft-shell shells.

Dinosaur Eggs

An artist’s rendering of a baby mossaurus descended from an egg in the shallow waters of late Cretaceous Antarctica. In the first article, the egg is also soft spherical, and at a distance of about 28 centimeters to 18 centimeters it pushes how great scientists thought such eggs could develop. It is the first fossil egg to be found in Antarctica and the authors believe it was laid by an extinct giant marine reptile, such as a magasaurus.

A discovery that defies the prevailing challenge that such creatures did not lay eggs. It is the size of a large dinosaur from an animal. But it is completely different from a dinosaur egg, says author Lucas Legendre of the University of Texas at Austin (UTA), It is similar to the eggs of lizards and snakes, but it is really huge compared to these animals.

what animal lays the biggest egg

David Rubilar-Rogers, co-author of the Chilean National Museum of Natural History, was one of the scientists who discovered the fossil in 2011 and making it look like bad football. By the time Julia Clarke of UTA suggested that neither Chile nor geologists could discover that it really was a bad egg. Studies with a set of microscopes confirmed this and revealed a transparent, fast-hatching egg-like structure that some modern snakes and lizards lay on.

Comparison with data from 259 live reptiles suggested an ancient marine reptile. An idea supported by the number of Baby Mossaur and Plesiosaurs skeletons in the area. Many authors have hypothesized that it was like a nursery with protected shallow water, a cove environment where young people would have had a quiet environment to grow, says Legend.

Fossil egg

The document doesn’t look at how ancient reptiles would have laid eggs. But researchers have suggested two possible options. The eggs are in open water, giving birth to certain types of sea snakes, or the mother lays the eggs on Huh beach. And the hatchling was shattered like sea turtles in the sea. Dinosaur egg: fossil egg, its parts and relative size.

The arrow points to its layers and the surrounding sediment, which is shown in light gray.  In a second study, researchers led by the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and Yale University used a set of geochemical methods to analyze the eggs of two largely different non-avian dinosaurs and found that they were similar to turtles…in its microstructure.

hard-shelled eggs

Structure and mechanical properties….This suggests to them that the earliest dinosaurs laid soft-shell eggs and that hard-shelled eggs evolved at least three times independently in the dinosaur family tree. “The idea has always been that the ancient dinosaur egg hardened,” says lead author Mark Norrell of AMNH.

In the past 20 years, we have found dinosaur eggs worldwide, but for the most part they represent just three groups: theropod dinosaurs, including modern birds, duck-billed dinosaurs like advanced hadros, and advanced aerotropes, Dinosaurs long neck. At the same time, we have found thousands of skeletal remains of ceratopsian dinosaurs, but none of their eggs.

Dinosaur eggs

So why were their eggs not preserved? I suppose, and what we proved through this study was that they were soft. A group of fossilized eggs and embryos in samples of protoceratops. Norrell and his colleagues in the US The USA, Argentina and Canada studied well-preserved fossil eggs containing embryos belonging to two dinosaur species: Protoceratops from Mongolia and Mussorus from Argentina.

When they chemically characterized the specimens, they found chemically altered remnants of the protected egg mucous membrane. Which make up the innermost testicular layer of all modern archival testes. When they compared the bi-hybrid molecular signature of dinosaur eggs with data from other animals, including lizards, crocodiles, birds, and turtles, they found that the protocarps and musorus eggs were leathery and soft.

Fossil egg development

They provide direct evidence of the independent development of calcified eggs in non-biosynthetic and soft-natured dinosaurs of Prosokeratops and Musaurus eggs, they write in their article. This finding is related to recent findings of various reproductive traits, such as the color of the egg.

The ancestral nest car, and open nest structures, which are limited to dinosaurs, representing an independent lineage of egg development. Because soft eggshells are more susceptible to water damage and provide protection against mechanical stress, such as parenting. The researchers propose that they were probably buried in wet soil or sand and later similar to some reptiles, La decomposing plant was incubated with heat of the substance.

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Homo Sapiens Emerged 350,000 Years Ago, A New Study Has Revealed That Genetic Data From Humans

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Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens emerged 350,000 years ago.

Homo sapiens emerged 350,000 years ago. A new study has revealed that genetic data from seven humans who lived in South Africa 2,500 years ago suggest that Homo sapiens originated 350,000 years ago. Swedish and South African scientists managed to identify the genetic sequence of the remains of three hunter-gatherers who lived between 2,300 and 1,800 years and four farmers who lived between 500 and 300 years, reports Efe news.

Homo Sapiens

They all lived in present-day KwaZulu-Natal province, on the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa. The scientists concluded that the evolution from archaic humans to Homo sapiens occurred between 350,000 and 260,000 years ago, instead of the 180,000 years that had been in previous studies. Based on remains found in East Africa.

Archaic humans to Homo Sapiens

The study authors from the University of Uppsala (Sweden), the University of Johannesburg (South Africa) and the University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa) support a theory of the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens as a result of simultaneous evolution. Continent. In fact, fossils over 300,000 years old found in Morocco in June suggest that the evolution from archaic man to Homo sapiens may have been much earlier than today.

Reconstruction of Homo floresiensis: specifically, they focused on detecting signatures that suggest interbreeding of species with very different depths known from the fossil record of the area. Their results showed no evidence of miscegenation; However, they were able to confirm earlier results showing high levels of Denisovan ancestry in the region.

Homo Floresiensis

“While the known fossils of Homo erectus, Homo floresiensis, and Homo luzonensis may appear to be in the right place and time to represent the mysterious southern Denisovans, it is likely that their ancestors were on the island in Southeast Asia some time ago. less than 700,000 years “. Professor Chris Stringer, researcher at the Natural History Museum, London.

“Which means that their lineage is too old to represent that of Denisovans, who, by their DNA, were most closely related to Neanderthals and modern humans.” Reconstruction of Homo floresiensis. Image credit: Science Magazine.

archaeological research

Professor Chris Helgen, Director of the Australian Museum Research Institute, said: “These analyzes provide an important window into human evolution in a fascinating region and demonstrate the need for more archaeological research in the region between mainland Asia and Australia.”

“We know from our own genetic record that Denisovans intermingled with modern humans who left Africa 50,000-60,000 years ago, both in Asia, and that modern humans migrated through ISEA on their way to Australia,” said Dr. . Teixeira said.

Denisovan DNA levels in contemporary populations indicate that a significant crossover occurred in ISEA. The mystery remains, so why don’t we find fossils of them along with other ancient humans in the region? Do we need to reexamine the existing fossil record to consider other possibilities?

Homo sapiens from Africa

Some modern Homo sapiens from Africa. According to the University of Adelaide, Australia, emigrated from Africa to cross and cross with four hominids of other species. Of all these, only Neanderthals and Denisovans have been recorded so far. Research links humans with four species of extinct hominids, modern Homo sapiens from Africa. According to the University of Adelaide, Australia, emigrated from Africa.

But the DNA of the two remaining unnamed species has been found in the samples of the modern population. Each one of us gets on the genetic trail of the events of these past mixtures, co-author of an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Dr. Joao Teixeira said. These archaic groups were very widespread and genetically diverse, and they survive in each of us.

archaic human groups

Your story is an integral part of how we become. For example, all current populations show about 2% of Neanderthal ancestry. Which means that the mixture of Neanderthal with the ancestors of modern humans occurred shortly after leaving Africa, probably 50,000 to 55,000 years ago from somewhere in the Middle East. But, modern human ancestors would have traveled further east than expected and would have met with at least four other archaic human groups.

The island was already a crowded place in Southeast Asia, which we call modern humans, who first came to the region 50,000 years ago, said Dr. Teixeira. At least three other archaic human groups have occupied the region, and the ancestors of modern humans merged with them before the extinction of archaic humans. Reconstruction of Homo florescensis, a species of extinct hominids that lived on the Indonesian island of Floors between 74,000 and 18,000 years ago.

Denisovans & hominid 2

Dr. Teixiera and his colleague, Professor Alan Cooper, analyzed evidence and Archaeological, genetic and fossil remains and provided additional information, reorganizing their migration routes and even records of fossil vegetation. For example, it was interesting how events in South Asia were mixed with a mixture of 1 ‘hominids and modern humans. Denisovans and ‘hominid 2’ crossings were recorded throughout Southeast Asia and the Philippines and Floors, Indonesia.

archaic human

We knew that history outside of Africa was not simple, but it seems to be more complex than we thought. The Southeast Asian island region was clearly occupied by many archaic human groups, possibly living in relative isolation from each other for hundreds of thousands of years before the arrival of the ancestors of modern humans. Time also seems as if the arrival of modern humans occurred immediately after the disappearance of archaic human groups in each region.

Estimated route (yellow and red arrows) of the movement of anatomically modern humans across the island of Southeast Asia about 50,000 years ago: populations of modern predators with genetic data are shown in red. Populations grown in black are shown in color. The predicted genomic content of EH1 (purple), Denisovan (red), EH2 (brown) and non-parasitic (gray) is shown in the pie chart as relative proportions observed in Australian-Papuans (complete circles).

Denisovan groups

Gray populations with large amounts of Denisovan genomic material are located east of the Wallace line; Incidents of independent introversion with Denisovan groups have been speculated for both the common ancestor and the ISEA populations of Australia-Papua. The Philippines (red orbit 2) and, separately, for the Philippines (red orbit 4). The indication for a different introduction with an unknown hominid in the flowers recorded in the genomic data of today’s populations, remains less safe (brown circle 5).

The exact position of introverted events 2, 4 and 5 is currently unknown. Ancient humans have love with mysterious relatives. A study shows that ancient humans have love with mysterious relatives, Neanderthal idols with modern humans. A girl makes nose to nose with a statue of Neanderthal in Germany. Ancient DNA research increasingly reveals the genetic link between modern humans and our extinct ancestors.

Homo sapiens

Including Neanderthals and the mysterious Denisovans. A new improved index of ancient human relativistic genomes suggests that Homo sapiens did not have sex with only Neanderthals and that humans had a smaller line of understanding called Denisovans. A fourth man, the secret descent was also in the mix. As reported by the news arm of the journal Nature, the new genetic evidence suggests that many hominids.

The current living cousins of human relatives, chimpanzees, were buried more than 30,000 years ago. This group of kissing cousins included an unknown human ancestor not yet revealed by ancient DNA records. It is implied that it could be similar to Homo Erectus or something, said Charles Laluaja-Fox. A researcher at the University of Palojenomiks FBRA Fabra of Spain.

Who did not participate in the research. But the findings made by the conclusion were present in a conversation. On November 18 at a meeting sponsored by the former DNA Royal Society of London, Harvard Medical School and lead author David Reich. Homo Erectus is an extinct human species that originated in Africa and spread to Asia. [See images of our nearest human ancestor.

Ancient human lineage

Neanderthals are an extinct group of humans who lived about 30,000 and 130,000 years ago. Despite their reputation as bone-headed mannequins, Neanderthals advanced as modern humans in areas such as toolmaking, although they were probably less socially skilled. Denisovans are a much more mysterious group. These first human beings lived in Siberia and possibly separated from the tree branch of the human family that will eventually rise to Neanderthals approximately 300,000 years ago.

when did homo sapiens first appear

Little is known about how Denisovans lived and how they were. But Neanderthals, Denisovns and shows the genetic analysis of modern human beings that there were three groups were sometimes have children. Denisovan genes appear in the modern islands of the Pacific and in people in Southeast Asia and southern China. Neanderthal genes appear in 1 to 4 percent of modern Eurasians, suggesting that Homo sapiens and Neanderthal intervened after modern humans left Africa.

How Old Are Homo Sapiens

Homo Sapiens 300,000 Years Ago. For unknown reasons, Homo sapiens is the only human survivor, since everyone else in the genus Homo finally became extinct. New genomes, new discoveries. New research has been submitted to a scientific journal for publication. According to the rules of the magazine, the main writer cannot speak with the media about the study of the Reich until the newspaper is published.

Created a reporter Nature News, which more or less the complete sequence of the Denisovn Neanderthal genome and which those who report, however, joined the discussion on November 18 Reich and his colleagues used in the previous research. Sexual sequences with ancestors that confirmed the previous findings Denisovanos Pacific islands and East Asians.

archaeological debate

But also a surprising finding was: genetic fingerprints were found Denisovn genes from an unknown population of human ancestors. Which first that would be more suggest intrbriding. Mark Thomas, an evolutionary geneticist at University College London, described the ancient environment as the “God of the human type world” with many human populations. Laluza-Fox said that the question of the fourth mysterious ancestor is an “archaeological debate.

But that the genetic work done by Reich and his colleagues opens the door to a deeper understanding of the personal diversity of ancient human ancestors. He said the new techniques would help researchers protect the original DNA from contamination later. Some samples that were not considered suitable for genomic approaches will now be good samples, LaLueza-Fox said.

In the past, Laluza-Fox said, geneticists tried to find more information about human evolution from modern human DNA. Now, he said, they can go directly to the old DNA. We are trying to understand human evolution by studying the modern human genome. But we clearly missed part of the image, which is now emerging from the old hominid genome, said Laluza-Fox. The story was updated on December 3 to correct “India” to “Africa”.

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Human Evolution – History In Theory, There Is A Common Ancestor!

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Human evolution
Human evolution - History. The process by which humans evolved on Earth from the now-extinct primates.

Human evolution – History. The process by which humans evolved on Earth from the now-extinct primates. Zoologically, humans are Homo sapiens, an upright culture-bearing species that lives on land and first evolved in Africa about 315,000 years ago. We are now the only living member of what many zoologists call the human tribe, the hominins, but there is abundant fossil evidence indicating that we were preceded by other hominins, such as Ardipithecus, by millions of years.

human evolution

Australopithecines and other species. Homo, and that our species is also related to at least one other member of our genus, H. He lived at the same time as Neanderthalensis (Neanderthals). Furthermore, we and our predecessors have always shared Earth with other apelike primates, from today’s gorillas to the extinct Dryopithecus.

human evolution timeline

That we and extinct hominins are related in some way and that we and apes, both living and extinct, are also related in some way is accepted by anthropologists and biologists everywhere. However, the precise nature of our evolutionary relationships has been the subject of debate and research since the great British naturalist Charles Darwin published his great books On the Origin of Species (1859) and The Origin of Man (1871).

Darwin never claimed, as some of his Victorian contemporaries insisted, that “humans descended from the apes,” and modern scientists would view such a claim as a futile simplification, as they would any popular belief. it is the “missing link” between humans and apes. However, in theory, there is a common ancestor that existed millions of years ago. This ancestral species does not form a “missing link” with the lineage.

species to Homo sapiens

But rather a node for divergence in different lineages. This ancient primate has not been identified and may never be known for sure, as fossil relationships are unclear even within the more recent human lineage. In fact, the human “family tree” could best be described as a “family shrub”, within which it is impossible to link an entire time series of species to Homo sapiens, with which experts agree.

The main resource for detailing the path of human evolution will always be fossil specimens. Indeed, the fossil deposits of Africa and Eurasia indicate that, unlike today, more than one species in our family lived at the same time for most of human history. The nature of specific species and fossil specimens can be accurately described, such as where they were found and how long they lived.

geochemical dating techniques

But the question of how species lived and why they became extinct or evolved into other species can only be addressed by formulating scientifically informed scenarios. These scenarios are based on contextual information obtained from the areas where the fossils were collected.

In devising such scenarios and completing the human family bush, researchers must consult a wide and diverse range of fossils and use them with sophisticated excavation methods and records, geochemical dating techniques, and other specialized fields such as genetics, ecology, and science. data to data. it must also be used.

Paleoecology and ethology

In short, all the tools of the multidisciplinary science of the Paleolithic. This article looks at the broad trajectory of human tribes from the Miocene epoch (23 million to 5.3 million years ago [Maya]) millions of years ago, to the development of modern, symbolically structured, tool-based human culture. Only tens of thousands of years ago, during the geologically recent Pleistocene epoch (approximately 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago).

Particular attention is paid to the fossil evidence for this history and to the key models of evolution that have gained greater credibility in the scientific community. See the Evolution article for a full explanation of evolutionary theory, including its main advocates before and after Darwin. , its stimulation of both resistance and acceptance in society, and the scientific tools used to examine the theory and test its validity.

The first changes to an upright posture were probably more related to standing, stretching and sitting than prolonged periods of walking and running. Humans stand with their hip and knee joints fully extended so that their thighs are aligned with their respective leg bones to form a continuous vertical spine. To walk, the person simply leans forward slightly and then keeps the center of mass displaced.

Which is located within the pelvis?

The large muscles of the human lower extremities power our movements and allow a person to sit up and get up from a sitting position. Body mass is transferred through the pelvis, thighs, and feet to the heels, balls of the feet, and toes. Remarkably little muscular effort is expended to stay in place. In reality, our large glutes, front thigh, and calf muscles are hardly used when we stand up.

Rather than muscle contraction, the human bipedal posture relies more on the way the joints are built and the strategically placed ligaments that hold the joints in position. Fortunately for paleoanthropologists, some bones show dramatic clues to how a particular hominin propelled itself, and adaptations to restrict terrestrial bipedalism led to notable anatomical differences between hominins and great apes. These differences are easily recognized in fossils, particularly in the pelvis and lower extremities.

Early bipedal hominids

Although we are bipeds, our pelvis is oriented like a quadruped primate. Early bipedal hominids assumed the upright trunk posture by bending the spine upward, especially in the lower back (lumbar region). To transfer the mass of the entire upper body to the lower extremities and move the muscles so that one could walk without the assistance of the upper extremities and without moving from side to side, changes in the pelvis were required, especially the iliac ( larger bones, blade-shaped on each side), ischia (the bulge on which the body rests when sitting).

The sacrum (a wedge-shaped bone formed by the fusion of the vertebrae). Hominin hipbones have smaller ilia with larger regions that articulate with a shorter and wider sacrum. In contrast, the hip bones of great apes have long ilia with short sacral joint areas, and the sacrum of great apes is long and narrow. The human pelvis is unique among primates in that the iliac bones fold forward so that the inner surfaces face each other, rather than lining up sideways, as in apes and other quadrupeds.

anthropologists

Curved iliacs place certain gluteal muscles on the side of the hip joint, where they stabilize the pelvis when the foot swings forward during a step. This special mechanism allows us to move smoothly, with only slight oscillations of the pelvis and without sudden movements from side to side of the upper body. Humans have shorter hamstrings (and longer lower limbs), facilitating quick actions of the hamstrings, which extend the femur at the hip joint, while great apes have longer hamstrings and hind limbs.

Shorter, giving them a powerful hip extension for climbing. up. Tree. Specifically, a human thigh bone is long and has a very large, rounded head and a short, round neck; A prominent lateral ridge on the knee presses on the groove in which the patella is located. The femurs are further at the hips than the knees and are bent toward the midline to keep the knees together. This angle allows anthropologists to diagnose bipedalism, even though the fossil is just the knee end of a femur. On the other hand, the femurs of quadruped great apes do not bend toward the knees and the femoral shaft lacks a telltale tilt.

human footprints are unique

Human feet are different from those of apes and monkeys. This is not surprising, because in humans the legs must support and propel the entire body on their own, rather than sharing the load with the front legs. In humans, the heel is very strong and the big toe is permanently aligned with the four smaller lateral toes. Unlike other primate feet, which have a movable midfoot, the human foot has (if not necessary) a stable arch to provide strength. Consequently, human footprints are unique and easily distinguished from those of other animals.

Fossil evidence

3.5 million years ago at least one species of hominid, Au. afarensis, was a skilled walker. In addition to the physical evidence from this era, Laetoli in northern Tanzania also has a 27.5-meter (90-foot) track built by three men calmly walking on wet volcanic ash. In all observable characteristics of foot shape and tread pattern, they are strikingly similar to barefoot people living in the tropics today. However, although the legs of Letoli hominins appear to be surprisingly human, it should not be assumed that other parts of their bodies are very similar to ours.

Laetoli footprints

The tracks were probably left by Australopithecus afarensis individuals at Laetoli, northern Tanzania, about 3.5 million years ago. Fragmentary femoral remains of Aurorin tugenensis dating back six million years in Kenya indicate to some experts that they were also bipedal. R. ramidus (5.8–4.4 million years), Aramis, a primate from central Ethiopia and one of two fossil species of Ardipithecus, was also bipedal.

The evidence in this case comes from the foramen magnum, the hole in the skull through which the spinal cord enters. In Ardipithecus, this opening is similar to being located in the center rather than at the back of the skull. A rearward-facing foramen magnum indicates a stooped posture, while a downward-facing hole holds the skull above the spine.

hominids

Other features suggesting bipedalism in Ardipithecus include an enlarged tarsal area on each foot and, later, a pelvic structure with muscle-to-bone attachment sites compared to bipedal hominids. Also, Au’s leg bone. anamnesis (4.2 to 3.9 million years) from northern Kenya attests to his bipedalism. All hominins that lived in the time of the Laetoli footprint makers were likely bipedal when on land.

But some of them (including some young species) exhibit characteristics that advocate regular arboreal climbing, perhaps. predator. In Haider, northern Ethiopia, A. afarensis (3.8-2.9 Mya). They include various parts of the locomotor skeleton that reveal a bipedal habit: short iliac, wide and thick sacrum, and femoral angles, among other characteristics.

At the same time, smaller females with curved fingers and toes, posterior ilia, and long upper limbs, as well as their rib cage configuration, indicate that they can easily climb and maneuver trees. Bahrelgazali (3.5–3.0 million years old) from central Chad and Kyanthropus platiops (3.5 million years old) from northern Kenya are fully represented by teeth and skull and jaw fragments that are not can infer positional behavior.

Some species of Homo Erectus near to present to humans present on Earth, The Earth has a history of 4.6 billion years. However, Homo sapiens (modern humans) flourished only 400,000 and 250,000 years ago. Humans have evolved from familiar hominids (great apes) that have existed on Earth for almost 20 million years. Over time, there are several human species with different characteristics on Earth.

human evolution

But not all human species have survived the journey with many of them. The only human species that remains is Homo sapiens. The idea of humans associating with apes emerged in 1859 after the publication of The Origin of Charles Darwin’s Species. He was the first to point out that each species is one of the first. Later, two scientists, Thomas Huxley and Richard Owen, supported him. Huxley published a book in 1863 entitled Evidence in Man’s Nature.

future human evolution

Although scientists have held many ideas and theories. The main problem was the evidence because there was a shortage of fossil intermediaries. Eugene DuBois first discovered a fossil intermediary in Trinil in the Dutch East Indies (nowadays Indonesia) in 1891. Which shows that there were species between humans and apes. He called his discovery Pithenanthropus Erectus or Java Man. Additional fossils were discovered in Africa in 1920 and studies on the evolution of humans began thereafter. Here is a list of seven Homo species that exist on Earth:

Homo Heidelbergensis

Homo Heidelbergensis lived on Earth between 700,000 and 200,000 years ago. They emigrated from Africa. Homo heidelbergensis males were approximately 5 feet 9 inches (175 cm) tall and weighed approximately 136 pounds (62 kg), while the female was an average height of 5 feet 2 inches (157 cm) and 112 pounds (51 kg ). It had a larger, flatter brain box than today’s humans.

They were the first human species to adapt to the cold weather and make it their habitat for their habitat. They were also widely known for their ability to hunt large animals, which had not been seen in their first human species. The first fossil of Homo Heidelbergensis was discovered on October 21, 1907 by a worker in Germany. The worker handed it to Professor Otto Schuetensack of the University of Heidelberg, who later identified and named the fossil.

Homo rudolfensis

Homo rudolfensis is another extinct species that falls into the category of hominids. It is believed that they lived 1.9 million to 1.8 million years ago. Its physical constitution, weight and height are still unknown due to the lack of cranial fossils. On August 8, 2012, paleoanthropologist Meave Leakey and his team announced the discovery of a face and two jaws related to Homo rudolfensis.

The fossil known as KNM-ER 1470 was at the center of a debate about its age. It was previously thought to be around three million years old, but then corrected to 1.9 million. The difference in the skulls of other Homo species led to the creation of a new species called Homo rudolfensis.

australopethesin skull 

There are some characteristics of ER 1470 that suggest that it is indistinguishable from other Homo species, such as muscle deficiency. A lack of australopethesin skull and a softly rounded occipital bone similar to Homo Erectus. However, other outstanding features suggest that Homo rudolfensis differs from other Homo species, with the upper part narrower than the middle and with several megadont postcanins.

Homo habilis

Homo habilis was another species of hominids that lived on Earth between 2.4 and 1.4 million years ago. Homo habilis had some characteristics similar to those of apes, such as long arms and a moderately pregnant face. He had a large brain box in the range of 550 cm to 687 cm. However, it had a small face and small teeth. It has been debated whether Homo Habilis should be classified as Homo because they had very few characteristics of other Homo species.

Homo fluorescensis

But scientists discovered that they had the ability to use stone tools for various purposes. It was the skill. Three main fossils of Homo habilis are available: KNM-ER 1813, OH 24 and OH 8. The first fossil was found by scientists in the 1960s in the Olduvai Gorge of Tanzania by Lewis and Mary Leeke. It is believed that Homo fluorescensis lived in Indonesia 95,000 to 17,000 years ago.

They were quite small, about 3.5 feet, with a small brain. There is evidence that Homo fluorescensis made stone tools and hunted small elephants and large rodents. The main fossils of Homo fluorescence were found in Indonesia in 2003 and were called LB-1. The woman’s head was one third the size of the modern human brain. Perhaps their small bodies allowed them to survive on a small island with limited resources.

Homo Erectus

Homo Erectus is an extinct species of primitive humans that lived in the Pleistocene period from approximately 1.9 million years to the most recent 143,000 years ago. Eugene DuBois discovered the first Eutrus fossils in Java (in present-day Indonesia) in the early 1890s. The fossil study showed that Homo Erectus originated in Africa and spread from India, China, Georgia and Java.

The homo erectus was generally in the range of 4 feet 9 inches to 6 feet 1 inch, weighing approximately 88 to 150 pounds. Their height and weight were different from fossils found in other parts of the world. The fossils of Africa were larger than those of Indonesia, China and Georgia. His long legs and short arms helped him to climb trees easily and run faster than modern humans.

Homo Neanderthalensis

Neanderthal is an extinct human species that has the closest resemblance to modern humans. Only 0.12 percent of its DNA is isolated from modern humans. It is believed that Neanderthal existed about 600,000 to 30,000 years ago, and lived in Central Asia throughout Europe and the southwest. They possessed most of the characteristics of modern humans, used various tools for hunting and used symbolic decorative objects.

There is evidence that they buried their dead with offerings like flowers. It has also been found that some previous human species are involved in such symbolic behavior. A study has indicated that Neanderthal and modern human brains were similar at birth. However, in adulthood, his mind grew larger. They were stronger than modern humans with a huge body size: male (164–168 cm) and female (156–158 cm).

Homo sapiens

Most hominid species on Earth became extinct during climate change, but Homo sapiens survived and became the ancestor of modern humans. Homo sapiens lived together, looked for food and evolved to the point of being able to withstand the climatic changes that occur. In addition to hunting. He discovered how certain plants spread and how to raise animals, which changed history forever. He soon learned to cook more food and ate a variety of animals and plants.

Their control over fire and their tendency to live in large groups also created better shelters. Scientists have found several fossils that support the strong evidence of Homo sapiens. The oldest known fossils were discovered in Hiro, Ethiopia. Researchers at the University of California found the skulls of two adults and one child, who lived between 160,000 and 40,000 years before modern times.

Homo Erectus when he left

Northern, Eastern and Southern Africa; Western Asia (Damici, Republic of Georgia); East Asia (China and Indonesia) when they lived: about 1.89 million and 110,000 years ago. The earliest African fossils of Homo Erectus (sometimes called Homo ergaster). They are the oldest known humans with relatively long legs and small arms with modern body proportions similar to that of humans.

These characteristics are considered adaptations for soil life, reflecting the loss of adaptation to previous tree climbing, with the ability to walk and possibly run long distances. Compared to previous fossil humans, note the elongated brain case relative to the shape of the face. The most complete fossil of this species is known as Boy Turkana Boy.

A well-preserved skeleton (although almost all the bones of the arms and legs), which are approximately 1.6 million years old. Subtle studies of teeth indicate that it grew at a growth rate similar to that of a great ape. There is fossil evidence that this species is cared for by older and weaker individuals. The presence of Homo Erectus in the fossil record is often associated with first handcuffs.

human evolution history

The first major innovation in stone tool technology. Classic examples of this species include the earliest fossil discoveries from Java (beginning in the 1890s) and China (il Peking Man ‘, early 1920s). In general, the first species that extends beyond Africa, Homo erectus, is believed to be considered a highly variable species, spreading across two continents.

It is not certain that it has reached Europe and possibly La Longest-lived human species: approximately nine times as long as our own species. Homo sapiens, has existed! Year of discovery: 1891 Age of discovery: Eugene DuBois, a Dutch surgeon, found the first individual Homo erectus (Trinil 2) in Indonesia in 1891. In 1894, Dubois called this species Pituitarythropus erectus, or ‘Arap-man’.

Paleoanthropologists

At that time, Erectus (later changed to Homo) Pytanthropus was the primitive and youngest brain of all known early human species. Human fossils had not yet been discovered in Africa. We don’t know everything about our early ancestors, but we continue to learn more!

Paleoanthropologists are constantly in the field, digging new areas, using innovative techniques, and constantly filling in some gaps in our understanding of human development. Was Homo Erectus a direct ancestor of our own species Homo sapiens! The data suggests that increased body size, increased dependence on animal food resources, and increased range size were part of a network of factors linking H. to Africa.

  • The initials of erectus facilitated early dispersal.
  • Was one of these factors more important than the others?
  • In East Africa and Georgia, do all parts of the same species (Homo Erectus) vary regionally in size and shape?
  • Are there really many species of early humans that we now call Homo Erectus?
  • How well did Homo Erectus control fire and was it widely used?
  • What does this say about possible changes in the diet of this species?
  • Did Homo Erectus evolve in a more human pattern and rhythm, or more apes?
  • Was Homo Erectus the first human species to experience early adolescent growth?

How they survived?

Individuals with long bodies and large brains Homo Erectus regularly require a lot of energy to function. Eating meat and other types of protein that can be quickly digested allows you to absorb nutrients with a lower digestive system, providing more energy. It is also speculated that honey and underground tubers may be important food sources for Homo Erectus. We soon see evidence in the fossil record of Homo Erectus fossils (approximately 1.9 million years ago). We see evidence in the archaeological record of the first major innovation (approximately 1.76 million years ago) in stone tool technology.

What Homo Erectus was like?

What Homo Erectus was like: Homo Erectus, meaning “honest man”, lived for 1.8 million years, if possibly a related species H. Includes ergaster, or 1.25 million years ago, if it was excluded. The species disappeared about 70,000 years ago and is a member of the hominid family and genus Homo, which includes modern humans. However, it was an intermediate form of the genre, falling between users of earlier tools, early Homo habilis and current Homo sapiens. Homo Erectus is widely considered to be the ancestor of modern humans.

Homo Erectus disappeared 70,000 years ago

The researchers believe that Homo Erectus exhibited more human qualities than its predecessor, Homo habilis, which stands taller and taller at about 5.9 feet (1.8 m) instead of 4.2 feet (1.3 m). The species’ brain was also large, although Homo sapiens is still 75% in size. He had smaller teeth, a lower slope on his forehead, and developed more complex instruments.

Prehistoric tools included stone-headed spears that were glued together to obtain a sharp edge. Homo Erectus is an instrument made primarily in the Aculian style, a type of stone tool industry. The Aitchian era of stone tools lasted from about 1.2 million years ago to about 500,000 years ago, although some primitive cultures have used such tools up to 100,000 years ago.

environment more effective

These types of tools are best represented by axes, placed on both sides to create a more effective means of making people with an impact on their environment more effective. Using these devices allowed hominids to defend against the largest predators for the first time. Although he may have tried to beat the fire, that behavior would not be specific to people of this species.

Who only appear at the end of their time on Earth. Traditionally, fire was exploited for approximately 100,000 years, just 25,000 years before the extinction of this species. Homo Erectus was succeeded by H. heidelbergensis and H. ninderthalensis, who demonstrated an increased ability to make and use tools and, in general, control their environment.

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A Bird-Shaped Dinosaur Character & How Colorful And Feathered

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A bird-shaped dinosaur character.
A bird-shaped dinosaur

A bird-shaped dinosaur character. How colorful and feathered the dinosaurs were! Dinosaurs are depicted as naked, scaly reptiles, but evidence suggests that they were much more bird-like. Velociraptors Hunting in Jurassic Park (1993) portrays park visitors, portraying them as cunning lizard-like predators.

A bird-shaped dinosaur

However, time and science have not been kind to filmmakers. Velociraptor and most other dinosaurs were bird-like creatures. The Tyrannosaurus rex is also believed to sport a feather (more “terrible emu” than “terrible lizard”). In the last 10 to 15 years we have come to know that dinosaurs had feathers.

Not just a few, but many, ”says Dr. Maria McNamara of University College Cork. Feathered dinosaurs of all kinds lived during the Jurassic, 201 to 145 million years ago (Maya), feathers first evolved for isolation and performance, not for flight.

Dinosaurs were portrayed as these naked, scaly reptiles. Jurassic Park did. But the discoveries in China changed our perception. They were much more like birds,” said University of Bristol Vinther paleontologist Dr. Jacob. Although there are no fossils of winged Velociraptor, Chinese fossils show that its relatives were included in them.

the design and shape of the feathers

The dinosaurs experimented with the design and shape of the feathers. Vinther recently reexamined the fossils of a Jurassic dinosaur named Anchiornis. While modern birds have a long central axis, barbs and then filaments that seal the feathers, Anchiornis was different: A shorter axis, but then the long barbs were coming in and bundles of filaments.

modern bird

This would have given the dinosaur a much more bloated appearance, more like a hairy mammal than a bird, says Winther. In 2017, lasers were used to study soft tissue traces of Anchiornis and revealed a four-winged dinosaur with ramrod-like legs, padded feet, a thin tail and a feather similar to that of a modern bird. The raven-sized dinosaur may have passed through your forest home.

The first bird still considered by many to be Archeopteryx (150 million years old), a famous fossil discovered in a limestone quarry in Germany in the 19th century. Dublin Zoo has a cast of an Archeopteryx fossil in its Jurassic World gallery, where visitors can see feather prints, teeth and a long bony tail, a hodgepodge of dinosaurs and birds.

dinosaurs and birds

The discoveries in China advanced the science of dinosaurs. “We went from a dozen Archeopteryx specimens to thousands of feathered specimens, each of which was equally amazing,” says Professor Mike Benton, a dinosaur expert at the University of Bristol. “The level of detail blew up the field due to the richness of the data.”

Early in his career in the 1980s, Benton was taught that Archeopteryx had around 30 characteristics that set it apart from dinosaurs, including feathers, sacral bones, missing teeth, and a will bone. “All of these have now been found in dinosaurs except one: powered flight,” says Benton. All parts of the dinosaur family tree had feathers. At least 200-250 million years ago, two-legged carnivorous dinosaurs developed feathers with the first theropod dinosaurs that gave rise to the T-Rex.

color

By examining the shape of the grains that contain the pigment melanin, scientists like McNamara have helped to understand the color of feathers. The color was first reconstructed by scientists at the University of Bristol and Dr Patrick Orr, a paleontologist at University College Dublin in 2010, reports the journal Nature.

This showed that Sinosauropteryx had an orange and brown wing-like covering and a white and orange striped tail, probably for demonstration purposes.

In 2014, McNamara co-authored an article in Science magazine that described a Jurassic Siberian dinosaur that resembled a flightless bird like an emu or an ostrich (except it had a long tail). This was the first example of a herbivorous dinosaur with feathers and scales. Before this, they were the only carnivorous theropods found with feathers.

Today, paleontologists suspect that large feathered dinosaurs lost feathers during evolution, just as large mammals such as elephants lost their fur. If we didn’t have all these fossils from China, our current understanding of dinosaurs would have been very different, says Winther…Birds are dinosaurs.

land of winged dragons

Northeast China is the zero point of a revolution in how we view dinosaurs. A vast area of Liaoning Province has well-preserved fossils of feathered dinosaurs and early birds, which are remarkably extensive. “The area is huge, maybe about 1,000 square kilometers,” says Benton.

It is not clear why the fossils are so exceptionally well preserved, but much of the sediment contains volcanic ash. In some places, it appears that the ash was captured in the fossils, such as Pompeii. Most appear to be buried in lakes or marshes, and many people excavate them to sell to museums and collectors.

Fossils have changed scientists’ views on how dinosaurs looked and behaved. Many apparently had glossy plumage, like today’s birds, which could have prompted sexual selection. Benton says, “There are many species of these little theropod dinosaurs. It could be that sexual selection is driving the number of species.”

bird-shaped dinosaur

Recent discoveries of feathers in ornithischian dinosaurs indicated that they are a bird-shaped dinosaur character, with wings that emerge 80 million years before the bird, scientists say. According to a new review article published in Trends in Ecology. In Ecology and Evolution, 250–230 million years ago, during the early Tricic, when life was recovering from a devastating mass elimination of the end of the Permian.

Reconstruction of Culindradamus zabylicus

It is surprising to realize that feathers originated much earlier than birds because feathers have generally been considered the main innovation that inhibited the success of avian organisms. However, thousands of fossils in China have revealed that many non-avian dinosaurs also had wings, with types of feathers not found in today’s birds. These discoveries at least extended the origin of the feathers to 175 million years, 25 million years before the commonly accepted bird, Archeopteryx.

a bird-shaped dinosaur character

Recent feather discoveries in ornithic dinosaurs indicated that they are a dinosaur character in general. Another amazing discovery revealed that even the pteroyers had four types of feathers, apparently in the form of dinosaurs, similar to their close relatives. “The oldest bird is still Archeopteryx, first found in 1861 in the late Jurassic in southern Germany, although some species are slightly larger than China,” said Professor Mike Benton of the University of Bristol, lead author from the article.

the winged dinosaurs

Those fossils show a diversity of feathers: feathers under the body and long and thin feathers in the feathers. But, since 1994, paleontologists have been looking for dangerous discoveries based on hundreds of amazing specimens from China, including many dinosaurs. Also there were wings. At first, the winged dinosaurs were close to the origin of the birds in the evolutionary tree, co-author Dr, a researcher at Nanjing University. Baoyu Jiang was added.

It was not so hard to believe. Therefore, the origin of the feathers was delayed at least to the origin of dinosaurs like birds, probably 200 million years ago. A reconstruction of one of the Yanlianao biota pterosaurs studied. Which has four different types of feathers on the head, neck, body and wings and usually ginger brown. A reconstruction of one of the Yanlianao biota pterosaurs studied.

Which has four different types of feathers on the head, neck, body and wings, and usually ginger brown. Co-authors Dr. Maria McNamara said: Then, we had the privilege of working on Culindrobius zabylicus, a winged dinosaur that feeds on plants and lived in lakeshore areas of Jurassic Siberia 169 and 144 million years ago.

University College Cork

This dinosaur showed incredibly well preserved skin covered with scales on the legs and tail, and a strange tremor throughout the body. People were surprised that it was a dinosaur that was as far away from the birds in the evolutionary tree as one can imagine. Perhaps the feathers were present in the first dinosaurs.

development of reptile scales

“Modern bird-shaped chickens often have scales on their legs or necks, and we show that these were reversed: if the wings were ever invested with scales,” co-author Dr. Daniel Dholelei told the University of Grenoble. In fact, we have shown that the same genome regulatory network governs the development of reptile scales, bird feathers and mammalian hair. Feathers can develop very quickly. Success came when we studied two new pterosaurs in China.

We noticed that many of his mustaches were torn. We expected single-stranded monofilaments, but what we saw was tuff and feathers. Pterosaurus had wings, Dr. Jiang said. Professor Benton said: He inspired the origin of the wings at least 250 million years ago. Pterosaurs, the point of origin of dinosaurs and their relatives. The first Tricic world was recovering from the most devastating mass extinction, and life on earth almost disappeared.

dinosaur

Paleontologists had already noticed that the new reptiles were straight instead of rotting and suggesting a rapid increase in their bone structure and perhaps even a shedding of warm blood, and probably mammalian ancestors by then. There was hair. Then, dinosaurs, pterosaurs and their ancestors also had feathers. Feathers probably originated to help this acceleration of physiology and ecology, purely for isolation.

Other functions of feathers, to show and, for of course, for the flight, much later. Scientists discover how birds and dinosaurs evolved to dazzle with colorful displays. The Primotrogon fossil (above) compared to its modern counterpart, Narina Trogon. Iridescence is responsible for some of the most striking visual displays in the animal kingdom.

some 100 species of modern birds

Now, thanks to a new study on the plumage of some 100 species of modern birds, scientists have gained new knowledge on how this diversity of colors has evolved. Iridescence refers to events in which an object changes color when viewed from different angles. Birds produce this different color on their wings using nanoscale matrices of organelles (melanosomes) filled with melanin layered with keratin.

In this form of structural coloration, the sizes of the melanosomes together with the thickness of the keratin layers determine what color is produced While melanosome morphology has been previously used to predict color in fossil animals. The variation of melanosome in iridescent feathers has not been thoroughly analyzed until this study.

Evolution magazine

A team of researchers from the University of Bristol used electron microscopy to measure melanosome extracts from the feathers of 97 modern bird species with iridescent plumage from the Copenhagen Geological Museum collection. Studies have shown that iridescent feathers have the most diverse melanosomal morphology of all types of bird coloration to date.

Unlike black, brown and brown feathers

Which always have solid melanosomes, iridescent feathers can have hollow and / or flattened melanosomes. Fossil Scaniacypselus (above) compared to its equivalent today, the pen-tipped Swiftlet. We found that the melanosomes in modern iridescent feathers are more diverse than those found in gray, black or brown feathers (which also contain melanosomes), said lead author Clara Norden.

Birds developed different forms

Who at the School of Earth in Bristol studied during The undergraduate years. Science, “It is already known that structural coloration represents 70% of the color variability in birds. These two facts can be combined: Birds developed different forms of melanosomes to achieve greater color diversity. I wanted to find out if we could improve the current prediction model for fossil color based on melanosome morphology by incorporating all types of melanosomes found in iridescent feathers.

Biological Sciences

Co-authors of the study and a leading researcher, Drs. Jacob Vinther, a leading researcher in the field of paleocollars at the Faculty of Biological Sciences in Bristol, had already collected the correct fossil samples to test new models. We take samples of Scaniacipellus and the ancestor of the modern trogon, Primotrogon, to see the changes in modern trees. These groups today are iridescent and have flat and hollow melanosomes.

Did your 4 million year old German ancestors also have iridescent feathers?

Interestingly, the model predicted that Primotrogan was probably iridescent, but used solids instead of hollow melanosomes, unlike its modern descendants. Clara said: “This shows how we now have the tools to characterize the evolution of iridescence in fossil lineages,” now Ph.D. Princeton University student. This opens the door to many new discoveries of dazzling exhibits in fossil birds and other dinosaurs.

The current study focused on mapping how iridescent feathers differ from iridescent feathers. Other research methods may investigate why birds use such a variety of types of melanosomes in iridescent feathers.These ideas can ultimately increase our understanding of why fossil birds or dinosaurs would have used such morphology, revealing something about their behavior.

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The 99-Million-Year-Old Bee Was Found In Burmese Amber

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Bee was found in Burmese Amber
Bee was found

The 99-Million-Year-Old Bee was found in Burmese Amber, in an article published online in Palaeodiversity magazine. Professor George Ponnar Jr. of Oregon State University describes a new family, genus and species of pollen-collecting bee found in a piece of amber (middle Cretaceous period) of 99 million million years excavated in a mine in Myanmar.

Bee was found

Apicula discs; The bee carries four beetle tringulins. Image by George Poiner Jr. College of Science, Oregon State University. The bee is an important component in the history of the development and diversification of flowering plants (angiosperms). The vast majority of bees depend on pollen, nectar, oil, wax, aromas and resins of flowering plants for adult and larval nutrition, sexual attraction and nest building. Bees develop from apoid wasps, which are carnivorous.

Bee was found in Burmese Amber

However, not much is known about the change of wasps as they did with the changes in the diet. The newly described primitive bee is so unique that Professor Ponier decided to establish a new genus and family (Discosapidae) for her. Called Discoscopa apicula, the ancient insect is a small, dark, mostly hairless bee, collecting pollen. It shares features with modern bees with plum hair.

A round pronothal lobe and a pair of spurs on the posterior tibia and also has very short antennae sockets and some features of the wing veins, such as the apoid wasp. There is something unique in the new family that has not been found in the apoid wasp or in any extinct or extinct lineage of bees, a bifurcated rape, said Professor Ponnar. The fossil record of bees is very vast.

Burmese Amber

But most are from the last 65 million years and look like modern bees. Similar fossils in this study can inform us about the changes of some wasps, as they became palnivores, pollen eaters. Pollen in Burmese amber in the femur of the hind leg of Apicula Discospa captures the pollen with surrounding pollen particles. The insert shows branches in the hair.

The unique female specimen of Apicula Discosapa is located on the edge of a small piece of amber. Specimens from a mine first excavated in 2001 include beetle parasites in the Hukwang Valley southwest of Mingkhwan in the Kachin state of Myanmar. Pollen particles in its legs suggest that the bee had recently visited one or more flowers.

bee

Additional evidence that the fossil bee had visited the flowers contains 21 beetle tringulins (larvae) on a single piece of amber that feeds on the bee’s larvae and their provisions. A food for the honeycomb to feed on of the food left by the female. We stopped the trip, said Professor Ponar. It is certainly possible that a large number of Tringulin bees accidentally flew into resin.

Trapped in 99 million year old Amber, a pollen beetle from Pillford. The discovery is one of the strongest pieces of evidence in the fossil record that pests pollinated prehistoric bicycles. A plant that preceded flowering plants. A middle Cretaceous beetle had a hairy cavity at the base of its market, known as Cycles. A middle Cretaceous beetle had a hairy cavity at the base of its market, known as Cycles.

Bees and butterflies

Bees and butterflies are praised for their pollination skills. But millions of years ago, once they played with a flower, beetles were one of the world’s prepollinators. Among the large number of prehistoric plants that helped fertilize were cycads, which look like a mix between palm trees and ferns, although they are more closely related to pine trees.

They have thick socks, pineapple-shaped cones, and are topped with leaves like feathers. The researchers learned from studies of modern cycles that were pollinated by beetles. Now, for the first time, paleontologists are trapped in Myanmar amber, a 99 million-year-old beetle protected from a cyclone with sharp pollen. He made his discovery Thursday in a magazine called Current Biology.

beetles have a small cavity

“Discovering this ancient relationship is like a dream come true,” said Chenyang Kai, a researcher at the University of Bristol in England. Dr. Cai started studying amber when researching in China. Trapped inside was an insect two millimeters high, known as a boganyd beetle. These beetles have a small cavity that is filled with fur at the base of their mandi that acts as a pocket for collecting pollen.

Cycad image of preserved amber pollen granules found in Myanmar. Crushed pollen granules preserved in amber found in Myanmar. When he finished cutting, trampling, and polishing the amber. Drs. Kai essentially had a biological sample placed on a gold glass slide. He placed the fossil under a microscope and examined it at a magnification of 400 times.

There he found a mandatory pocket of beetles and surprisingly, he saw dozens of pollen, some pressed against beetles and clusters. I was very excited. I just wanted to know what pollen was, said Dr. Cai. It is not in the beetle’s body, but it is very close to the beetle and part of its mouth, they said. He said the pollen may have once been in the beetle, but it may have stopped since it combined with the tree’s resin.

 

Bee was found in Burmese Amber
Bee was found

Dr. Cai contacted Liqin Li, who studies ancient pollen at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and is a paper author. Looking at the long grooves in the oval grain, Drs. Lee identified the pollen as an ancient cyclone. Although scientists in Spain previously found the beetle and pollen preserved together in amber from a separate tank. The researchers were unsure whether the pollen came from the bikes or from the ginkgo plant.

male/ female flowers

The authors of the new article also discovered that the closest living relative of the ancient beetle is that of Australia, which also contaminates cycas. A wide view of the beetle, with preserved pollen granules, appears in the lower left. A wide view of the beetle, with preserved pollen granules, appears in the lower left. Unlike most flowering plants, cycus has different male and female flowers (plants).

When a beetle flies into the cone of a male plant, looking for a place to eat pollen or lay its eggs, it brushes against the pollen. Then, while visiting dozens of other cyclases, you can be in a female cycad and distribute that pollen. It is inadvertently and innocently pollinating the plant, said Michael Engel. A paleontologist at the University of Kansas and a paper writer.

It works well

The plant pollinates and feeds on the insect. Although this piece of amber is 99 million years old. Drs. Cai and Dr. Engel feel that this provides a snapshot of the pollination process that may be older, possibly dating back to the Triassic period. If so, this could mean that beetles were pollinating plants a hundred million years before butterflies and bees were the first pollinated flowers.

Which must have happened about 130 million years ago. Insects and plants are the two main titles in our world,” said Dr. Engel said. The intimate love-hate relationship between these two giants of diversity over time is an important story, and this fossil is just one component

Dolphins larger than the oligocene epoch were fast swimming apex predators. Paleontologists have found and described the first almost complete skeleton of Ankilorhiza bandhmani. A large extinct dolphin that lived about 24 million years ago (it was from the Oligocene). Restoration of the life of an Ankylorhiza bandhamani pod.

Dolphins larger than the oligocene epoch

With a body length of 4.8 m (15.7 ft), Ankilorhiza was the largest member of the Odontoceti (toothed whale) group during the bandedani odigosin. A form not crossed by sperm whales until early Mioenne. The extinct animal was first described in the 19th century with a large, fragmented skull. The first skeleton was discovered by the Charleston Albert Sanders Museum’s natural history curator in the 1970s.

Dolphins

The nearly complete skeleton analyzed in the new study was found by commercial paleontologist Mark Havenstein in South Carolina in the 1990s. It was later purchased by private fossil collector Mess Brown and then donated to the Mess Brown Museum of Natural History in the College of Charleston. The samples include a well-preserved skull, a vertebral column, a ribase and a fin.

The discovery is significant, as it is one of the first skeletons found by a very early member of the toothed whale (dolphins, porpoises, and sperm whales) and shortly after they arrived at the whale about 35–36 million years ago. Dr A Paleontologist in the Charleston College Department of Geology and Environmental Geology. Robert Boseneker.

cylinder whales & dolphins

What is very important is the evolutionary position as a very early dolphin. Most early dolphins are known only to skulls, so having a finned skeleton and most vertebrates gives us unprecedented insight into the development of adaptation to swimming. That unprecedented window surprisingly told us that cylinder whales and dolphins have many similarities due to convergent evolution since their evolutionary division 35 million years ago.

The skeletal ligament of Ankylorhiza and Drs. Boessenecker.

The Ankylorhiza tympani skeleton shows some adaptation to swimming faster than other small dolphins, but it also shows many primitive characteristics. These primitive characteristics are surprising because paleontologists and biologists have long believed that many adaptations for rapid swimming in cylinder whales and toothed whales were ancient adaptations shared in the past 35 million years by their shared heritage, said Dr Bosenecker said.

whales & dolphins

Instead of the level at which the whales and dolphins independently reach the same general swimming adaptation, these traits that once developed in the common ancestor of both groups startled us, he said. Examples include narrowing the tail stock, increasing the number of tail vertebrae, and shortening the humerus (upper arm bone) in the fin.

This is not evident in the different lineages of seals and sea lions, for example, that evolved into different swimming methods and have very different looking skeletons. This is such that the addition of additional finger bones to the fin and blocking of the elbow joint has forced the dominant group of both cetanes to have a similar evolutionary path in terms of locomotives.

dolphin Squalodon developed

Various lines of evidence suggest that Ankoekiza Bandhanmani was a superior hunter in the community in which she lived. The species very clearly took advantage of a body with a large body like an orca and is the first echolocation whale to become a superior predator. When Ankylorhiza bandamani went extinct about 23 million years ago. The killer sperm whale and the shark-toothed dolphin Squalodon developed and reopened the niche within 5 million years.

The last sperm whale died about 5 million years ago, with the development of killer whales about 1 or 2 million years ago, leaving the niche open until the ice age. Whales and dolphins have a complex and long evolutionary history, and at a glance, you may not get this notion of modern species, Drs. Bosenecker said.

Journal Current Biology

The fossil record has actually opened up this long and winding path of development, and fossils like Ankilorhiza bandhimani help illuminate how it happened. The findings were published in the Journal Current Biology. An extinct giant dolphin looked more like an orca, according to the study. Now researchers have confirmed that an ancient dolphin that lived in the oligosine era, 33.9 million to 23 million years ago.

It was the first Sitas (a type) to use underwater to navigate underwater and play the role. apex predator. It was a mammal), very similar to the present. Echolocation allows dolphins to “see” through sound. They do this by making calls to detect distant objects in the water, then explain the echoes of those objects’ sound waves. The skeleton helps you fill in the gaps in the evolutionary narratives of marine mammals returning to the sea.

Cittacia is a sequence of mammals that includes dolphins, whales, and porpoises. Odontocetes, or toothed whales, are a sequence of cetaceans that have dolphins, purposes, and other whale teeth, like teeth, like sperm whales. The specimen called Ankilorhiza bandhmani was partially discovered in rock formations in South Carolina, a study published Thursday in the Journal Biology.

ecological status

Its 15-foot-long body shape, a short, strong muzzle, the texture of its teeth. The formation of vertebrates indicate that Ankolorhiza was the first odontocetate predator that could eat small and large-bodied prey and swim compared to other whales. Initially it indicates that it was destined to become extinct to fulfill the same ecological status as the killer whales.

We see the same pattern in the fossil record of land carnivores, said Anthony Frisia. An associate assistant for integrated biology and psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles, who was not part of the study. For example, you see that it produces a “cat-like” predator many times before cats receive modern radiation.

The repeated development of a similar ecology is the basis of many of these studies on how long-term evolution works.

How a rare skeleton was discovered?

The rarity of oligosine-era whale skeletons has hampered research efforts to understand the evolution of modern whale engines powered by their fins (tails). But controlled by their forelimbs, according to the study. he said. We had been waiting for those fossils for decades, said Olivier Lambert, director of the history of Earth and Life and the development of the Paleobiosphere at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences.

Lambert was not involved in the investigation. The raptor baby discovered in Alaska may be a permanent resident of the ancient Arctic. Skeletons suggested that the characteristics associated with its fins and locomotives may have developed as little as 35 million years ago. Which was the last guess Koathor Robert Boesenecker, researcher said.

Department of Biology

Associate and assistant instructor in the Department of Biology and Environmental Geosciences at the College of Charleston in South Carolina. If you are a mammal or a reptile attacking the water, there are only a few things you can do to develop efficient swimming and those same characteristics have repeatedly evolved in different groups.

Bosenecker explained, “In this case, they also continued to develop in parallel lineages with the common lineage. In the 1880s, a partial snout of the dolphin, a toothed whale in the Odonocetti group, was recovered during a refreshment of the Wando River in South Carolina. The first dolphin skeleton was discovered in the 1970s by Albert Sanders, the then-late Natural History curator of the Charleston Museum Bunting.

Museum of Natural History

Another nearly complete skeleton, described in the current study, was unearthed in the 1990s, when paleontologist Mark Havenstein found it through the construction of a subdivision of housing in South Carolina. It was then donated to the Mess Brown Museum of Natural History for later study. But classified as belonging to squalodone, an extinct genus of whales, called the misclassification by the study researchers.

He saw the skeletons up close in 2015, after being hired by the museum to study these fossils by Boseneker. The skeleton was not widely known in the research community until Squalodon was in the genus, he said, but neither had done definitive research to explain it.

Parallel Evolution

The researchers also wanted to determine why and how toothed cylinder whales evolved. They found that the options that come with the dolphin skeleton are beyond its neck. Which includes modern baleen and toothy whales, although similar characteristics may develop in different similar aquatic environments.

Echolocation development

Ankylorhiza was the first ecological whale to become a top predator due to a joint pair that allowed a resistance range similar to that of a modern killer whale, Bosenacker said. Ankilorija had large teeth with thick roots that could strengthen teeth against fractures while shaking small parts because he didn’t have a molar, said Bosinecker, who does it with the killer whale seal.

Boesenecker said..the Dolphin insulating tusk is likely to rub other animals with its teeth. It is difficult, but modern dolphins put the ram in and kill them, said Bosenecker. This ancient dolphin went extinct about 23 million years ago, with shark-toothed dolphins and giant sperm whales evolving to occupy the position of Ankilorhiza in 5 million years.

the development of killer whales

The teeth of the giant sperm whales were massive and possibly prey to small species of whales, while today’s sperm whales feed on giant squid. The killer sperm whale surpassed about 5 million years ago, about 2 million years ago. The ecological space was open before the development of killer whales during the ice age.

There are many other rare and unique early dolphins and baleen whales from the Oligocene reef in Charleston, South Carolina, Boesenecker said in a press release. Because the oligocene era is the time when filter feeding and echolocation first evolved and since marine mammal tracts from that era are rare worldwide, Charleston fossils provide the window more complete for the early development of these groups.

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Lungfish In South Africa, A New Genus And Species

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Lungfish in South Africa
Lungfish

Lungfish in South Africa – The 365 million-year-old Lungfish was discovered in South Africa, a new genus and species of lung that lived about 365 years ago. A new genus and species of lungfish has been identified that lived about 365 million years ago. The Phenian phase of the late Devonian period) from fossils found in South Africa. Lungfish (Dipnoi subclass) is a group of fish dating back to the early Devonian period, dating from the early Devonian period 410 million years ago.

Lungfish

They reached a peak of diversity and abundance throughout the Devonian, with 100 species described in that period of time. It is known that more than 25 species originated in the waters of eastern Gondwan (Australia) and others live in the tropical and subtropical temperate waters of China and Morocco.

The newly discovered species represents the only lame record of the late Devonian of West Gondwana (South America and Africa). Called Istimazi Mezomode, the ancient creature is also the only known lame fish from the Witport Formation in South Africa.

It was discovered that Isityumzi mlomomde was about 10,000 km from the previous species described in Morocco and is of interest because it was present at a high latitude (70 south) or polar atmosphere at that time, said Dr. Alice Clement, Flinders biologist, said she is the author of an article published in the university and in Peerage magazine.

Lungfish in South Africa

Dental plates, scales and two parasithenoids of Isityumzi mlomomde (a bone in the skull of several vertebrae) dr. They were found between 1999 and 2017 by Robert Gess, paleontologist at the University of Rhodes. The Albany Museum and the University of Wits, and co-author of the article.

thriving ecosystem

This lung content is important for several reasons, explained Dr. Clement. First, it represents the only lame of the late Devonian known from western Gondwana. During this period, about 372–359 million years ago, South Africa was next to the South Pole.

 The second is that the Mezimade Isimazi lives in a thriving ecosystem and indicating that the region was not as cold as the polar regions of today. Animals are still subject to long periods of winter darkness, very different from the freshwater habitat in which Lungfish live today when only six known species of lungs live in Africa, South America and Australia.

A new genus and species of lungfish

A 365 million-year-old lungfish was detected in South Africa. A new genus and species of lungfish has been identified that lived about 365 million years ago (the Fenian phase of the late Devonian period) from fossils found in South Africa. Illustration of melomomed istisumzi (bottom right) and other fauna from the late Devonian freshwater ecosystem, including the early Anzantsia tetrapod.

Lungfish (Dipnoi subclass) is a group of fish dating back to the early Devonian period 410 million years ago, with origins dating back to the early Devonian period. They reached a peak of diversity and abundance throughout the Devonian, with 100 species described in that time period. More than 25 species are known to have originated in the eastern waters of Gondwan (Australia) and others live in the temperate tropical and subtropical waters of China and Morocco.

lame fish from South Africa

The newly discovered species represents the only record for the late Devonian of western Gondwana (South America and Africa). Called Istimazi Mezomode, the ancient creature is also the only known lame fish from South Africa’s Witport Formation. Isityumzi mlomomde was found to be about 10,000 km from the previous species described in Morocco, and is of interest because it was present in a high latitude (70 south) or polar atmosphere at that time, said Dr. Alice Clement.

Flinders gynecologist, is the author of an article published in the university and the magazine Peerage. Isityumzi mlomomde tooth plates, scales, and two parasphenoids (a bone in the skull of several vertebrae), Drs. They were found between 1999 and 2017 by Robert Gess, co-author of the University of Rhodes, the Albany Museum and the University of Wits, and the newspaper. This lung content is important for several reasons, explained Dr. Clement.

A thriving ecosystem

First, it represents the only late Devonian lame known from western Gondwana. During this period, about 372–359 million years ago, South Africa was located next to the South Pole. The second thing is that the Isimazi Mezomode lives in a thriving ecosystem. Indicating that the region was not as cold as the current polar regions. The animal would still have been subjected to a long period of winter darkness.

discovered in South Africa

So different from the freshwater habitat in which the lame live today when only six known lung species live in Africa, South America and Australia. The 365-million-year-old lungfish was discovered in South Africa. A new genus and lung species that lived about 365 years ago. Fossils found in South Africa have identified a new lung gene and species that lived about 365 million years ago.

The Fenian phase of the late Devonian period. Lungfish (Dipnoi subclass) are a group of fish that dates back to the early Devonian period, from the early Devonian period to 410 million years ago. They reached a peak of diversity and abundance throughout the Devonian, with 100 species described during that time period.

eastern Gondwan Australia

More than 25 species are known to originate in the waters of eastern Gondwan Australia and others live in tropical and subtropical temperate waters of China and Morocco. Dental plates, scales and two Mlmomed isitumzi paracentioids. They were found between 1999 and 2017 by paleontologist Robert Gess of the University of Rhodes.

South Africa was next to the South Pole

Albany Museum and Wits University, and co-authors of the article. This lung content is important for several reasons, Dr. Clement explained. First, it represents the only known Late Devonian lame in western Gondwana. During this period, about 372,359 million years ago, South Africa was next to the South Pole.

The second is that Mezimde Ismazi lives in a thriving ecosystem and it shows that the region was not as cold as today’s polar regions. Animals are still subject to prolonged winter darkness, very different from the freshwater habitat lungfish live in today, when only six known species of lungs live in Africa, South America and Australia.

Lungfish in South Africa
Lungfish

Representation of meltomomed istisumzi (bottom right) and other organisms of the late Devonian freshwater ecosystem, including early Angentia tetrapods. The lungfish (Dipnoi subclass) is a group of fish dating back to the early Devonian period 410 million years ago. Which originated in the early Devonian period! They reached a peak of diversity and abundance throughout the Devonian, with 100 species described during that time period.

newly discovered species

More than 25 species are known to have originated in the eastern waters of Gondwan (Australia) and others live in tropical and subtropical temperate waters of China and Morocco. The newly discovered species represents the only late Devonian record from western Gondwana (South America and Africa). Called istimazi mejomod, the ancient creature is also the only known lame fish from the Witport Formation in South Africa.

Dr. Ellis Clement stated that the Istiumzi myelomode was found about 10,000 km from the previous species described in Morocco, and it is interesting because it was present at a high latitude (70 south) or in a polar environment. Flinders is a gynecologist, author of an article published in the university and in Peerage magazine. Isityumzi mlomomde dental plaque, scales, and two paracephalynoids (one bone in the skull of various vertebrae), Drs.

lung species live in Africa

It was found between 1999 and 2017 by co-author from Rhodes University, the Albany Museum, and Wits University and newspaper co-author Robert Gess. This lung content is important for several reasons, Dr. Clement explained. First, it represents the only known late Damonian lunge in western Gondwana. During this period, about 372,359 million years ago, South Africa was adjacent to the South Pole.

The second thing is that Isimazi Mejomode lives in a thriving ecosystem. This indicates that the region was not as cold as the current polar regions. The animal is still subject to a long period of winter darkness, so different from the freshwater habitat the lame man lives in today, when only six known lung species live in Africa, South America and Australia.

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Baby dinosaurs found in Australia

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Baby dinosaurs found in Australia.
Baby dinosaurs found

Baby dinosaurs found in Australia. A baby dinosaur the size of a palm has been unearthed: UNE researchers have identified the first fossil remains of a baby dinosaur found in Australia. Researchers have discovered Australia’s first baby dinosaur. The bones were discovered at various sites along the southern coast of Victoria and near the outlying town of Lightning Ridge in New South Wales.

Baby dinosaurs found

Some bones are so small that they probably came from animals that died while in their eggs. Victoria’s slightly larger bones come from animals that were born recently but were probably nest-bound. The research was conducted by paleontologists from the University of New England Paleoscience Research Center and the Australian Opal Center at Lightning Ridge.

The bones come from small-bodied, herbivorous, two-legged ornithopod dinosaurs weighing around 20 kg, similar to those of Weaverrasaurus, which was recently discovered by members of the same team at Lightning Ridge. By comparison, baby dinosaurs weighed only 200 grams when they died, less than the weight of a cup of water.

Baby dinosaurs

While the eggs were not found, the researchers used growth rings in the bones, similar to rings in tree trunks, to estimate the age of the animals. Age is generally estimated by counting growth rings, but we couldn’t do this with our two youngest specimens, which had lost their intrinsic detail,” said Justin Kitchener, a Ph.D. It is said that. a student at the University of New England, who also led the study.

To avoid this, we compared the size of these bones to the size of the growth rings of Victorian dinosaurs. This comparison safely places them at an early stage of development, probably before or around hatching. Information on climate change during the origins of dinosaurs recommended for you.

fossils

100 million years ago, when these animals were born, Australia was very close to the poles. Southeastern Australia may have been between 60 ° S and 70 ° S, which is the equivalent of modern Greenland. Although the climate in these latitudes was relatively warmer than it is today, like some Antarctic penguins, these dinosaurs must have endured long, dark winters and probably buried or hibernated to survive.

Because they are so fragile, the eggshell and small bones rarely survive to be fossilized. “We have examples of hatch-size dinosaurs near the North Pole, but this is the first time we’ve seen anything like this anywhere in the southern hemisphere,” says Dr. Phil Bell.

A New England paleontologist who works on Lightning. Ridge. He acknowledges the importance of small bones from “This is the first clue we have as to where these animals reproduced and raised.” The study was published today in the journal Scientific Reports.

Baby dinosaurs found in Australia

The fossils provide the first evidence of Australian perinatal dinosaurs and, more broadly, the first ideas about the high latitudinal reproduction preferences of non-iguanodonian ornithopods in Gondwana. Paleontologists discover fossilized remains of baby ornithopod dinosaurs in Australia.

Paleontologists have unearthed the bones of 100 million-year-old non-Iguanodonian perinatal ornithopods (Cretaceous period) in the Griman Creek Formation in north-central New South Wales, Australia. The recently studied fossils are from small-body ornithopod dinosaur species similar to Waversaurus pobenii.

Baby dinosaur

To estimate the age of the people, the researchers used dinosaur bone growth rings similar to tree trunk rings. Age is usually calculated by counting growth rings, but we couldn’t do it with our two younger samples that had lost their interior details, said Justin Kitchener, University of the Environment and Rural PhD student at the New Science School England.

To avoid this, we have compared the size of these bones with the size of the growth rings of Victorian dinosaurs. This comparison puts them in a stage of confidence development, perhaps hatching before or around. About 100 million years ago, when these dinosaurs were born, Australia was closer to the South Pole.

dinosaurs shaped

Southeast Australia would have been between 60 ° S and 70 ° S, which is equivalent to modern Greenland, the scientists explained. Although the weather in these latitudes was relatively warm, compared to the current one, like some Antarctic penguins, these dinosaurs would have suffered long dark winters and would probably be buried or hibernated to survive.

Because they are so fragile, eggshells and small bones rarely become fossils. We have examples of dinosaurs shaped near the North Pole, but this is the first time we see this kind of thing anywhere in the southern hemisphere, said Dr. Phil Bell, paleontologist at the Faculty of Environment and Rural Sciences.

dinosaurs from Australia

From the University of New England and “this is the first clue that we know where these animals reproduced and raised their young.” The findings appear in the journal Scientific Reports. Small fossils are first called baby dinosaurs from Australia The discovery suggests that dinosaurs reproduced near the South Pole. An artist inspired a mother to visit her nest that represents onitopod dinosaurs.

A collection of small fossil bones of the thigh. Only 2.5 centimeters in length, are the first remains of baby dinosaurs found in Australia. Discovered in the eastern states of New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria, the bones belonged to the flesh of a child small enough to sit in the palm of the hand. As Australia was much farther south than 100 million years ago, when these babies roamed their nests.

embryonic dinosaurs

They are also evidence that dinosaurs reproduced in the southern polar environment within the Antarctic Circle. The discovery provides evidence that dinosaurs were remarkably weather tolerant, ranging from equatorial to polar latitudes. The authors of a letter write in the scientific report. The fossils of New South Wales. From the city of Lightning Ridge, were so small that they could relate to embryonic dinosaurs that weighed 150 grams and were less than 20 cm in length from head to tail.

bone development

The femur (thigh bone) of an ornithopod dinosaur the size of a Victoria brood compared to an Australian dollar coin. They talked about eggs before or before hatching, says co-author Phil Bell of the University of New England, Australia. The “hatching lines” in the internal structure of the bones of the legs of Dinosaur Cove off the coast of Victoria reveal a change in bone development after the eggs were released.

Indicating that these animals had a few months and weighed up to 230 grams. They were the ones. These children were young men of wallaby-shaped dinosaurs called ornithopods that walked on two legs and talked to cultivate. They can live in packs, and until scientists can be sure of what specific species these children belong to, they will be animals like Waversaurus from Lightning Ridge, or Beluvoresaurus or Galilenosaurus from Victoria, Bell says.

many dinosaur fossils

At this time in the Cretaceous period, Victoria was well within the Antarctic Circle, and Greenland today is as equidistant from the South Pole as it is from the North Pole. Although the world was still warm. There were months of complete darkness and possible cold in winter.

While many dinosaur fossils with feathers have been found, which could have been useful for polar isolation. So far there is little evidence of feathers in the group of ornithopods. According to Bell, these dinosaurs in particular were “probably with scaly skin, which means they were exposed to the elements.”

They were too young to emigrate and could not leave these polar places in the middle of winter, so we had to find another way to tolerate the conditions. It is possible that eggs and babies have been kept in nests surrounded by flora that produces manure to generate heat.

evidence in North America

As we see today in crocodiles and some birds. They argue that another way in which these dinosaurs would have protected themselves was by trafficking in the heat of the hamburger, a behavior that we have evidence in North America. We found the ornithopod skeletons and their young in their bastions, so it seems to be a viable way to deal with the harsh conditions of Australia, Bell said.

Anthony Fiorillo, paleontologist at the Perrott Museum of Nature and Science in Dallas, USA UU. Who studies Arctic dinosaurs, says it is ultimately exciting for Australian baby dinosaurs. It is known that Australia has one of the best polar dinosaur records. But the question in the south has been very similar to the question in the answer: did those dinosaurs live in the polar region all year? He says.

environments

Although some research has argued that Arctic dinosaurs migrate to warmer climates during the winter months like the Caribou today. The new findings from Australia add to a growing consensus that dinosaurs in a wide variety of environments adapted. and some dinosaurs were cured. The most extreme environments of the highest latitudes, says Fitillo. It is a miracle that we have these fossils.

Fact Bell’s team only found thigh bones, as they were the largest and strongest among children’s skeletons and, therefore, were more likely to be preserved as fossils. The bones of these little animals around the world are incredibly rare because they are so small and fragile, he says. Many never become fossils, so this is a very unique view of this particular group of dinosaurs.

New dinosaurs discovered in Australia

Paleontologists in Australia have found a fossil vertebrate elafrosaurine theropod dinosaur that entered Earth 110 million years ago (the Cretaceous period). It is the first known elfrosaur from the Australian continent. Reconstruction of the life of the first Australian elf. The newly discovered dinosaurs belong to the Elfrosaurinae, which are known from the late Jurassic period in Africa and Asia and from the late Cretaceous period in Argentina.

“Elfrosaurus were strange-looking dinosaurs: they ran low on the ground on two legs, with a thin body, long necks, rough arms and a delicate toothless skull,” said Dr. Tim Ziegler said the museum is the administrator of the Vertebrate Biology Collection in Victoria. They began to eat a wide variety of foods, but they also shed their teeth as they aged. Elfrosaurs are rare among theropods because the adults had a diet based on plants rather than prey.

elaphrosaur fossil

The young elfrosaurs may have succumbed to little monotheism along with the insects and fruits. The 110-million-year-old neck column of the Australian elfrosaur. Scale bar – 10 mm. Credit: Stephen Poropat, Victoria Museum. In 2015, the Elaf the Red West site, part of New York’s Cape Otway, is a nearly complete neck vertebra of the New Elaphosaur, near Cape Otway, Victoria, by Dreaming dinosaur volunteer Jessica Parker.

This is the first record of Elphrosaurine from Australia and only the second Cretaceous record of the group in the entire world. Together with the recently described dinosaur Huinculosaurus montaceae, the new elfrosaur extends the records of Elaphrosaurina by more than 40 million years. “New discoveries like this elaphrosaur fossil overturn previous ideas and help explain the yet undiscovered discoveries,” Dr. Ziegler said. This discovery is reported in an article in the Gondwana Research Journal.

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A 300-Million-Year-Old Tree Was An Orderly Line Of Vertebrae

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A lizard-like dinosaur fossil may represent evidence of animal husbandry from 306 million years ago
A lizard-like dinosaur fossil

A lizard-like dinosaur fossil may represent evidence of animal husbandry from 306 million years ago. An artist’s illustration of Dendromia anamakiensis, a 310-million-year-old terrestrial vertebrate that resembled a modern monitor lizard. The first fossil was so surprising that Brian Hebert almost missed the second.

dinosaur fossil

Trapped in the stump of a 300-million-year-old tree was an orderly line of vertebrae that sprouted a series of delicate, slender ribs. A chunk of abdominal scales extended into the space below, giving way to a pelvis and a pair of beautiful thigh bones. These were the earliest known remains of Dendromia anamakiensis, one of the earliest land vertebrates that likely resembled a foot-long monitor lizard.

“I can close my eyes and remember it like it was yesterday,” says Hebert, an amateur fossil hunter who stumbled upon the tree in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia in 2017. It was three-dimensional right in front of my face. Then Hebert saw another set of bones that stopped him cold: a short skull an inch long, wedged in where a left femur met a pubic bone. This skull, Hebert realized, belonged to an adolescent, who may have been his mother, turned against him.

fossil

Dendromia unmakiensis fossils were recovered from a tree trunk in 2017. The juvenile’s skull can be seen just above the left femur in panel b near the lower right corner. (Madin et al., Nature Ecology and Evolution, 2019). Hebert did not know this at the time, but what he found would soon become the key piece of evidence in an article published today in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, arguing that parental care, in offspring after birth, is an investment resource. 306 million years.

Dinosaur Fossils

Many of today’s amniotes, a group that includes mammals, birds, and reptiles, infest their young. While the evolutionary strategy is expensive, it increases the likelihood that an animal’s offspring will be successful, and fatherhood is often viewed by researchers as a characteristic of more modern animals. But this ancient pair of fossils, dating back to the pre-dinosaur era.

When our egg-laying ancestors first crawled ashore, suggests that the origins of this feeding behavior lie much deeper in this branch of the tree of life.

We tend to think of animals from [this part of the] past as ‘primitive’ or ‘simple’, says Jackie Lungmus, a vertebrate paleontologist at the University of Chicago who was not involved in the study. But they deserve more credit. Even then … these animals were probably doing a lot of what animals still do today.

dinosaur egg fossil

Even before he left the stump, Hebert, who had been scouring the Nova Scotia landscape looking for fossils since childhood, knew that he had discovered something great. To confirm the find, he recruited paleontologists Hilary Madin and Arjan Mann, who brought the bones to his laboratory at Carleton University in Ottawa for further analysis.

Under the microscope, the nature of the fossils was unmistakable, says Mann. They were related to two individuals of the same species, one fully developed and the other young, and presented the distinctive characteristics of the varianopids, an extinct family of pre-mammalian ancestors with reptilian characteristics that lived about 300 million years ago. But the adult looked different enough from her relatives to earn his own gender name: Dendromia, or “mother in the tree.”

dinosaur skin fossil

Excellent preservation of the fossils indicated that the pair had died suddenly, likely during a storm that filled their squat hideaway with suffocating sediment, preserving their final moments in the freeze frame. Wrapped between the adult’s tail and hind leg, the tiny specimen appeared to be deliberately protected from harm. “It seemed like orderly behavior,” says Madin, who found it hard not to think of a protective mother raising her child.

Mann, her graduate student, casually joked that she found “the earliest evidence of parental care.” He meant it as a joke, but his words reminded Madin of a similar fossil discovered a decade earlier in South Africa: a Heliosaurus specimen that had been around four juveniles during the Permian 260 million years ago with its tail, died together. Although separated by about 45 million years, both fossils were Varanopids and both appear to have become extinct, harboring their younger versions.

American Museum of Natural History

Researchers documenting the Heliosaurus discovery had pinpointed the remains as a possible family group, leading Mann and Madin to be more confident that they would have stumbled upon something similar and older. Mann didn’t hit the nail on the head, but on a viable hypothesis: From their earliest days, Viranopids may have prioritized parenting. Some researchers have previously presented even older evidence of parental care in invertebrates, but dendromia may represent the earliest known example of an amniotic parent caring for live young.

Without a time machine, researchers would not be able to know exactly what these animals were doing at the time of death. After all, clear behavioral evidence “is not something that is preserved in rocks,” says Stephanie Drumheller-Horton, a vertebrate paleontologist at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, who was not involved in the study. For example, it is possible that the two dendromias were not a family unit, but rather two unrecognized refugees seeking safe haven from a severe storm.

Similar Pow-wahs between unrelated adults and juveniles have previously been observed in the fossil record, explains Eva Hoffman, a vertebrate paleontologist at the American Museum of Natural History who was not involved in the study. Even the wraparound tail doesn’t guarantee anything – maybe they were both tight on space. Until more examples of possible parent-child associations emerge, some caution may be warranted, Hoffman says.

oldest evidence of domestication

But Drumheller-Horton believes that a mother living with her child remains the most likely explanation. The location of the fossils was also unlikely to be tentative. These delicate bones would not have been shed in a primate configuration if Dendromia and Heliosaurus were indeterminate parents, says Madin, which tells us that this behavior may have been present in a common ancestor of this group.

Perhaps paleontologists have yet to discover the oldest loving moms and dads in the lineage. Whatever its origins, breeding and its advantages are clearly stagnant. In many ways, it’s a sensible strategy, says Mann. By carrying their children early in life, ancient animals helped ensure their survival and continued persistence for generations to come.

The 309-million-year-old lizard-like fossil is the oldest evidence of domestication. Artist’s impression of Dendromaia unamakiensis. More than 300 million years ago, during the Carboniferous period, Nova Scotia was a subtropical swamp dominated by lycopeids, an ancient moss-like plant. In the hollowed-out stump of one of these lycopeids, an adult lizard-like creature and its young made their lair.

astonishing discovery

Until a severe storm flooded the area with sediment. The tragic event killed the creatures, but also trapped the pair on each other’s necks in the process, the oldest example of a creature caring for its young that scientists have found so far. The astonishing discovery was made in 2017 by Brian Hebert, a local fossil enthusiast who got in touch with Hilary Maddin, an assistant professor at Carleton University in Canada. The two recently published an article describing the new species, known as Dendromia anamakiensis.

The name is derived from the ancient Greek words’ tree ‘and’ mother ‘and Mi’kmaq’ is the name of the indigenous people of the Cape Breton island where the fossil was found. According to the researchers, the species is a viranopid, an extinct family of amniotes that resemble monitor lizards, which are said to be an early lineage of some mammals.

Fossils of adults and young of Dendromaia unamakiensis; The latter can be seen in the image on the right, near the lower right corner. Image credit: sci-news.com. Dendromaia adults did not exceed 20 cm from the tip of the snout to the base of the tail. Behind the hind legs of the adult and flanking its tail is the fossilized skull of a juvenile of the same species.

phylogenetic similarity

This side-by-side position suggests that if the adult had been a parent, it would be a great coincidence for the two creatures, an adult and a youngster, to die and fossilize together at random. In fact, this would make the 309-million-year-old fossil the oldest evidence of parental care, dating back 40 million years earlier than previously thought.

“This sample adds to the growing evidence that parental care was more widespread among Paleozoic synapsids than previously thought and also provides data that allow the identification of potential ontogeny-dependent traits within veranopids, the effects of which may vary between groups. ” of phylogenetic similarity, “the authors wrote in their study.

Although it is impossible for researchers to draw definitive conclusions about such complex behavior from the fossil record, the evidence is very strong that adults and young people interacted. Today, many birds, mammals, and lizards spend considerable time and resources protecting, raising, and raising their young.

In some species, especially social animals, parenting can be incredibly demanding, as adults invest heavily in teaching their young to feed. For example, humans are born completely defenseless in this world and depend on their parents to survive. We see many ancient animals as primitive. However, this fossil pairing shows that even then the creatures that preceded the dinosaurs behaved in many ways like modern animals.

Lizard Fossils Tucked Into The Trunk Of A 300 Million-Year-Old Tree Was An Orderly Line. Lizard fossils may represent evidence of animal husbandry of 306 million years. Shortly after the transition from sea to land, our ancestors who lay eggs must have started raising their young.

Artistic representation of Dendromaya anamkensis a 310 million-year-old vertebrate that lives on earth and looks like a modern monitor lizard, with its offspring (Henry Sharp) represented here. The first fossil was so surprising that Brian Hebert almost missed the second.

A lizard-like dinosaur fossil

Tucked into the trunk of a 300 million-year-old tree was an orderly line of vertebrae, which encompassed a series of delicate and sensitive ribs. A piece of abdominal scales covered the space below, paving the way for a pelvis and a pair of beautiful thigh bones.

These were the first known remains of Dendromaya unmikinesis, a vertebrate that inhabited the Earth and probably resembled a long-standing monitor lizard. “I can close my eyes and remember it as if it were yesterday,” says Hasbert, who happened in a tree in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia in 2017.

fossil recovered from the trunk

It was three-dimensional just in front of my face. Then, Hebert noticed another set of bones, which left him dead: a small skull an inch long, which was nested in a place where a left femur joined with a pubic bone. This skull, Hebert felt, belonged to a teenager who was probably against his mother. Dendromaya anamkensis fossil recovered from the trunk of a tree in 2017.

The juvenile skull can be seen in panel B, just below the left femur, near the right corner (Madin et al., Nature Ecology and Development, 2021).

Hebert did not know at that time, but what he found would soon become the Prime test in an article published today in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution that states that parental care: investing in offspring after birth Resources – At least 306 million years.

Rich in today’s amniotes, groups that include mammals, birds and reptiles infest their young. While the evolutionary strategy is expensive, it increases the chance that an animal’s progeny will succeed, and researchers believe that breeding is characteristic of modern animals.

paleontologist at the University of Chicago

But this ancient fossil couple, dating back to the pre-dinosaur era, when our ancestors who laid eggs first dragged the ashes, suggests that this nutritional behavior originated much more deeply in this branch of the tree of life. We tend to think of animals [in this part of the past as ‘primitive’ or ‘simple’. says Jackie Lungmus. A vertebrate paleontologist at the University of Chicago, who was not involved in the study.

But they deserve more credit. Still these animals were probably doing a lot of the work that animals still do today. Before leaving Stump, Hebert, who had been looking for fossils in the landscape of Nova Scotia since his childhood, knew that he had discovered something big. To confirm this finding, paleontologists Hilary Madin and Arjan Mann were recruited, who carefully transferred the bones to their laboratory at Carleton University, Ottawa, for a more detailed analysis.

about 300 million years ago

Under the microscope, the fossils were infallible in nature, says Mann. They belonged to two individuals of the same species, one fully developed and the other young, and had the distinctive feature of the extinct family of the pre-mammal ancestor. The varanópidos, with reptile features that lived about 300 million years ago. But adults looked different enough from their relatives to earn their own gender name: Dendromaya, or “mother in the tree.”

The exaggeration of the fossils indicated that the couple had died suddenly. Perhaps during a storm that flooded their strong base, preserving their last moments in the frozen frame. Leaning between the tail and the hind leg of the adult, the small specimen appeared as if it were protecting it from damage. It looks a lot like denying the behavior, says Maddin, who found it difficult not to think of a protective mother who is raising her son.

Nature Ecology & Evolution

A representation of the fossil of Dendromaya anammakensis, labeled in several parts of the anatomy. The juvenile specimen is marked, the position near the adult’s thigh bone (Fe) and the pelvis (Pu). (Madin et al. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 2019). Mann, his graduate student, joked casually that he found “early evidence of parental care.” He joked, but his words reminded Madine of a similar fossil in South Africa a decade ago.

The Hellesorus specimen that was surrounded by four tails during the Permian 260 million years ago, died with a tail. Although separated by some 45 million years, both fossils were varrenopid, and both, apparently, died while harboring smaller versions of themselves. The researchers who documented the Heliosorus had pointed out the remains to Mann and Madine as a possible family group, making them more reliable and older.

zoologist at the University of Tennessee

Mann had attacked not a key phrase, but a viable hypothesis: from its earliest days, Warnopids would have preferred child rearing. Some researchers have also previously presented older evidence of parental care in invertebrates, but dendromaya may represent the first known example of a young father who is a living child. Without the time machine, researchers could not know what these animals were doing at the time of their death.

After all, the behavioral evidence cut in the study “is not something that is preserved in the rocks,” says Stephanie Drumheller-Horton. A vertebrate zoologist at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, who is not participating in the study. For example, it is possible that two Dendromaya are not a family unit, but two unskilled refugees seeking a safe harbor against a storm.

Vertebrate paleontologist Eva Hoffman

Vertebrate paleontologist Eva Hoffman of the American Museum of Natural History, which was not included in the study, points out that similar powers have been seen previously among unrelated adults and adolescents in the fossil record. Even the wrapping tail guarantees nothing: perhaps both had little space. Until more examples of possible associations of parents and children arise, says Hoffman, caution can be exercised.

But Drumheller-Horton believes that a mother who cuddles with her child remains the most likely explanation. Fossil placement was also unlikely to be a coincidence. Bones are not introduced in such intimate settings and if both Dendromaya and Heliosaurus were guardians, “that tells us that this behavior could have existed in a common ancestor of this group,” says Madin. Perhaps paleontologists have yet to discover the most affectionate mothers and fathers.

evolutionary history

Whatever was clearly trapped around its origins, education and its advantages. In many ways, this is a sensible strategy, says Mann. By transporting their children at an early age, ancient animals helped ensure their survival and the continued persistence of generations to come. Parental care is a strategy with a long seniority, he says.

Clearly, it has worked many times in evolutionary history and we should appreciate it. A Carboniferous-period fossil found in Nova Scotia, Canada, shows an ancient creature called the varnopid synopsid (family Varnopidae) caring for its young.

Parental care is a behavioral strategy where parents make an investment or divert resources by themselves to increase their chances of health and survival for their offspring, said paleontologist Professor Hilary Madin and her colleagues at Carlton University And told Funkar Treasures. While there are a variety of parental care strategies, long-term postnatal care is the most expensive for a parent.

history of this behavior

This form of parental care is particularly common in mammals, as all mammalian offspring demand nutrition from their mothers. However, there is still little understanding of the evolutionary history of this behavior. 305 million year old specimen of Dendromaya unmykinesis.

Professor Madin’s team found the remains of an adult creature and an allied juvenile within the stump of a tree tree on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. The specimen not only represents a new species, but also belongs to an entirely new genus Vernopid synapsid. The researchers named the ancient animal Dendromaya namakimenesis.

This is the earliest evidence of long-term postnatal care in a vertex, Professor Madin said. The adult animal appears to hide and protect the juvenile in a den. Today this behavior is very common in mammals. It is interesting to see this animal, leading to mammals on the evolutionary line, displaying this behavior so quickly.

Nature Ecology

This discovery is reported in a paper in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution. Lizard fossils may represent evidence of animal husbandry of 306 million years. The first fossil was so surprising that Brian Hebert almost missed the second. Tucked into the trunk of a 300-million-year-old tree, an orderly line of vertebrae formed, spanning a series of delicate and sensitive ribs.

Space out a piece of abdominal scales, paving the way to a pelvis and a pair of beautiful thigh bones. These were the earliest known remains of Dendromaya unmakinesis, an early land-dwelling vertebrate, possibly similar to a foot-long monitor lizard. In 2017, as it happened in a tree in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Hubert says:

I can close my eyes and remember it like yesterday. Then Hebert saw another set of bones, which left him dead: a small skull an inch long, located where a left femur met a pubic bone. This skull, Hebert felt, belonged to a teenager who was probably against his mother.

evolutionary strategy

Hebert didn’t know it at the time, but what he found soon became the most evidence in an article published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, arguing that parental care, investment of resources in offspring after birth, was scarce. Less than 306 million years old. Rich in today’s amniotes, groups that include mammals, birds, and reptiles infest their young.

While the evolutionary strategy is expensive, it increases the chance that an animal’s progeny will succeed, and breeding is often seen by researchers as a symptom of more modern animals. But this ancient pair of fossils, dating back to the pre-dinosaur era, when our egg-laying predecessors first indicated creeping ashes.

The origin of this nutritional behavior lies much deeper in this branch of the tree of life. We started thinking about animals because it is past as ‘primitive’ or ‘simple’, says Jackie Lungmus. A vertebrate paleontologist at the University of Chicago who was not involved in the study.

paleontologists Hilary Madin

But they are credited for more characters’ characters. Still … these animals were probably doing a lot of the work that animals still do today. Before leaving Stump, Hebert, who had been searching for fossils in the Nova Scotia landscape since childhood, knew that he had discovered something great. To confirm this discovery, they recruited paleontologists Hilary Madin and Arjan Mann.

Who carefully transferred the bones to their laboratory at the University of Ottawa Carton for further analysis. Under the microscope, the fossils were infallible in nature, says Mann. They belonged to two individuals of the same species. One fully developed and the other young, and characterized the identity of the extinct family of the ancient ancestor of mammals, the varanopids, with reptilian features that lived about 300 million years ago.

similar fossil in South Africa

But the adults looked different enough from their relatives to earn their gender name: dendromaya or mother in the tree. The exaggerated preservation of the fossils indicated that the pair had died suddenly, perhaps during a storm that flooded their grueling hiding place, preserving their last moment in the frozen frame. Between the tail and the hind leg of the adult, the small, soaked specimen appeared as if it were purposefully protected from damage.

Researchers documenting Heliosorus

Her graduate student Mann casually joked that she found “early evidence of parental care. He was joking, but his words reminded Madine of a similar fossil in South Africa a decade ago: the Helleosaurus specimen that was surrounded by four tails during the Permian 260 million years ago.

Although about 45 million years apart, both fossils were varrenopid, and both reportedly died while harboring smaller versions of themselves. Researchers documenting Heliosorus point to the remains of Mann and Madin as a possible family group, leading them to believe that they had stumbled upon something similar and ancient.

Mann attacked the feasible hypothesis, not the auction. From its earliest days, Vernopids may have preferred parenting. Some researchers have also previously presented evidence of invertebrate parental care, but dendromaya may represent the earliest known precedent for a young father who is a living young man.

Without the time machine, researchers could not know what these animals were doing at the time of their death. After all, the behavioral evidence cut in the study “is not something that is preserved in rocks,” says Stephanie Drumheller-Horton, a vertebrate zoologist at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, who is not involved in the study.

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Archaeologists From The Netherlands Made A Surprising Discovery

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Homo Erectus: An international team of researchers has indicated the first generalized age for the last known occurrence of Homo Erectus
Homo Erectus

Homo Erectus: An international team of researchers has indicated the first generalized age for the last known occurrence of Homo Erectus, a species of early hominids. In the 1930s, a team of geologists and archaeologists from the Netherlands made a surprising discovery in Nandong, located on the Solo River in central Java, Indonesia.

Homo Erectus

When they discovered 12 skulls and two-leg bones of Homo Erectus. These fossils are the most advanced form of this hominid species and represent an important evolutionary change. The Nandgong fossils returned at a very early age (53–27,000 years). As well as at a much older age (143–500,000 years) for an earlier attempt. The accuracy of the material in these studies.

The lack of cooperation between fossils and leaching of uranium from material and dated fossils were questions of uncertainty. Researcher at the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Macquarie University, senior co-author, After years of multiple attempts to date the site, we knew we needed to try a different approach, Dr. said Kira Westway.

fossils of Homo Erectus

“Previous studies looked at the evidence, so we consider fossils as a much larger piece of a puzzle and try to understand how they fit in the valley and region.” Dr. Westaway and his colleagues applied a regional approach to the dating of the Nandong site and interpreted the evidence within the wider landscape of Central Java.

The site is in the deposition of a river that represents a stairway called a staircase in a flooded staircase. The team focused on how the Solo River system was built, how the terraces were built and how the fossils were deposited. The scientists applied a barrage of dating techniques in all three contexts: stalagmites in caves, sediments from the roof of the river around fossils of Homo Erectus, and teeth of related mammals found within the bone bed.

human development

The result was 52 New Era, indicating that the deposits of rivers and fossils were placed between 117,000 and 108,000 years ago. This age range allows the Ngandong site to live in a framework for human development in Southeast Asia. Ngandong Homo Erectus was present at the same time as Homo floresiensis in Indonesia and Homo luzonensis recently discovered in the Philippines, which have some characteristics similar to Homo Erectus. At this age, Homo Erectus could encounter other human species, such as Denisovans.

The projections of the new era of Westand indicate that Homo Erectus and Denisovans probably overlap in the area, or were found at least some time before 100,000 years ago,” said Dr. Westway. This may mean that some unique features that have been identified in the very late Homo Erectus fossil skulls, such as Nagaland, may actually be the result of a mixture of two archaic populations

Homo Erectus and Denisovans

This is the most rigorous dating effort ever made for the final event of Homo Erectus, said Dr. Gert van den Berg told Volgong University. Other studies have placed modern humans 120,000 years ago in China. So we are getting closer to finding an overlap between Homo Erectus and modern humans in Southeast Asia. An international team of researchers has indicated the first generalized age for the last known occurrence of Homo erectus, a species of early hominids.

a species of early hominids

In the 1930s, a team of geologists and archaeologists from the Netherlands made a surprising discovery in Nandong, located on the Solo River in central Java, Indonesia, when they discovered 12 skulls and two-leg bones of Homo Erectus. These fossils are the most advanced form of this hominid species and represent an important evolutionary change. The Nandgong fossils returned at a very early age (53–27,000 years), as well as at a much older age (143–500,000 years) for an earlier attempt.

The accuracy of the material in these studies, the lack of cooperation between fossils and leaching of uranium from material and dated fossils were questions of uncertainty. Researcher at the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Macquarie University, senior co-author. After years of multiple attempts to date the site, we knew we needed to try a different approach, said Kira Westway. Previous studies looked at the evidence.

So we consider fossils as a much larger piece of a puzzle and try to understand how they fit in the valley and region. Dr. Westaway and his colleagues applied a regional approach to the dating of the Nandong site and interpreted the evidence within the wider landscape of Central Java. The site is in the deposition of a river that represents a stairway called a staircase in a flooded staircase.

human development in Southeast Asia

The team focused on how the Solo River system was built, how the terraces were built and how the fossils were deposited. The scientists applied a barrage of dating techniques in all three contexts: stalagmites in caves, sediments from the roof of the river around fossils of Homo erectus, and teeth of related mammals found within the bone bed.

The result was 52 New Era, indicating that the deposits of rivers and fossils were placed between 117,000 and 108,000 years ago. This age range allows the Ngandong site to live in a framework for human development in Southeast Asia. Ngandong Homo erectus was present at the same time as Homo floresiensis in Indonesia and Homo luzonensis recently discovered in the Philippines, which have some characteristics similar to Homo Erectus.

homo erectus

At this age, Homo Erectus could encounter other human species, such as Denisovans. The projections of the new era of Westand indicate that Homo Erectus and Denisovans probably overlap in the area, or were found at least some time before 100,000 years ago, said Dr. Westway. This may mean that some unique features that have been identified in the very late Homo Erectus fossil skulls, such as Nagaland, may actually be the result of a mixture of two archaic populations.

Homo erectus & Denisovans

This is the most rigorous dating effort ever made for the final event of Homo Erectus, said Dr. Gert van den Berg told Volgong University. Other studies have placed modern humans 120,000 years ago in China. Ao we are getting closer to finding an overlap between Homo Erectus and modern humans in Southeast Asia. An international team of researchers has indicated the widespread first age for the earliest known occurrence of Homo Erectus.

homo erectus definition

A species of early hominid. In the 1930s. A team of Dutch geologists and archaeologists made a surprise discovery in Nandong, Solo. River, in central Java, Indonesia, when he discovered the bones of 12 skulls and two legs of Homo Erectus. These fossils are the most advanced form of this hominid species and represent a major evolutionary change. The Nandgong fossils returned at a very young age (53–27,000 years).

As well as at a much older age (143–500,000 years) for the first attempt. These studies raised questions about the purity of the material. The lack of cooperation between fossils and the uranium leaching of the material and dated fossil uncertainty. After years of effort, we knew we needed to try a different approach, said Kira Westway and senior co-author of the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Macquarie University at Kirara Westway.

between 117,000 & 108,000 years ago

Previous studies looked at the evidence. So we think fossils are a big piece of a puzzle and we try to understand how they fit in the valley and the region. Westway and his colleagues applied a regional approach to dating the Nandong site and interpreted the evidence within the broader landscape of Central Java. The site is represented by a river representing a ladder called a ladder on a flooded ladder.

The team focused on how the Solo River system was built, how the terraces were built, and how the fossils were deposited. The scientists applied a set of dating techniques in all three contexts: stalagmites in caves, river roof sediments around Homo Erectus fossils, and the teeth of related mammals found within the bone bed. The result was 52 New Age, indicating that river and fossil deposits were placed between 117,000 and 108,000 years ago.

framework for human development

This age limit allows the Ngandong site to remain a framework for human development in Southeast Asia. Ngandong Homo Erectus was present at the same time that Homo floresiensis and Homo luzonensis in Indonesia were recently discovered in the Philippines. Which have some of the same characteristics as Homo Erectus. At this age, Homo Erectus could antagonize other human species, such as Denisovans.

Projections from the new Westend era indicate that Homo Erectus and Denisovans probably overlap in the area, or were found at least some time before 100,000 years ago, said Dr. Westaway. This may mean that some of the distinctive features identified in Homo Erectus’ last fossilized skull, such as Nagaland, may actually be the result of a mix of two archaic populations.

homo erectus skull

Homo Erectus, (Latin: straight man) an extinct species of the human genus (Homo), probably an ancestor of modern humans (Homo sapiens). Homo Erectus is more likely to have originated in Africa, although Eurasia cannot be ruled out. Regardless of where it first evolved, the species appears to have moved through the African tropics, Europe, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, beginning in the Middle Pleistocene epoch about 1.9 million years ago (Mya).

This history has been recorded directly, albeit erroneously, by various sites in H. Erectus fossils have been found. In other areas, broken animal bones and stone tools have indicated the presence of the species, although there are no traces of the people. H. erectus was a man of medium height who walked upright.

The nose, jaw & palate broad

The skull was low, the forehead set back, and the nose, jaw, and palate broad. The brain was smaller and the teeth larger than in modern humans. Homo Erectus appears to be the first human species to control fire about 1,000,000 years ago. This species appears to have flourished until about 200,000 years ago (200 Kya) or perhaps later, before giving way to other humans, including Homo sapiens.

The first fossils attributed to Homo Erectus were discovered by a Dutch army surgeon, Eugene Dubois, who began the search for ancient human bones on the island of Java (now part of Indonesia) in 1890. Dubois received his first specimen in the same year. , and in 1891 a well-preserved skull was unearthed at Trinil on the Solo River. Noting its prominent eyebrows, retracted forehead, and angled posterior skull, Dubois concluded that the triceps skull displayed anatomical features among humans (as they were then understood) and apes.

skull was discovered

Several years later, where the skull was discovered, he produced a remarkably complete, modern-looking femur. Since this bone resembled a modern human femur, Dubois decided that the person it belonged to should be standing. He adopted the name Pithecanthropus (first coined by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel) and called his discoveries Pithecanthropus erectus (“upright ape-man”).

But the colloquial term became “Java Man”. The Trinil excavations yielded only a few other organ fragments, and it would be about three decades before more concrete evidence emerges. Most paleontologists now consider all of this material to be H. erectus, and the name Pithecanthropus has been removed.

concentrated in Asia

Later discoveries continued to establish a case for this new and separate species of fossil hominid. At first, these discoveries were mainly concentrated in Asia. For example, similar fossils were found in several different places in Java in the early 20th century: Kedung Brubus, Mojokarto (Modjokarto), Sangiran, Ngandong (Solo), Sambungmakan (Sambungmachan), and Ngawi.

Another series of discoveries were made in China in the early 1920s, particularly in the Zhoukoudian (Chou-ko-tien) caves and crevices near Beijing. The remains found at Zhoukoudian by Davidson Black became popularly known as the Peking Man; Virtually all of these relics were later lost during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) until 1941, although many of them still exist. Since then new discoveries have been made at the Zhoukodian Caves and four other Chinese sites.

Gongwangling (Kung-wang-ling) and Chenjiawo (Chen-chia-wo) in the Lantian (LAN-tien) district of Shaanxi province, Hulu cave near Nanjing and Hexian (Ho-hsien) in the province from Anhui. The pattern of early discovery at the end of World War II had led to the idea that Homo Erectus was a distinctly Asian manifestation of early humans. Subsequent discoveries in Africa changed this view and, in the late 20th century, it was confirmed that Homo Erectus also existed in Europe.

Homo Erectus existed in Europe

Dr. “This is the most rigorous dating effort ever made for the final presentation of Homo Erectus,” Gert van den Berg told Volgong University. Other studies have put modern humans in China 120,000 years ago. So we are getting closer to finding an overlap between Homo Erectus and modern humans in Southeast Asia. An international team of researchers has indicated the widespread first age for the earliest known occurrence of Homo Erectus.

what is homo erectus

A species of early hominid. In the 1930s, a team of Dutch geologists and archaeologists made a surprise discovery at Nandong, Solo. River, in central Java, Indonesia, when he discovered the bones of 12 skulls and two legs of Homo Erectus. These fossils are the most advanced form of this hominid species and represent a major evolutionary change. The Nandgong fossils returned at a very young age (53–27,000 years), as well as at a much older age (143–500,000 years) for the first attempt.

These studies raised questions about the purity of the material, the lack of cooperation between fossils and the uranium leaching of the material and dated fossil uncertainty. After years of effort, we knew we needed to try a different approach, said Kira Westway. And senior co-author of the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Macquarie University at Kirara Westway.

Previous studies looked at the evidence, so we think fossils are a big piece of a puzzle and we try to understand how they fit in the valley and the region. Dr. Westway and his colleagues applied a regional approach to dating the Nandong site and the evidence interpretation site within the broader landscape of Central Java is represented by a river representing a ladder called a ladder on a flooded ladder. The team focused on how the Solo River system was built.

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Tyrannosaurus T-Rex Is The Most Famous Dinosaur In The World

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Tyrannosaurus T-Rex is the most famous dinosaur in the world
Tyrannosaurus T-Rex

Tyrannosaurus T-Rex is the most famous dinosaur in the world, the 40-foot-long hunter who crushed bones inside a five-foot-long head is similar to the legend. The 40-foot-long hunter who crushed bones inside a five-foot-long head is similar to the legend. Now, a look at the two medium bones, the immature T-Rex also allows scientists to learn about the dictator King’s terrible teenager.

Tyrannosaurus T-Rex

In the early 2000s, two relatively small T-shirts from Carter County, Montana, of the Burpee Natural History Museum in Rockford, Illinois. T-Rex fossil skeletons were collected. The nicknames “Jane” and “Patty” would have been a little longer and double that of the tortured draft horse.

The team led by Holly Woodward, PhD, of the Center for Health Sciences at Oklahoma State University, t. He studied Jane and Pete to better understand the story of Rex’s life. The study “Growing Tyrannosaurus T-Rex: Histology denies Peggy ‘Nanotaraneus’ and supports the partition of the oncogenetic niche in the juvenile tyrannosaurus” appears in the peer-reviewed Journal Advance.

paleontology laboratory

Co-authors include Jack Horner, partner of the president at Chapman University; Nathan Myhrold, founder and CEO of Intellectual Ventures; Katie Tremaine, a graduate student at Montana State University; Scott Williams, paleontology laboratory and field specialist at the Rocky’s Museum and Lindsey Zano, head of paleontology at the Natural Sciences Museum in North Carolina.

The complementary histological work was carried out in the Diane Gabriel Histology Laboratories at the Rocky Mountain Museum / Montana State University. Historically, many museums would collect fossils of larger and more influential dinosaur species to display and ignore others, said Woodward.

tyrannosaurus t rex

The problem is that those small fossils can be from small animals. Therefore, there are large gaps in our understanding of how dinosaurs grew in the long term, and T. rex is no exception. The small size of Jane and Patty is what makes them so incredibly important. Now scientists can not only study that T. How bones and proportions changed like Rex.

But they can also use paleontology, the study of fossil bone microstructures, to learn about youth growth rates and age. Woodward and his team pulled thin slices of the bones of Jane and Pete’s legs and examined them with great magnification. It’s always surprising to me that if you have something like a giant fossil dinosaur bone.

t rex tyrannosaurus rex dinosaur

It’s also a fossil at the microscopic level, said Woodward. And by comparing these fossil microorganisms with similar characteristics found in modern bones. We know that they provide clues about metabolism, growth rates and age. The team determined that young T. Rexes grew as fast as modern warm-blooded animals, such as mammals and birds.

Woodward and his colleagues also discovered that T-Rex was juvenile when Jane and Patty died, counting the annual rings inside the bone, as well as the tree rings; 13 and 15 years old respectively. It was speculated that the two smaller skeletons were not T. rex, but a smaller pygmy relative was Nanotaraneus.

T-Rex juvenile skeletal

Bone studies with histology led researchers to conclude that T-Rex juvenile skeletal T. was not a new onion species. Instead, Woodward points out, as T. to reach adult size. Rex took up to twenty years, the tyrannical king perhaps to undergo mature changes. Teens like Jane and Patty were sharp, floating-legged and had teeth like biting knives, while adults were crushing bones.

Not only this, but Woodward’s team discovers that T.W. Raising Rex can be a good trick: if your food source was scarce for a particular year, it didn’t grow that much. And if the food was plentiful, it increased a lot. The space between annual growth rings records how much a person grows from one year to the next.

the world’s most famous dinosaurs

The space between rings between Jane, Pete and even older people is inconsistent, with a few years. The vacancy is near, and other years extended beyond it, said Woodward. The research conducted by Woodward and his team has written a new chapter in the early years of the world’s most famous dinosaurs, providing evidence that this dictator assumed the king’s crown long before reaching adult size.

The researchers found Teen Age T-Rex and find out more about that: Without a doubt, Tyrannosaurus rex is the most famous dinosaur in the world. The 40-foot-long hunter who crushed bones inside a five-foot-long head is similar to the legend. Now, a look at the two medium bones, the immature T-Rex also allows scientists to learn about the dictator King’s terrible teenager.

T-Rex fossil skeletons

In the early 2000s, two relatively small T-shirts from Carter County, Montana, of the Burpee Natural History Museum in Rockford, Illinois. T-Rex fossil skeletons were collected. Nicknames “Jane” and “Patty” will be a little longer than the tortured draft horse and twice as long. The team led by Holly Woodward, PhD, of the Center for Health Sciences at Oklahoma State University.

He studied Jane and Pete to better understand the story of Rex’s life. The study refutes “Growing Tyrannosaurus T-Rex: Histology Peggy ot Nanotyranus” and supports the division of oncogenetic niche in the juvenile tyrannosaurus, which appears in the scientific journal Science Advance. Co-authors include Jack Horner, partner of the president at Chapman University; Nathan Myhrold, founder and CEO of Intellectual Ventures.

Natural Sciences Museum

Katie Tremaine, a graduate student at Montana State University; Scott Williams, paleontology laboratory and field specialist at the Rocky’s Museum. Lindsey Zano, head of paleontology at the Natural Sciences Museum in North Carolina. The complementary histological work was carried out in the Diane Gabriel Histology Laboratories at the Rocky Mountain Museum / Montana State University.

Historically, many museums would collect and ignore the largest and most influential fossils of dinosaur species, said Woodward. The problem is that those small fossils can be from small animals. Therefore, for a long time there were large gaps in our understanding of how dinosaurs grew, and T. Again there is no exception. The small size of Jane and Patty is what makes them so incredibly important.

a giant fossil dinosaur bone

Now scientists can not only study that T. How bones and proportions changed as Rex did. But they can also use paleontology, from fossil bone microstructure studies, to learn about youth growth rates. Woodward and his team pulled thin slices of the bones of Jane and Pete’s legs and examined them with great magnification. It’s always surprising to me that if you have something like a giant fossil dinosaur bone.

It’s also a fossil at the microscopic level, we know that they provide clues about metabolism, growth rate and age. The team determined that young T-Rex grew as fast as modern warm-blooded animals, such as mammals and birds. Woodward and his colleagues also discovered that T-Rex was juvenile when Jane and Patty died, counting the annual rings inside the bone, as well as the tree rings; 13 and 15 years old respectively.

It was speculated that two small T. Rex skeletons do not have them at all, but a small Pyogi relative belongs to Nanotyranus. Bone studies with histology led researchers to conclude that T-Rex juvenile skeletal T. was not a new species. Instead, Woodward points out, as T-Rex. to reach adult size. T-Rex took up to twenty years, the tyrannical king perhaps to undergo mature changes.

Woodward’s team discovers

Teens like Jane and Patty were sharp, floating-legged and had teeth like biting knives, while adults were crushing bones. Not only this, but Woodward’s team discovers that T.W. Raising Rex can be a good trick: if your food source were scarce for a particular year, it wouldn’t have grown so much and if the food was plentiful, it increased a lot.

The difference between annual growth rings is how much a person grows from one year to the next. Woodward said the difference between vacancies between Jane, Patty and even older people is inconsistent. In some years, the vacancy is closed simultaneously and in other years it has been extended.

T-Rex’s restoration

Woodward and his team’s research has written a new chapter in the early years of the world’s most famous dinosaurs, providing evidence that he assumed the crown of the tyrannical king long before he reached adult size. The researchers found adolescent find out more about T-Rex. A ride T-Rex’s restoration. Without a doubt, the Tyrannosaurus T-Rex is the most famous dinosaur in the world.

Inside the five-foot-long head are 40-foot-tall hunter objects that break bones. Now, a look at two medium bones, the immature T. Rex also allows scientists to learn about dictator King’s terrible teenager. In the early 2000s, two relatively small Carter County, Montana, t-shirts from the Burpee Museum of Natural History in Rockford, Illinois.

Rex’s fossil skeletons were collected. Nicknames “Jane” and “Patty” would have been slightly longer and twice as long as the tortured draft horse. The team led by Holly Woodward, PhD, of the Oklahoma State University Health Science Center, T-Rex Studied Jane and Pete to better understand T-Rex’s life story.

Growing Tyrannosaurus T-Rex

The study “Growing Tyrannosaurus T-Rex: Histology refutes the pygmy ‘nanotaraneus’ and supports the division of the oncogenetic niche in juvenile Tyrannosaurus” appears in the peer-reviewed journal Journal Advance. Co-authors include Jack Horner, associate of the president at Chapman University.

Nathan Myhrold, founder and CEO of Intellectual Ventures; Katie Tremaine, a graduate student at Montana State University; Scott Williams, Paleontology Laboratory and Field Specialist Museum in Rocky and Lindsey Zano, chief of paleontology at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Science.

fossils of dinosaur species

Complementary histological work was performed at the Diane Gabriel Histology Laboratories at the Rocky Mountain Museum / Montana State University. Historically, many museums would collect the largest and most influential fossils of dinosaur species to display and ignore others, Woodward said. The problem is that those small fossils may be from small animals.

So there are huge gaps in our understanding of how dinosaurs grew in the long term, and T. rex is no exception. Jane and Patty’s small size is what makes them so incredibly important. Now scientists can not only study those bones and the t relationship. How they changed like Rex, but they can also use paleontology, from studying fossil bone germs, to learn about youth growth rates and age.

Woodward and her team removed fine slices from the bones of Jane and Patty’s legs and examined them at high magnification. It is always surprising to me that if you have something like a giant fossil dinosaur bone, it is also a fossil on a microscopic level, Woodward said and by comparing these fossil microorganisms with similar characteristics found in modern bones.

discovered that T-Rex

We know that they provide clues to metabolism, growth rates, and age. The team determined that the youngest T. rexes grew as fast as today’s warm-blooded animals, such as mammals and birds. Woodward and colleagues also discovered that T-Rex was juvenile when Jane and Patty died, counting the annual rings within the bone, as well as tree rings; 13 and 15 years old respectively.

The two smallest skeletons were speculated not to be T. rex, but a smaller pygmy relative was Nanotyranus. Bone studies using histology led the researchers to conclude that Skeletal Juvenile Rex was not a new dragon species. Instead, Woodward points out, like T. to reach adult size. It took T-Rex up to twenty years, the dictator king probably changed a lot as he matured.

Research by Woodward

Teens like Jane and Patty were sharp, floating-legged and had teeth like biting knives. While adults were crushing bones. Not only that, but Woodward’s team discovered that the T-Rex can do a good trick. If your food source was scarce during a particular year, it didn’t grow as much and if the food was abundant, it increased a lot.

The gap between annual growth rings records how much a person grows from one year to the next. The gap between rings between Jane, Pete and even older people is inconsistent. The gap with a few years. It is close, and in other years it has spread.

Also, Woodward said.. research by Woodward and his team has written a new chapter in the early years of the world’s most famous dinosaurs, providing evidence that he assumed the crown of the dictator king long before he reached adult size.

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A New Genus And Species Of Ornithodiran

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Tiny Dinosaur Relative Roamed Triassic Madagascar
Tiny Dinosaur

Tiny Dinosaur Relative Roamed Triassic Madagascar. Insect-hunting dinosaur “the size of a teacup” unearthed in Madagascar. Tiny Dinosaur Related Roamed triassic Madagascar. A new genus and species of ornithodiran, an early relative of dinosaurs and pterosaurs. Which lived about 237 million years ago (Triassic period), has been identified from fossil remains found in southwest Madagaskar.

Tiny Dinosaur

Famous by the name of Kongonafon. The ancient reptile was surprisingly small (approximate height: 10 cm, or 3.9 inches). Its small body size can help explain the origin of the flight in the pterosaur and the presence of uzz fudge ‘on the skin of both the pterosaur and the dinosaurs. The restoration of Kongonphon’s life. There is a general perception of dinosaurs as giants.

But this new animal is very close to the divergence of dinosaurs and pterosaurs, and it’s surprisingly small, said Dr. Christian Kammer. A curator of research in paleontology at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. The discovery of this small (Tiny) relative of dinosaurs and pterosaurs emphasizes the importance of the Madagascar fossil record in improving knowledge of the history of certebrates.

Which is poorly located elsewhere, said Professor Lovasoa Ranvihaarimana from Antonanivavo. A partial Kongonaphone Kelly skeleton was found in 1998 in the Morondwa basin of southwestern Madagascar. The restoration of Kongonphon’s life. Dr. Kammer said: Kongonfon is not the first known small animal near the root of the olithodiran family tree, but previously such specimens were considered isolated exceptions.

tiny epic dinosaurs

In general, the scientific idea was that body size was similar among previous dinosaurs, the largest group of reptiles including birds, crocodiles, non-avian dinosaurs and pterosaurs, and the oldest ornamodirones, in large proportions in the lineage. of the dinosaurs. Before getting up. Recent Kongonphon discoveries have given us a better understanding of the early evolution of ornithodirans (tiny epic dinosaurs).

Analyzing the changes in body shape in the evolution of entire dinosaurs. We have found that it has declined early in the history of the dinosaur-Potosaur lineage. This miniaturization phenomenon indicates that dinosaur and pterosaur lineages originated from extremely small ancestors and producing significant implications for their biology. The microwar placed on Kongonphon’s conical teeth indicates a diet of hard worms.

small-bodied common ancestor

For insectivores, this change, associated with a smaller body size, may have helped early ornithodirans survive by occupying a different space than most of their contemporary meat-eating relatives. The study also suggests that fuzzy fur coatings ranging from simple filaments to feathers, known on both the dinosaur and pterosaur sides of the ornithodirane tree, may emerge for thermoregulation in this small-bodied common ancestor.

Because heat retention in small bodies is difficult, and the late Triassic climate was an extreme time, anticipating a sharp change in temperature between hot days and cold nights. This discovery is stated in a document in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Small four-inch-long dinosaurs

Small four-inch-long dinosaurs that roamed Madagascar more than 240 inches ago suggest that T-rex and other giant reptiles evolved from miniature ancestors. Small extinct insect-fed dinosaur ancestors had sharp claws and hairs. Researchers discovered a miniature lizard, which roamed Madagascar about 240 million years ago, and said it was only four inches (10 cm) long. This tiny creature is believed to be the ancestor of very large dinosaurs and pterosaurs.

Called Kongonfaffen, or ‘Little Bug Killer’, he was smaller than a sparrow and had bugs on his paws and buckets, teeth on his sharp claws for biting. It dates back to Madagascar and is a “missing link” in vertebrate history, that is, from the team at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Science. Kongonphon’s remains were discovered in 1998, but were found along with many other fossils that have long taken scientists to understand their importance.

Restoration of the life of Kongonfon

A recently described reptile close to the lineage of dinosaurs and pterosaurs, which would have been its natural environment on the Tricic. Restoration of the life of Kongonfon, a recently described reptile near the lineage of dinosaurs and pterosaurs. Which would have been its natural environment on the Tricic. Image, a graph showing the size of a comparison between a newly discovered species (center) and an early known dinosaur, Herrerasorus (right) and a medium-sized man.

Image, a graph showing a size comparison between a newly discovered species (center) and an early known dinosaur, Herrerasorus (right) and an average-sized man (left). A paleontologist at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, lead author Dr. Christian Kammar said that people believe that dinosaurs were all giants.

“But this new animal is very close to the divergence of dinosaurs and pterosaurs, and it’s very small,” he said. Some dinosaurs were over 100 feet long and weighed over 100 tons, and their closest aerial cousin. The Potrosaurus, were the largest animals to have ever flown. Some were shaped like a modern airplane, with a wingspan of up to 35 feet (10 m).

National Academy of Sciences

Both ancient reptile groups belong to the Ornithodira group, but their origins remain a mystery to the very few fossils of their previous relatives. Until Kongonfon was discovered in an archaeological dig. The lizard was the lizard that shared key characteristics with its older cousins.

The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has implications for the development of birds which are living descendants of dinosaurs. The North Carolina team said it could help explain the origin of the feathers and why pterosaurs went to heaven in the first place.

The findings highlight the presence of ‘fudge’ on the skin of the Lizard species. Professor John Flynn, expedition leader at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, notes that the site where the fossil was unearthed in southwestern Madagascar comes from globally poor time intervals.

modern technology to analyze recovered fossils

This little specimen, Flynn said, was collected from the site we had collected for hundreds of years. `We needed some time before focusing on these bones, but once we did, it became clear that we had something unique and that it was worth looking closely. It is a great case that field discoveries, combined with modern technology to analyze recovered fossils, remain so important.

Notably preserved specimens included parts of Cogonphon’s skull and limbs capable of accurately reconstructing their appearance. They were around 237 million years old, when the exotic African island was part of the Pangea supercontinent and the first dinosaurs emerged.

Restoration of the life of Kongonfon, a recently described reptile close to the lineage of dinosaurs and pterosaurs, widely demonstrated by human hands. The Kongonfon Restoration of Life, a newly described reptile close to the lineage of dinosaurs and pterosaurs, has been shown to be widespread by human hands.

newly discovered congonaphone

Comparison of physical size between the newly discovered congonaphone and one of the first dinosaurs, Herrasorus “Recent discoveries like Kongonafon” have given us a better understanding of ornithodirane’s early development, he said. By looking at changes in body size over the course of biological size evolution.

We found compelling evidence that this decreased early in the history of the dinosaur-Pterosaur lineage. The study found that giant dinosaurs, which became extinct about 66 million years ago, originated from extremely small ancestors. The fossil also obtained more information on the life of the specimen.

The researchers believe that the wear marks on his teeth are evidence that he ate the insects. A change in an insectivorous lifestyle, associated with small body size, may have helped early ornithodirans survive, along with changing the world and requiring them to find a new niche.

Tiny Dinosaur Relative Roamed Triassic Madagascar
Tiny Dinosaur

They occupied a different place for their fellow carnivores, which means they would not be rivals, the team explained and the fuzzy fur coatings, from simple fibers to feathers, which were common in dinosaurs and pterosaurs, could start at Kongonfon for thermoregulation. Small-body heat retention is difficult, and the late Triassic temperature was an extreme time, with a sharp change between warm days and cold nights.

Tiny Dinosaur

Lovaso Ranoviramanana, co-leader of the project, vertebrate specialist at the University of Antananarivo in Madrasaskar. This was a very important discovery. The discovery of this small relative of dinosaurs and pterosaurs emphasizes the importance of the Madagascar fossil record. Which is little known elsewhere over time to improve knowledge of Kabirpanthi’s history.

About 251 million years ago, at the end of the Permian period, a mass extinction wiped out most of life on Earth. In light of this. The arrival of a group of egg-laying reptiles were called Arcosaurus, the common ancestor of dinosaurs, flying reptiles called pterosaurs, and crocodiles. At some point during the next period, the Tricic, Pterosaurus, and Dinosaurs broke away from the crocodile lineage. Kongonphon Ara has another piece.

The eggshells suggest that the dinosaurs were really warm blooded. New Yale research has sparked controversy over whether the dinosaurs were hot-blooded or cold-blooded. The chemistry of dinosaur eggs has been analyzed in new research. A new fossil egg has analyzed the debate over whether dinosaurs were cold-blooded like modern reptiles or modern warm-blooded birds.

The chemistry of dinosaur eggs

New research by Yale scientists in the US has looked at dinosaur egg shells in the way the oxygen and carbon atoms within them were organized and suggesting that they formed inside bodies with hot blood. Dr. Robin Dawson stated that dinosaurs sit at an evolutionary point between birds, which are warm-blooded and reptiles.

Which are cold-blooded. A cross section of a testicle shows mineral development. Pic: Robin Dawson. Our results suggest that all major dinosaur groups had warmer body temperatures than their environments, Drs. Dawson said about the research, while she was a doctoral student in geology and geophysics at Yale.

The research follows a new theory that suggests that dinosaurs evolved into birds that shrunk to become warm-blooded. Reptiles are cold blooded or ectothermic, which means they cannot control their body temperature. Mammals and birds. Which come directly from a group of dinosaurs called theropods, are warm-blooded or endothermic.

A  giant theropod dinosaur

Which means they produce their body temperatures. Generating your own heat is an expensive lifestyle for animals and requires very high energy consumption. However, it offers benefits in that it allows animals to function at higher levels when there are no external heat sources nearby, such as at night or winter.

The fossilized bones of a giant theropod dinosaur, Gigantoratrapt irelensis, are shown to the media in Beijing on June 13, 2007. The remains of giant dinosaurs, strikingly bird-like, were revealed in Inner Mongolia, China. The animal, which lived in the Late Cretaceous period (about 70 million years ago), is believed to have a body of approximately 1,400 kg.

Journal Science Advances

Which is surprising because most theories suggest that carnivorous dinosaurs got smaller. Theropod dinosaurs are the bird’s most direct ancestor. Dr. Dawson is the lead author of the new study in the Journal Science Advances that tested egg fossils from three major groups of dinosaurs. Using a technique called subject isotope paleothermometry, the researchers discovered what the dinosaurs’ internal temperatures were as the eggs formed inside them.

Species shells, including carnivorous theropod trodone, duck-billed myasaura and megalith, were grown at temperatures well above their environment. “We found that this indicates that the ability to metabolize their temperature above the environment was an early and evolving trait for dinosaurs,” said Dr. Said Dawson. Myasaura is a large duck-billed dinosaur that lived in the Cretaceous Era in North America with various hatches shown here.

Development of feathers

The large duck-billed dinosaur has increased 44 degrees Celsius (111.2 degrees Fahrenheit) since Myashore. Myasaura was a large duckling dinosaur that lived in North America. One of the implications of the study refers to the development of feathers in relation to their development in birds. “It is possible that dense feathers were chosen primarily for isolation, as body size decreased in theropod dinosaurs in the path of development of modern birds,” said Dr. Dawson.

Dinosaurs Was Warm-Blooded, Using A Novel Technique Called Fossil Eggshells Suggests Study. The Paleothermometry Of Clustered Isotopes. An international team of Paleothermometry analyzed the egg fossils that represent the three main groups of dinosaurs and discovered that these creatures were characterized by warmer body temperatures. A dinosaur similar to a cassowary called Bbilong sinensis in egg incubation.

Major groups of dinosaurs

Researcher at the Department of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University, Dr. Robin Dawson said: “Dinosaurs sit at an evolutionary point between birds, which are warm-blooded and reptiles, which are cold-blooded. Our results suggest that all major groups of dinosaurs had warmer body temperatures than their environments. Dr. Dawson and his colleagues applied their novel method to the testicles of three main groups of dinosaurs: Ornithisia, Soropodomorpha and Theropoda.

He explained: “The paleothermometry of closed isotopes is based on the fact that the order of the atoms of oxygen and carbon in the shells of fossilized eggs is determined by temperature.” Once you know the order of those atoms, you can calculate the internal temperature of the mother dinosaur’s body. For example, the eggshells of a trodone, a small sludge for eating meat, were tested at 38 °, 27 ° and 28 ° C (or 100.4, 80.6 and 82.4 ° F).

Egg shells from Alberta

The large Myasora duck-billed dinosaur egg shell produces a temperature of 44 ° C (111.2 ° F). The eggshells of Trudon and Myasora were from Alberta, Canada. Meanwhile, fossilized dinosaur egg fossils were tested at 36 ° C (96.8 ° F) in a classification of a species restricted to Romania’s dinosaur egg megalith. Petrographic microscope images of dinosaur eggs: (A – C) well-preserved troodon egg shells from Alberta, Canada.

Arrows and horizontal lines point to the approximate boundary between mammals and prismatic layers; The presence of two calcitic layers is diagnostic of non-avian theropods; (D) Mysoura Haidersaur egg from Alberta, Canada with international preservation. The diagnostic units of the acute table are indicated by white arrows; (E) Romanian egg shell (Ospactis megalulithus cf. M. cirugui) from the town of Tusetia, Romania, with intermediate conservation.

body temperature

Clinical radiation acicular crystals indicated by white arrows; (F) Poorly preserved pieces of Lambosaurusine hordosaur eggs from Alberta, Canada. The scientists performed the same analysis on cold-blooded invertebrate shells similar to the shells of dinosaur eggs. This helped the team determine the temperature of the local environment and whether the dinosaur had a higher or lower body temperature.

“Troodon samples were 10 ° C (50 ° F) warmer than their atmosphere, Myasaura samples were 15 ° C warmer (59 ° F) and Megalithius samples were 3-6 ° C (37.4-42.8 °).) They were. Fahrenheit) hot, “said Dr. Dawson. What we found suggests that the ability to metabolize its temperature above the environment was an early and evolving feature for dinosaurs. The results have been published in the Journal Science Advances.

Natural History Museum

The 40-foot-long hunter who crushed bones inside a five-foot-long head is a legend. Now, a look at two medium-sized bones, the immature T. Rex also informs scientists about the terrible teenagers of the dictator King. In the early 2000s, two relatively small T-shirts from Carter County, Montana, of the Burpee Natural History Museum in Rockford, Illinois. Rex fossil skeletons were collected.

The nicknames “Jane” and “Patty” would have been a little longer and double that of the tortured draft horse. The team led by Holly Woodward, PhD, of the Oklahoma State University Health Sciences Center, T. Studied Jane and Pete to better understand the history of Rex’s life. The study “Growing Tyrannosaurus T-Rex.

Histology refutes the pygmy ‘nanotaraneus’ and supports the division of the oncogenetic niche into the juvenile Tyrannosaurus” appears in the peer-reviewed journal Journal Advance. Co-authors include Jack Horner, a member of the president of Chapman University; Nathan Myhrold, founder and CEO of Intellectual Ventures; Katie Tremaine, a graduate student at Montana State University.

Natural Sciences Museum

Scott Williams, paleontology laboratory and field specialist at the Rocky’s Museum. Lindsey Zanno, head of paleontology at the Natural Sciences Museum of North Carolina. The complementary histological work was carried out in the Diane Gabriel Histology Laboratories at the Rocky Mountain Museum / Montana State University.

Historically, many museums would collect fossils of larger and more influential dinosaur species to display and ignore others, said Woodward. The problem is that these small fossils can come from small animals. Therefore, there are large gaps in our understanding of how dinosaurs grew, and T. rex is no exception. The small size of Jane and Patty makes them incredibly important.

Now scientists can not only study that T. How bones and proportions changed as Rex, but they can also use paleontology, the study of fossil bone microstructures, to learn about youth growth rates and age. Woodward and his team pulled thin slices of the bones from Jane and Patty’s legs and examined them with great magnification.

Fossil dinosaur bone

It’s always surprising to me that if you have something like a giant fossil dinosaur bone. It’s also a fossil at the microscopic level, said Woodward and by comparing these fossil microorganisms with similar characteristics found in modern bones, we know they provide clues about metabolism, growth rates and age.

The team determined that the youngest T. Los Rexes were growing as fast as today’s warm-blooded animals, such as mammals and birds. Woodward and his colleagues also discovered that counting annual rings inside the bone and as well as counting tree rings, had led T-Rex to be youthful when Jane and Patty had died; 13 and 15 years old respectively.

T-Rex was not a new species of dragon

It was speculated that the two smaller skeletons were not T-Rex, but a relative nanotairene of a small pygmy. Bone studies with histology led researchers to conclude that juvenile skeletal T-Rex was not a new species of dragon. Instead, Woodward points out, as T. to reach adult size. It had taken Rex twenty years.

The tyrannical king may suffer mature changes. Teens like Jane and Patty were sharp, with floating legs and knife teeth to bite, while adults were crushing bones. Not only that, but Woodward’s team discovers that T.W. Growing Rex can be a good trick. If your food source was scarce for a particular year, it didn’t grow as much and if the food was plentiful, it increased a lot.

The world’s most famous dinosaurs

The space between annual growth rings records how much a person grows from one year to the next. The space between rings between Jane, Pete and even older people is inconsistent, the space with a few years. It is close, and in other years it has spread. Besides, “said Woodward.

The research conducted by Woodward and his team has written a new chapter in the early years of the world’s most famous dinosaurs, providing evidence that he assumed the crown of the dictator king long before reaching adult size.

The researchers found Teen-age T-rex, find out more about T-Rex: Without a doubt, Tyrannosaurus rex is the most famous dinosaur in the world. The 40-foot-long hunter who crushed bones inside a five-foot-long head is similar to the legend. Now, a look at the two medium bones, the immature T. Rex also allows scientists to learn about the dictator King’s terrible teenager.

T-Rex fossil

In the early 2000s, two relatively small T-shirts from Carter County, Montana of the Burpee Natural History Museum in Rockford, Illinois. T-Rex fossil skeletons were collected. The nicknames “Jane” and “Patty” would have been a little longer and double that of the tortured draft horse. The team led by Holly Woodward, PhD, of the Center for Health Sciences at Oklahoma State University, t. He studied Jane and Pete to better understand the story of T-Rex’s life.

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Paleontologists In Madagascar Have Identified A New Genus And Species

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Paleontologists In Madagascar Have Identified A New Genus And Species
Paleontologists In Madagascar

Paleontologists In Madagascar Have Identified A New Genus And Species. The bird from the Cretaceous period of Madagascar has a sickle-shaped beak. Paleontologists in Madagascar have identified a new genus and species of enantiornithine bird that had a long, deep beak, a morphology previously unknown among Mesozoic birds.

Paleontologists In Madagascar

Forsterae incorrectly among non-avian dinosaurs and other late Cretaceous animals from Madaskaskar. Image credit: Mark Witton lived in the newly identified bird species 70 to 68 million years ago (Late Cretaceous era) in what is now Madagascar. Called Falcatelli forsteri, it is from the enantiornithines, an extinct group of birds known exclusively from extinct fossils and discovered mainly in Asia.

Paleontologists

Enantiornithins represent the first great diversification of early birds, occupying ecosystems with their non-avian relatives such as Velosacroptor and Tyrannosaurus, said Dr. Alan Turner. A researcher in the Department of Anatomical Sciences at Stony Brook University. Unlike earlier birds such as Archeopteryx, primitive and long-tailed skull features, enantiornithins such as Fanatacacli forsteri appeared relatively modern.

Life remodeling of Falsatelli forestera with its unique peak. Image credit: Mark Witton Falsatly Forrestera was small, the size of a crow, and had a sickle-shaped beak. Dr. “We don’t really know why some beak shapes develop. But we do know that they are used for tasks like handling objects, grooming feathers, feeding, and other life-sustaining behaviors, Turner said. In the case of Falcatelli forreste.

northwestern Madagascar

It was probably the same and it is important to find that this early bird had such a uniquely developed beak during the Cretaceous. Falsacetelli forreste is known from a well-preserved partial skull found in northwestern Madagascar. The excellent preservation quality is outstanding and reveals many important details, said the paleontologist.

As an example, a complex series of grooves on the outer surface of bones on the side of the face indicates that the animal harbored a giant keratinous mantle. While alive. Using high-resolution micro computed tomography and digital modeling, they nearly separated the bones from the rock.

He said: It quickly became apparent that the bones that make up the face in Falsatelli Forresteri are held up unlike any dinosaur, avian or non-avian, despite having a face similar to many modern bird groups today.

discovery of the skull of a bird

All living birds make their beak skeletons in a very specific way. It is produced mainly by an enlarged bone called the premaxilla. In contrast, most dinosaur-age birds, like the iconic Archeopteryx, have relatively unaffected snakes. Which have a small premaxilla and a large maxilla.

Surprisingly, we found a similar primitive arrangement of bones in the Falsatelli Forreste, but a tall, long upper bill with a general facial shape and something reminiscent of some modern birds unlike anything known from the Mesozoic. It turns out that you can make a modern-looking beak in many ways, Dr. Turner said.

It is not necessary to have a ‘modern’ looking beak to develop the basis for developing modern beak skeletons. The discovery is described in an article in the journal Nature. Rarely do experts find dinosaur-shaped birds with sickle-shaped beaks. Scientists announced the discovery of the skull of a bird the size of a raven with a sickle-shaped beak.

age of dinosaurs

The name of the bird is Falcatelli forsterera, it lived in the age of dinosaurs, which was more accurate in the Mesozoic era. Resident in Madagascar for 68 million years. According to scientists, this bird has different characteristics compared to other birds of its time. Not just the shape of the beak, but the basic anatomy as a whole. It’s no wonder scientists consider these discoveries to be evidence of bird diversity during the age of dinosaurs.

The middle Forrestera faulktecli, similar to the beak of a baby beacon, comes from a different species and is not closely related. Today we know that there are different forms of bird beaks. From sword-beaded hummingbirds to hornbills. However, there was little variation among Mesozoic birds. Scientists can only find the skull incorrectly. It measures approximately 9 cm and was found in a rock.

paleontologist & research co-author

The researchers did not play with it because the wind did not risk damaging the skull. Instead, the scientists analyzed the Falcatelli forsterea skull using advanced scanning and digital reconstruction. Incredible, the skull (Falcatecki forsteri) is small, fragile, brittle, and very difficult to learn.

All that said, Professor Patrick O’Connor of Ohio University is the lead author of the study published in the Journal NatureThese fossils of birds are extremely rare because they have very delicate skeletons.

Its cavities survived the fossilization process, and were added to by paleontologist and research co-author Alan Turner of Stony Brook University in New York.

Turner claimed that the Falsatelli forsterii skull is a small specimen of the diversity of bird forms from the Mesozoic Era. Illustration of the bird Falsatelli forasterii that lived 68 million years ago in Madagascar. Its beak was like a modern bird.

Paleontologists In Madagascar

Representation of a falcon that survived 68 million years ago in Madagascar. Its beak was like a modern bird. Anatomy of Falcatelli forsterea: According to scientists, Falcattei forsterea evolved from a small winged dinosaur about 150 million years ago. Ancient birds retained many ancient features, including teeth.

The evidence is that the Falcatelli fossil has a conical tooth in front of the upper jaw. Scientists suspect that Falsatli only had a few teeth in his life. Researchers reveal evidence of deadly duel with dinosaurs This is what antinioornithine. Which did not survive the mass extinction 66 million years ago, put an end to the Cretaceous period.

Unlike early birds, like Archeopteryx, which in many ways still resembled a dinosaur with a long tail and a nonspecific snout. Birds like falcatali look relatively modern, Turner said. It is in the basic skeletal structure where the differences are most pronounced, O’Connor added, with greater resemblance to dinosaurs like Velociraptor than to modern birds.

paleontologist definition

Paleontologists discover new fossils of gigantic freshwater turtles, an international team of paleontologists has unearthed several well-preserved shells and the first known jaw specimen of Stupendemys Geographicus. A species of side-neck freshwater turtle that lived 5-10 million years ago (Miocence period). ) in South America. Together, fossils shed new light on the biology, past distribution and phylogenetic position of the giant tortoise.

paleontologist salary

Reconstitution of Stupendemys Geographicus male (front) and female (center-left), with the giant alligator Purussaurus mirandai and the great catfish Phractocephalus nassi. Reconstitution of Stupendemys Geographicus male (front) and female (center-left), with the giant alligator Purussaurus mirandai and the great catfish Phractocephalus nassi. Image by scinews.com.

paleontologist

Since the extinction of dinosaurs, northern neotropics have housed missing vertebrates today that were extremely large within their respective clades, said team director Dr. Marcelo Sánchez, director of the Institute and Museum of Paleontology at the University of Zurich and colleagues. Among them are the largest snake, the alligator crocodile, the gavial and some of the largest rodents.

One of the most emblematic species of these species is the gigantic geographic turtle of Stupendemys. Because it is the largest non-sea turtle ever known from a full shell. Stupendemys Geographicus was first described in 1976 from the Urumaco formation in northwestern Venezuela. But our knowledge of this animal was based on partial specimens that led to a problematic taxonomy, in particular due to the lack of specimens with elements skull and shell associates.

What is a Paleontologist?

Paleontologist Rodolfo Sanchez and an 8 million-year-old shell of Stupendemys male geography of Urumaco, Venezuela. Dr. Sánchez and his co-authors have discovered and examined new specimens of Stupendemys geography in the Urumaco region in Venezuela and in the La Tatacoa desert in Colombia. The findings included the largest shell reported by any existing or extinct turtle, with a shell length of 2.4 m (8 feet) and an estimated mass of 1,145 kg, almost 100 times the size of its closest living relative.

The shell of some Stupendemys Geographicus individuals has reached almost 3 m (10 feet), which makes it one of the largest turtles, if not the largest, that ever existed, said Dr. Sanchez. In some specimens, the researchers observed a particular and unexpected feature: the horns. The two types of shells indicate that there were two sexes of geographical Stupendemys: males with shells with horns and females with shells without horns, said Dr. Sanchez.

species within the tree of life of the turtles

This is the first time that a sexual dimorphism in the form of horned shells has been reported for one of the lateral neck turtles, one of the two main turtle groups in the world. Scientists have also been able to review the evolutionary relationships of this species within the tree of life of the turtles. Based on studies on the anatomy of turtles.

We now know that some live turtles in the Amazon region are the closest living relatives, said Dr. Sánchez. In addition, new discoveries and research on existing fossils from Brazil. Colombia and Venezuela indicate a much wider geographical distribution of Stupendemys Geographicus than previously thought. The animal lived throughout the northern part of South America.

Despite its enormous size, the turtle had natural enemies, the authors added. In many regions, the presence of geographical Stupendemys coincides with Purussaurus, the largest alligators. It was probably a giant tortoise predator, not only for its size and food preferences, but also as suggested by bite marks and perforated bones in the fossilized shells of Stupendemys Geographicus. The research is described in an article in the journal Science Advances.

Paleontologists discover new fossils

Paleontologists discover new fossils of gigantic freshwater turtles and scientists have fossils to prove it. Huge extinct animals lived 5-10 million years ago. The freshwater turtle today is almost 100 times larger than its closest living relative. The turtle roamed through present-day Venezuela and Colombia during the late Miocene era. Fossils of a giant tortoise that were as big as a car in South America, scientists said in a study published this week.

It is the largest, if not the largest, tortoise ever, said study lead author Marcelo, a paleontologist at the University of Zurich. The giant, extinct animals lived 5 million to 10 million years ago and were 9 1/2 feet, about the size and shape of a medium-sized automobile. Known by the Latin name Stupendemys Geographics, the freshwater turtle today is almost 100 times larger than its closest living relative, the Amazon River’s big-headed turtle. She had a body mass of approximately 2,500 pounds.

Turtles developed in Venezuela & Colombia

Fossils suggest that the male of the species had horns, while the female did not. There are two types of indications that two sexes of stupendemies were present: horned spheres and female horned spheres, Sanchez said. Artist’s concept of the giant tortoise Stupendemies Geographics: Male (front) and female (left) swim in fresh water. Horns, which are rare in turtles, can be used to protect their massive skulls during the man-to-man fight, the researchers said.

Predators include Purim, similar to a giant crocodile, known as Purusaurus, the study noted that turtle fossils cite not only the size and dietary preferences of the caymons, but also the bite marks and drilled bones. The turtles’ diet included fish, snakes, and mollusks. The study findings have greatly expanded the known range of turtles, which developed in Venezuela and Colombia during the late Miocene era.

Although the first giant tortoise specimens were identified from the remains discovered in Venezuela in 1976. The giants’ knowledge of these reptiles has been stunted so far due to the lack of complete specimens. The study was published in the scientific journal Science Advance on Wednesday.

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American Crocodile In The United States And South Florida

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American crocodile: Alligators and alligators belong to a group of reptiles called crocodiles, which are the largest living reptiles.
American crocodile

American crocodile: Alligators and alligators belong to a group of reptiles called crocodiles, which are the largest living reptiles. Of the 23 different species of crocodiles in the world, 2 species are native to the United States, and South Florida is the only place where these two species coexist. The American alligator (Alligator mississipensis) is native to the entire southeastern United States, and the Everglades alligator is present in the extreme south of its range.

American crocodile

The American alligator (Crocodylus acutus), on the other hand, inhabits the coastal areas of southern Florida, where it is found in the extreme north of its range. American alligators can be found on the islands of Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniola, as well as on the southern coasts of Mexico and Central America, southern Ecuador on the Pacific coast of South America and Venezuela on the Atlantic coast. .

Alligators can be difficult to distinguish from alligators at first glance, but a closer look reveals several important differences. The American alligator is shaped like a lizard with a long, muscular tail and four short legs, with five toes on the front legs and four on the back. Adults have a grayish-green back and tail and a white to yellow underside.

Its narrow snout is triangular in shape and the fourth tooth is visible on either side of the lower jaw when the mouth is closed. The eardrums are protected by a movable flap of skin on the top of the head behind the eyes, and the nostrils are at the end of the elongated muzzle. Due to the location of the eyes, ears, and nostrils, an alligator can only dive with the top of its head and still be able to see, hear, and breathe.

alligators in Florida

Male crocodiles are larger than females and can reach about 20 feet long, but they rarely exceed 14 feet in the wild. The length of the breeding female is approximately 8 to 12 feet. Alligators are larger than alligators in Florida, are darker in color, have a wider snout, and are commonly found in freshwater habitats. On the other hand, crocodiles are rare and secret creatures that inhabit coastal, brackish and saltwater habitats.

Although the aggressive reputation earned by the distant, larger, and man-eating cousins of the American alligator in Australia and Africa may inspire fear in the alligators that live in the Everglades, conflict with humans rarely occurs due to the shy nature of the alligator. American. Like alligators, alligators are ectothermic, which means that they depend on external sources of heat to regulate their body temperature when going in the sun or in areas with hot or cold water.

A sunbathing crocodile may be surprised by an approaching person and quickly (and loudly) enter the water. This behavior may scare the person, but should not be misunderstood. Crocodiles often enter the water in silence; Running away indicates that the crocodile is scared and feeling tense. Crocodiles can sometimes be seen in the sun with their mouths open. This behavior is also a way to control body temperature and does not mean that the crocodile is behaving aggressively towards people.

range of body temperature

A crocodile will eat almost anything that moves. The hatchlings and young crocodiles eat small fish, snails, crustaceans, and insects. Adults feed primarily on fish, crabs, turtles, snakes, and small mammals at night. The growth rate of crocodiles varies depending on the availability of food and the temperature. Digestion is efficient only within a certain range of body temperature. In general, alligators grow slower near the limit of their range.

American alligators build nests that are holes or mounds of sand and other clay materials. Unlike birds and mammals, the sex of an embryo is not determined at the time of fertilization, but by the temperature at which the eggs are incubated. A temperature of 88 to 91 degrees Fahrenheit produces primarily male offspring, and temperatures below 88 degrees Fahrenheit result in most females.

Female crocodiles

However, the temperature must remain above 82 degrees for the eggs to survive and hatch. The female lays 20 to 60 eggs per clutch and lays eggs for about 85 days in late July or early August. Female crocodiles build mud nests in high, well-drained sites. The nests are built so that the eggs are above the high water mark because crocodile eggs cannot survive a flood for more than 12 hours.

After the nest is built, the female cannot stay close to the nest, however, at the end of the incubation, the females move to the nest with increasing frequency. When hatching begins, the mother digs the nest and may help some of the chicks hatch from the eggs. She can also help newborn crocodiles in the water or at the breeding sites where they are released.

Adult crocodiles leave nesting areas in a day or two, leaving the young alone. Young quickly disperse from their nests and fight back. Crocodiles typically live between 50 and 70 years in the wild. The most important factors affecting the success of alligators in Everglades National Park are predation, poor hydrological conditions, and loss of habitat.

Although adult crocodiles have no other natural predators than humans, the young have a high mortality rate and are preyed upon by other wildlife, including raccoons, birds, and crabs.

development in South Florida

Changes in salinity and water levels in Florida Bay are also a factor as a result of extensive drainage programs throughout South Florida. Crocodile nests that are too wet or too dry can cause the eggs to die. Suitable habitat for alligators throughout the year was lost with the development of the Upper Florida Keys.

Despite the setbacks, the outlook for alligators in Florida is optimistic and is a classic example of successful conservation of endangered species. Although the world population of the American alligator is in danger of extinction, Florida’s population status has been threatened by a recent sustained increase in numbers, especially of nesting females.

species survival in the wild

Nest populations have gradually increased in both abundance and nesting range since the establishment of effective protection and nesting habitats for the animals. Protecting the habitat of the remaining alligators in Florida and restoring the Everglades ecosystem will help ensure the species survival in the wild.

American alligators build nests that are holes or mounds of sand and other clay materials. Unlike birds and mammals, the sex of an embryo is not determined at the time of fertilization, but by the temperature at which the eggs are incubated. A temperature of 88 to 91 degrees Fahrenheit produces primarily male offspring, and temperatures below 88 degrees Fahrenheit result in most females.

crocodile eggs

However, the temperature must remain above 82 degrees for the eggs to survive and hatch. The female lays 20 to 60 eggs per clutch and lays eggs for about 85 days in late July or early August. Female crocodiles build mud nests in high, well-drained sites. The nests are built so that the eggs are above the high water mark because crocodile eggs cannot survive a flood for more than 12 hours.

After the nest is built, the female cannot stay close to the nest, however, at the end of the incubation, the females move to the nest with increasing frequency. When hatching begins, the mother digs the nest and may help some of the chicks hatch from the eggs. She can also help newborn crocodiles in the water or at the breeding sites where they are released.

hydrological conditions

Adult crocodiles leave nesting areas in a day or two, leaving the young alone. Young quickly disperse from their nests and fight back. Crocodiles typically live between 50 and 70 years in the wild. The most important factors affecting the success of alligators in Everglades National Park are predation, poor hydrological conditions, and loss of habitat.

Although adult crocodiles have no other natural predators than humans, the young have a high mortality rate and are preyed upon by other wildlife, including raccoons, birds, and crabs. Changes in salinity and water levels in Florida Bay are also a factor as a result of extensive drainage programs throughout South Florida. Crocodile nests that are too wet or too dry can cause the eggs to die.

Alligator mississipensis

Suitable habitat for alligators throughout the year was lost with the development of the Upper Florida Keys. Young American crocodiles can show their tails. The study revealed. According to a study published in the journal Scientific Reports, young American alligators (Alligator mississipensis) have the ability to reposition their tails by up to 18% of their total body length.

The study authors hope their findings will help uncover new therapeutic approaches to repair injuries and treat diseases such as arthritis. Xu et al. An archaeologist, presents the first physical and histological evidence of the repair of the tail with regrowth in the American crocodile (Alligator mississipensis).

The regrown crocodile’s tail is approximately 6 to 18% of the total body length and was morphologically distinct from the original tail segment. A researcher at the College of Life Sciences in Arizona, author Dr. Cindy Xu said. The American aggregator, in addition to its size, is interesting because the re-growing tail shows signs of regeneration and wound healing within of the same structure.

groups of reptiles and animals

State University with regard to cartilage, blood vessels, nerves and scales, they were consistent with previous lizard tail regeneration studies from our lab and others. However, we were surprised to discover scar-shaped connective tissue rather than skeletal muscle in the regrown crocodile tail.

Future comparative studies will be important to understand why regenerative capacity is variable between different groups of reptiles and animals. Dr. Xu and her colleagues used advanced imaging techniques combined with methods for studying the anatomy and organization of tissues to examine the structure of the agromy crocodile tails.

They discovered that the new tails were complex structures with a central skeleton surrounded by connective tissue that interconnected with blood vessels and nerves. The spectrum of regenerative potential between species is attractive, clearly a high cost to produce new muscle, said co-author, Dr. from the Arizona State University College of Life Sciences. Jean Wilson-Rawls said.

discovery of the complex regrowth

The regenerated crocodile’s tail differs from the original tail. The regrown scales are densely arranged and lack dorsal scutes (top right). An unselected tube of cartilage (yellow) replaces the bone (tan) in the growing tail. Also the re-grown tail lacks skeletal muscle (red) and instead has a large amount of fibrous connective tissue (pink).

Crocodiles, lizards, and humans belong to a group of animals that have amniotes in the spinal cord. While the team first studied the ability of lizards to revive their tails, the new discovery of the complex regrowth of the tail in crocodiles revealed more about the process in amniotes. Alligators and the ancestors of dinosaurs and birds diverged about 250 million years ago, said Professor Kenro Kusumi, co-lead author of the Arizona State University School of Life Sciences.

Our discovery has found that crocodiles maintain cellular machines to maintain complex tails, while birds have lost that ability when it was lost during development. Are there fossils of dinosaurs, in whose offspring modern birds were born, including tales of regron! So far, we have not found any evidence for this in the published literature.

Department of Medical Sciences

Co-author Professor Rebecca Fisher said: If we understand that different animals are capable of repairing and regenerating tissues, then this knowledge can be harnessed to develop medical treatments. Researcher at the Arizona State University School of Life Sciences and the Department of Basic Medical Sciences at the University of Arizona School of Medicine at Phoenix.

Young crocodiles can find their tails again, scientists discover. Researchers in the United States have found that, like lizards, young crocodiles also have the ability to reposition their tails by about 23 centimeters, or 18 percent of their total body length.

Scientists from Arizona State University (ASU) and the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries used advanced imaging techniques and tissue samples to examine the anatomy of American alligators and particularly the structure of their regenerated tails.

The team discovered that these new tails had a central skeleton made of cartilage and surrounded by connective tissues interconnected with blood vessels and nerves. Their research suggests that the regrown tails give alligators a functional advantage in their swampy settlements.

Cindy Xu, a PhD graduate from ASU’s Cellular and Molecular Biology Program and lead author of the paper, said: What makes the crocodile interesting, in addition to its size, is that the regrowing tail shows signs of regeneration. and wound healing.

Corresponding to previous studies of lizard tail regeneration from our laboratory and others in relation to cartilage, blood vessels, nerves and scales. However, we used to look for connective tissue like scars rather than skeletal muscle in the regenerated crocodile tails. We were surprised.

Crocodiles, lizards & humans

She added that “future comparative studies will be important to understand why regenerative capacity is variable between different groups of reptiles and animals.” Crocodiles, lizards and humans have one thing in common: they all belong to a group of animals that have a column called amniotes.

improve medical treatments

Scientists say this new research has given them even more information about amniotes. And following previous discoveries that lizards can also find their tails again. Rebecca Fisher, co-author and professor at the University of Arizona School of Medicine at Phoenix and ASU College, said:

If we understand that different animals are capable of repairing and regenerating tissue, then this knowledge can help improve medical treatments. It can be taken to develop. The researchers hope their findings will lead to a more scientific exploration and lead to the discovery of new therapeutic approaches to repair injuries and treat diseases such as arthritis.

Fossil Crocodile Footprints Are Quite Rare In Asia. Crocodiles from the Cretaceous Period of Korea were on two legs. Several well-preserved pathways created by large crocodiles have been found near the city of Sachon in South Korea, 110 to 120 million years ago (Cretaceous period). The extinct ancestor of modern crocodiles.

Fossil Crocodile Footprints

Surprisingly, the path never contains handprints, and biped walking, in particular, indicates fossil crocodylomorphs that are not known from the path. Professor Kyung Soo Kim of China National University of Education and his colleagues discovered the well-preserved crocodile path at the Sachon Jae-ri site of the Jinan Formation with clearly defined footprints and localized skin marks.

The tracks are 18 meters to 24 centimeters long, which are more than 3 meters long for the trackmaker’s body. We were surprised to find out that the tracks represent 3-4 meter long biped animals, said Professor Kim.

The footprints were initially thought to have been created by a giant bipolar pterosaur walking on the marshes, now we understand that these were biped footprints, said Dr. from the University of Queensland..Anthony Romeo said. The footprints measure approximately 21 cm, suggesting that the trackers’ feet were approximately the same height as the adult human feet.

fossils are spectacular

These were tall animals that were more than 3 meters above our estimate. Although the footprints were everywhere on the site, there were no marks. Paleontologists initially questioned the absence of handprints on the road, pointing out that modern crocodiles are quadrupeds (four-legged). Fossil crocodile footprints are quite rare in Asia.

So the abundance of about a hundred footprints was extraordinary, said Dr. Romilio. As an animal moves. The hind legs have the ability to enter a handmade print and overprint it, but we have found no evidence of this at these Korean sites. This is also not due to poor conservation, as these fossils are spectacular, they also have fine details of preserved soles and foot scales.

The researchers named the new Batrachopus grandis track, emphasizing the larger size than the much older, shorter 2-3 cm long Batracopus-type tracks, commonly found in the Jurassic of North America. “No one expected such a large binary crocodile. The Jinju formation is very rich in clues; You can read all of ecology, ”said Professor Martin Lockley of the University of Colorado.

ferocious dinosaurs

Some of the oldest terrestrial adapted crocodile remains contain large species that survived more than 200 million years ago (Triassic period) and some paleontologists think they may be bipeds. Dr. “The Korean pathways test this hypothesis, at least for the Cretaceous period,” said Romilio. It also shows that this adaptation was effective for millions of years, even with large, ferocious dinosaurs moving.

The study was published in the journal Scientific Reports. Scientists are surprised to learn that some ancient crocodiles may have moved about two feet. The evidence comes from beautifully preserved fossil footprints in South Korea. About a hundred of these 18 to 24 cm long indentations were omitted. Which were probably sedimentary sediments that surrounded a lake in the early Cretaceous 110-120 million years ago.

University of Colorado

The international team behind the discovery say it will likely challenge our perception of crocodiles. People perceive crocodiles as animals that not so much that they live all day on the banks of the Nile or along the rivers in Costa Rica. No one automatically thinks that I wonder what this [creature] would be if it were biped and ot an ostrich.

He can walk like Rex, ”Martin Lockley, a professor at the University of Colorado, USA, told BBC News. The study is sure to spark a lively debate. Not all researchers will necessarily accept the team’s interpretation. Pro Lockley and his colleagues have assigned Batrachopus grandis to the animal that made the tracks, although none of its physical remains have yet been exposed.

Acceptance of the creature’s existence depends only on the fossil impression. These look very similar in shape, albeit to those created by the Batrachopus crocodile, which lived in the Jurassic millions of years ago. Except those old animals were clearly quadruple: they used to walk on all fours. Pro Lockley claims that the binomial interpretation is the only explanation for the new Korean fossil tracks.

National University of Education

We can see all the marks, all the furrows on the skin, as if looking at the hands, he explained. They put one foot in front of the other, they can pass a full test by running in a straight line and there are no footprints in front. Professor Kyung Soo Kim, team leader from South Korea’s Chinju National University of Education, said the depth of impressions Eddy made supports the idea of a more honest stance.

Our paths look very narrow, more like a crocodile balancing on a tightrope, he said. When combined with the lack of traction marks on the tail, it was clear that these organisms were moving bipolarly. They moved in the same way as many dinosaurs, but the tracks were not made by dinosaurs. Dinosaurs and their bird lineages walk on your toes. Crocodiles walk on the soles of their feet, producing clear heel impressions, just like humans do.

Discovery Team of Manchester, UK

The new prints also help reinterpret a track from South Korea and other collaborators described eight years ago. In 2012. The group thought there might be a set of less well-defined and slightly smaller indentations known to large versions of flying reptiles known as pterosaurs. These animals are widely recognized as bats when placed on the ground with their hands and feet.

However, this enigmatic clue had been seen to be bipolar, perhaps the result of a ducky fainting through the water with its feet in contact with sediment. Pro Lockley thinks this track was also probably a bipedal Batrachopas. Professor Phil Manning was not part of the Discovery Team at the University of Manchester, UK.

As an expert on fossil pathways, he described the prints as “very interesting” and welcomed their publication to start a discussion, but doubted the interpretation. “For me the tracks do not conform to the general geometry of a crocodile and it is capable of producing,” he told the BBC.

Watch any video of live crocodiles and spin your feet as they gallop: It is outward, not toward the midline of the road. Just from its orientation, it makes me look like some kind of dinosaur footprint maker. But is it a crocodile! Unfortunately, we have no fossils to tell us.

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Denisovans And Neanderthals, Which Constitute 1–4% Of Their Genome

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Denisovans and Neanderthals, which Constitute 1–4% of Their Genome
Denisovans and Neanderthals

Denisovans and Neanderthals, which Constitute 1–4% of Their Genome. Modern West Africans have no Neanderthal or West Africans DNA of mysterious archaic hominids. Four populations of West Africa Yoruba, Esan, Mend and Gambian have 2 to 19% of their offspring descended from species not yet discovered by archaic hominids. Who descended from modern humans and ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans.

Denisovans and Neanderthals

New research from the University of California, Los Angeles. Durvasula and Shankaraman provide complementary lines of evidence for archaic introverts in four populations in West Africa. Contemporaries who have ancestors in Europe, Asia and Oceania carry DNA from two archaic species, Neanderthals and Denisovans, which constitute 1–4% of their genome.

Modern Human

These genetic segments came through introversion in modern humans. The process by which members of two populations and, consequently, hybrid individuals, reproduce with members of the parental population. Recent studies have shown that, although modern West Africans have no Neanderthal or Denisovana ancestry. Tey may have had introverts by other old housewives in the past.

In a new study, researchers Arun Durvasula and Sriram Shankaraman of the University of California, Los Angeles compared the DNA of Neanderthal and Denisovan with the genome of 405 individuals from West Africa. The scientists focused on four contemporary populations in West Africa: Ibadan to Yoruba, Nigeria to Essen, Sierra Leone to Mende and Gambian.

populations of archaic humans

They found differences that could be explained intermittently by an unknown archaic hominid whose ancestors were separated from the human family tree before Neanderthal. The data suggests that this introversion has occurred relatively recently, or may involve multiple populations of archaic humans. An indication of complex and long-lasting interactions between anatomically modern humans and that of archaic hominids.

There may be different

By combining our results in the West African population, we estimate that the archaic population separated from the ancestors of Neanderthals and modern humans 360,000 years ago and subsequent contradictions between the ancestors of current Africans aged 0–124,000 years behind. Their descendants contribute from 2 to 19%, ”said the authors.

Dr. Durvasula and Drs. Sankararaman also investigated the frequencies of the archaic DNA segments to determine whether natural selection could have shaped the distribution of Arctic genetic variants. We found 33 loci in Yoruba with an archaic fragment frequency of more than 50% and 37 loci in Mende, he said. Some of these genes are in high frequency in both Yoruba.

And including NF1 (a tumor suppressor gene), MTFR2 (a gene involved with mitochondrial aerobic respiration in the testicles), HS1717B2 (with hormonal regulation A gene involved), KCNIP4 (a gene with potassium channels) and TRPS1 TRPS1 (a gene associated with tricorhinofofangles). Three of these genes have been found for positive selection in Yoruba in previous explorations

NF1, KCNIP4 and TRY1

On the other hand, we did not find high frequencies in MUC7, a previously found gene that disrupts the signature of archaeological introverts. The team asks for more analysis of modern and ancient African genomes to reveal the nature of this complex story. Signs of introversion have been analyzed in West African populations, which raises questions about the identity of archaic hominids and their interactions with modern human populations in Africa, the researchers said.

A detailed understanding of archaic introversion and its role in adapting to different environmental conditions will require the analysis of genomes of ancient and extinct genomes throughout the geographic range of Africa. The results were published in the journal Science Advance. Ghost was discovered by human ancestors in West Africa. Tracing links between different species is a complex scientific discovery.

DNA of this group

Scientists say that the first humans living in West Africa may be accompanied by a mysterious “ghost population” like the now extinct ancient human. The researchers suggest that the DNA of this group represents between 2% and 19% of the genetic ancestry of modern West Africans. They believe the crossing occurred about 43,000 years ago. The scientists found links with the Mende people of Sierra Leone, Yoruba, as well as the Essen people in Nigeria and other groups in the western regions of the Gambia.

The new study was published this week in Science Advances. This suggests that the ancestors of modern West Africans intervened with as-yet-undiscovered species of archaic humans, such as ancient European Neanderthals and ocean populations with Denisovans. The Neanderthal ‘dived into the ocean’ for shellfish was half Neanderthal girl, half Denisovan. Why we continue to underestimate Neanderthal. The research also sheds more light on how archaic housewives link genetic variation to today’s Africans.

Neanderthals and Denisovans

Which despite being the most genetically diverse continent, remains poorly understood. Hundreds of thousands of years ago there were many different groups of humans, including modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans. The newly discovered “ghost populations” of ancient human species are likely to be distinct from these groups. Sriram Sankararaman.

A computational biologist who led the research at the University of California, Los Angeles, told BBC Newsday that he believed more such groups would be found in the future. His team looked at the genetic makeup of West Africans and discovered that some of their DNA came from an ancient, inexplicable source. “As we get more data from various populations, and better data, our ability to examine that data and delve deeper into these ghost populations is going to improve,” said Mr. Shankaraman.

Denisovans and Neanderthals, which Constitute 1–4% of Their Genome
Denisovans and Neanderthals

Neanderthal thimbles were best suited to holding tools with handles. Neanderthals may have found that a precise grip (where the object is placed between the finger and the tip of the thumb) is more challenging than tight grips, where the objects are placed like a hammer, between the fingers and the palm of the thumb. New research, led by the University of Kent, according to Force. Neanderthal reconstruction.

Photo courtesy

Neanderthal Museum “Much research has debated the technical capabilities of Neanderthals (Homo Neanderthalensis) in relation to early modern humans (Homo sapiens). With particular attention to subtle differences in thumb morphology and this may reflect differences in handling behavior in these two species, said lead author Dr. Skeletal Biology Research Center at the University of Kent. Emeline Bardo and her colleagues said.

“We provide a novel perspective on this debate through 3D geometric morphological analysis of the covariance of shape between the articular surfaces of the first trapezoidal and proximal Neanderthal metacarpal compared to early and recent humans. The researchers used 3D analysis to map the joints (collectively referred to as the trapezius-pural complex) between the bones responsible for the movement of the thumb of five Neanderthal individuals.

modern adults

They then compared the results with measurements taken from the remains of five early modern humans and 40 recent modern adults. They found a covariation in the shape and relative orientation of the joints of the trapeziometacarpal complex that suggests different repeated movements of the thumb in Neanderthals than in modern humans. The joint at the base of the thumb of Neanderthal remains is flatter with a smaller contact surface and is more suitable for a thumb extended along the edge of the hand.

morphological power

This thumb stance suggests that regular use of force is similar to the ‘squeeze’ grips, which we now hold with the handle tool. In comparison, these articular surfaces are generally larger and more curved in recent modern human thumbs, an advantage when holding objects between the fingertips and the thumb, known as a precision grip. Although the morphological power of the Neanderthals studied is better suited to tight grip.

They will still be able to perform precise hand postures, but they may have found it more challenging than modern humans, said Dr. Bardo said. A comparison of fossil morphology between the hands of Neanderthals and modern humans can provide more insight into the behavior of our ancient relatives and the use of ancient tools. The team’s article was published online in Scientific Reports.

Natural History Museum

The Neanderthal thumb is better adapted to hold the handle, the instrument with the study. An employee of the Natural History Museum in London looks at the model of the Neanderthal man (PA File). The Neanderthal thumb was better adapted to hold tools in the same way that a human would hold a hammer, new research suggests. The findings suggest that Neanderthals may have found precision grips more challenging than electric grips.

five Neanderthal individuals

Precision grips consist of holding an object between the tip of the finger and the thumb, and electric compression grips, where the object is held like a hammer, with the directive force of the thumb between the fingers and the palm. Using 3D analysis, Drs. Emeline Bardo and her coworkers mapped the joints between the bones responsible for the movement of the thumb, collectively called the trapezometacarpal complex, of five Neanderthal individuals.

Scientific Reports

They compared the results with measurements taken from the remains of five early modern humans and 50 recent modern adults. Researchers at the University of Kent found correlations in the size and relative orientation of the joints, suggesting different repetitive thumb movements in Neanderthals than in modern humans. Neanderthal remains were best suited for a flattened joint with a small contact surface at the base of the thumb and an extended thumb along the edge of the hand.

According to a study published in Scientific Reports. This thumb posture suggests that power grips for squeezing are used regularly, just as humans now use to hold tools with handles. These results underscore the importance of general analysis of joint shape in understanding the functional capabilities and development of the modern human thumb.

morphology of the Neanderthals

These joint surfaces are generally larger and more curved in recent modern human thumbs, an advantage when holding objects between the fingertips and the thumb, known as a precision grip. The researchers said that although the morphology of the Neanderthals studied is better suited for power grips, they would still be capable of performing precise hand postures. However, they may have found it more challenging than modern humans, according to the authors.

A comparison of fossil morphology between the hands of Neanderthals and modern humans can provide more insight into the behavior of our ancient relatives and the use of ancient tools. The authors wrote: The results show a distinct pattern of shape covariation in Neanderthals and consistent with more extended and paired thumb postures that may reflect the usual grip use commonly used for serrated devices.

Neanderthal had powerful thumbs

He said: “These results underscore the importance of general analysis of joint shape in understanding the functional capabilities and development of the modern human thumb.” Power vs. Cunning: Neanderthal had powerful thumbs, while humans had better control. The Neanderthal thumb was better suited for holding tools with handles, a new study found.

A 3D analysis of the joints between the bones responsible for Neanderthal-related thumb movement revealed how our extinct cousins may have caught objects. According to the analysis, the Neanderthal thumb was best adapted to be a force grip, similar to the one you see holding a hammer. However, this made it more difficult to employ precise capture.

Modern archaeological

Which may have given Holmes the upper hand at a time when two species of Homo were directly competing for resources. Neanderthals were probably better able to hold a spear than early humans. But they lacked other divisions. Modern archaeological finds suggest that Neanderthals were not the many brutes who imagined them. They wore necklaces and other types of jewelry, and were detailed and creative with their cave paintings like humans of the time.

He made offerings to bury flowers, pointing out a complex cultural heritage, as well as mastering fiber technology and understanding basic mathematics from the pattern of threads and ropes. Of course, Neanderthals were much more similar than humans. In fact, it intervened several times, a fact that to date is associated with 2% of our DNA that is of Neanderthal origin.

smart and resourceful

But, in the end, Neanderthals became extinct around 40,000 years ago, while humans spread across seven continents and dominated the planet’s ecosystem. So while Neanderthals were also smart and resourceful, humans may have gained an added advantage in other areas. Perhaps Neanderthals were more vulnerable to diseases that humans themselves brought from Africa and the Middle East.

A new study published today in the journal Scientific Reports may draw a different conclusion:

Neanderthals may be technically more powerful, not because of their inferior intelligence. But because of their working hands, allowing them a precise grip. They were less adapted. The researchers, led by Emeline Bardo from the University of Kent in the United Kingdom, mapped the joints between the bones responsible for the movement of the thumb, known collectively as the trapeziometacarpal complex, in five Neanderthals.

Neanderthals were different

The 3D digital model was compared to similar measurements of five early modern humans, the largest of whom lived in present-day Israel about 95,000 years ago. The comparative analysis also included the thumb joints of 50 in recently deceased modern human adults.

In Neanderthal, the joint connecting the wrist bone to the base of the wrist, with the first thumb bone connecting to the wrist, was best suited for extension of the edge of the arm. This thumb stance is best suited for power punch fists, similar to what we would use to hold the hammer.

The power grip hilt would have been useful to Neanderthals when grasping spears that are used for hunting. In contrast, modern humans have thumb joints that are generally larger and more curved than our extinct cousins. This setting is best suited for holding objects between your fingertips and thumb, such as holding a pen.

distinct pattern of shape covariation

Ultimately, this precise grip may have helped humans develop better technology. However, at this time there is no way of knowing how true the Neanderthals were. After all, the domain of humans varies enormously and there is no reason to believe that Neanderthals were different. Maybe a larger sample size will clean things up a bit.

The study authors wrote: The results show a distinct pattern of shape covariation in Neanderthals, consistent with more elongated and paired thumb mats than those commonly used for the grips used in devices. These results underscore the importance of general analysis of joint shape in understanding the functional capabilities and development of the modern human thumb, he said.

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The Air-Gen Device Generates Electrical Energy From Environmental Energy

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The Air-Gen device generates electrical energy from environmental energy.
The Air-Gen device

The Air-Gen device generates electrical energy from environmental energy, a thin film device made of nanometer scale protein wires. According to a new study published in the journal Nature, a thin film device made of nanometric scale protein strands prepared from microorganisms can generate constant electrical energy in the natural environment.

The Air-Gen device

Graphic image of a thin film of a protein nanowire that generates electricity from atmospheric moisture. Image by University of Massachusetts Amherst. We are really producing electricity from nothing. An electrical engineer at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Drs. Jun Yao said: The air gene generates clean energy 24/7.

This protein is the most surprising and exciting application of nanowires, said Professor Derek Loveley, a microbiologist at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Air gene devices can also generate electricity in areas of extremely low humidity, such as the Sahara desert – The Air-Gen device

protein nanowires

This is a significant advantage over other forms of renewable energy, including solar and wind, because unlike these other renewable energy sources, the Air-Gene does not require solar or wind light, and also works indoors, he said. Professor Loveley. The device only requires a thin film of protein nanowires of less than 10 μm. The lower part of the film rests on an electrode.

While a small electrode that covers only a part of the nanowire film is located at the top. The film announces the water vapor of the atmosphere. A combination of the electrical conductivity and surface chemistry of protein nanowires together with fine pores between nanowires within the film establishes the conditions that generate the electric current between the two electrodes.

electrodes in a specific way

The current generation of air gene devices produces a constant voltage of approximately 0.5 V in a 7 μm thick film, whose current density is approximately 17 / A / cm2. I realized that when nanowires approached with electrodes in a specific way, the devices generated a current, said Xiaomeng Liu, Ph.D. Student at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

I discovered that exposure to atmospheric moisture was necessary and that protein nanowires absorbed water, creating a voltage gradient in the device. The scientists plan in the next phase is to develop a small ‘patch’ of air genes that can power electronic devices such as health and fitness monitors and smart watches, which will eliminate the need for conventional batteries.

large-scale system

They also hope to develop an air gain that is applied to cell phones to eliminate periodic charging. The ultimate goal is to build a large-scale system, Drs. Yao said. “For example, technology can be incorporated into the wall paint that can help power your home. Or we can develop autonomous air-powered generators that supply power from the grid.”

Once we reach an industrial scale for wire production, I sincerely hope that we can build larger systems that contribute significantly to sustainable production. The new device generates electricity from moisture in the air. In the race for renewable energy, engineers are cutting back on their wits to discover and exploit available energy regardless of the environment. But sometimes it is nature that promotes scientists.

moisture in the air

This is particularly the case for a very specific bacterium, Geobacter sulphideucense, whose bacterial nanowires conduct electricity naturally. And the researchers used these nanowires to create a device that generates electricity from moisture in the air. This unusual bacterium, belonging to the genus Bacteria, was first noticed for its ability to produce magnetite in the absence of oxygen.

But over time scientists discovered that it could also produce other things, such as bacteria. Nanowires that conduct electricity. Over the years, researchers have tried to find the use of this natural gift in a useful way. And recently he did it with a device called Air-Gene. According to the team, your device can generate electricity from virtually nothing.

electric current between the two electrodes

“We literally produce electricity from the wind. Air-gene generates clean energy 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, ”said Jun Yao, an electrical engineer at Jun Massachusetts University. The study was published in the journal Nature. Due to this performance, the nanowire film is capable of absorbing the water vapor present in the atmosphere, allowing the device to generate a direct electric current between the two electrodes.

The team says the charge is likely made up of a damping gradient, which causes protons to propagate in the nanowire material. This diffusion of charges should induce a counterbalanced electric field or the same potential as a resting membrane in biological systems. A retained moisture gradient, which is fundamentally different from anything seen in previous systems, is ours.

atmospheric humidity

It clarifies the nanowire constant output voltage….Device. Hydropower generation is more efficient than graphene. The discovery was made almost by accident, when Yao noticed that the devices he was experimenting with conducted electricity on their own. I noticed that when the nanowires were exposed to the electrode in a specific way, the devices produced a current.

I discovered that it was necessary to be exposed to atmospheric humidity and that protein nanowires absorb water, creating a voltage gradient throughout the instrument. Previous research has shown hydroelectric power production using other types of nanometry, such as graphene. But these efforts have largely produced only short bursts of electricity, lasting only a few seconds.

large-scale power

In contrast, the air gene produces a constant voltage of about 0.5 V, with a current density of about 17 micrograms per square centimeter. Towards large-scale power generation: Not too much power is needed, but the team says connecting multiple devices can generate enough to charge small devices like smartphones and other personal electronic devices.

All without waste and just dry as ambient humidity (even without using areas) such as the Sahara desert). The ultimate goal is to build a system on a large scale. Once we reach an industrial scale for the production of nanowires. I hope that we can build large-generation systems that contribute significantly to the production of sustainable energy, said Yao, explaining Since future efforts can use the technology in homes of machines, through nanowires embedded in the mural.

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Astronomers Have Discovered And Confirmed A Massive Exoplanet

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The warm gas giant orbiting the young active star TOI-201
The warm gas giant

The warm gas giant orbiting the young active star TOI-201. Using data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Study Satellite (TESS) and various ground-based telescopes, astronomers have discovered and confirmed a massive exoplanet transiting the young F-type star TOI-201. An artist’s impression of the hot giant exoplanet TOI-201b and its parent star. An artist’s impression of the hot giant exoplanet TOI-201b and its parent star.

The warm gas giant

The warm transmitting giants are planets with a radius greater than 0.8 times that of Jupiter and an orbital period between 10 and 100 days, wrote Dr. Melissa Hobson, an astronomer at the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and their colleagues. They are particularly important for understanding the formation and evolution of giant planets.

Unlike hot Jupiters, that is, planets with a radius greater than 0.8 times that of Jupiter and an orbital period of less than 10 days, which are inflated by mechanisms that are not yet clear but are potentially associated with radiation, these are more distant. Planets K are irradiated less strongly by their host star, which means that their size and mass can be effectively modeled by their metallicity.

Both hot and hot Jupiters are not likely to form in situ, but are expected to form in the outer regions of the disk and migrate to their current locations; the main proposed mechanisms are gas disk migration and gas migration. high eccentricity, they wrote. However, the orbital histories of hot Jupiters are influenced by tidal evolution, which can erase traces of past interactions between planets.

newly discovered warm giant

This is not the case for hot Jupiters. Therefore, this population of planets is the giant planet in its physical and orbital parameters. It preserves valuable information for construction studies. The newly discovered warm giant has a mass 0.42 times that of Jupiter and the same radius as Jupiter. Named TOI-201b, the planet orbits the bright F-type star TOI-201 once every 53 days.

“TOI-201b is still cooling quite rapidly, as expected from the youth of the host star,” the astronomers wrote. TOI-201 is located about 372 light years away in the constellation Pictor. Also known as HD 39474 and TIC 350618622, this star is 32% larger and more massive than the Sun and is approximately 870 million years old. TOI-201b was first identified as a candidate in the TESS data and was later confirmed using ground data from the Next Generation Traffic Survey (NGTS).

giant planets

The researchers also used radial velocity data from three spectrographs (FEROS, HARPS, CORALIE) at the La Silla Observatory and a series of four telescopes called Minerva-Australis. “TOI-201b is within 5% of the youngest exoplanet host stars with the measured ages, making this system a valuable addition to known planets around young stars.

Which can be used for testing the formation of planets and theories of evolution. important to restrict, he wrote. It also joins the smaller but growing population of long-period giant planets, helping to populate the still relatively sparse region of the radio period diagram. The team’s article will be published in the Astronomical Journal.

Hot gas giant circles young active star TOI-201

Using data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Study Satellite (TESS) and various ground-based telescopes. An artist’s impression of the giant exoplanet TOI-201b and its original star. An artist’s impression of the giant exoplanet TOI-201b and its original star. Astronomers have discovered and confirmed a giant exoplanet carrying the young F-type star TOI-201.

Jupiter with planets

Astronomer of the Millennium Institution and Ponticalia Universidia Catolica de Chile for the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Dr. Melissa Hobson and Drs. Melissa Hobson said: The transmitting giants are Jupiter with planets more than 0.8 times and between 10 and 100 days of orbital period. They are particularly important for understanding the formation and evolution of giant planets.

Unlike hot Jupiters, that is, planets with a radius 0.8 times larger than Jupiter that have Jupiter and orbital periods of less than 10 days. Which are inflated by mechanisms that are still hidden, but associated with radiation. These more distant planets are probably less strongly irradiated by their host star. Which means that their size and mass can be effectively characterized by their metallicity.

physical and orbital aspect

Both hot and hot Jupiters are unlikely to form in situation. But are expected to form in the outer regions of the disk and migrate to their current locations. The main proposed mechanisms are gas disk migration and high eccentric migration, she wrote. However, the orbital currents of hot Jupiter are influenced by the evolution of the tides, which can erase traces of previous interactions with planets; this is not the case of hot Jupiter.

Therefore, this population of planets is a giant planet in its physical and orbital aspect. Parameters. It preserves valuable information for the study of construction. The newly discovered hot giant is 0.42 times the mass of Jupiter and has the same radius as Jupiter. Named TOI-201B, the planet revolves around the bright F-type star TOI-201 once every 53 days.

TOI-201b is still cooling quite rapidly, as expected from the youth of the host star, the astronomers wrote. TOI-201 is approximately 372 light years distant in the constellation of the painter. Also known as HD 39474 and TIC 350618622, this star is 32% larger and more massive than the Sun and is about 870 million years old.

TOI-201b was first identified as a candidate in the TESS data and later confirmed to use ground data from the Next Generation Traffic Survey (NGTS).

planets around young stars

The researchers used radial velocity data from three spectrographs (FEROS, HARPS, CORALIE) at the La Silla Observatory and a series of four telescopes called Minerva-Australasia. TOI-201b is within the measured age with the youngest 5% of exoplanet host stars, making this system a valuable addition to known planets around young stars, the principles of planet formation and evolution they are important to test and compel 

It also joins the small but growing population of giant planets in the long term, helping to populate a relatively sparse area of the radio period diagram. The team’s article will be published in the Astronomical Journal. TESS denotes the hot new Jupiter, an international team of astronomers discovered a hot giant exoplanet that orbits the bright star TOI-677. A print of the hot Jupiter TOI-677b cast and its host star.

Millennium Institute of Astrophysics

Warm giants, defined as systems with periods longer than 10 days, are close enough to the star to experience significant migration. But not so close that the effects of the tides can erase the possible traces of this migration, said Dr. Andrés Jordan said that for the Universidadolf Ibanez and the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics and his colleagues.

In the same sense, they are far enough away from their original star that their ingenuity has not been inflated by the mechanism used to feed the reds of the hottest giants. But while it is clear that these systems are very interesting, the population of known hot giants around nearby stars. Which allows for more detailed characterization remains very small.

TESS transit planet

Called TOI-677b, the new hot giant was detected by NASA’s Exoplanet Inspection Satellite (TESS). We follow the host star, TOI-677, which includes several spectrographs to confirm the candidate of the TESS transit planet and measure its mass, the astronomers explained. They discovered that the TOI-677b is approximately 1.2 times larger and more massive than Jupiter.

Its radius corresponds to what is expected of a gas giant with a core of 10 Earth masses according to the standard model, he said. The TOI-677 is an F-type star about 464 light years away from Earth. Also known as HD 297549 and 2MASS J09362869-5027478, this star is slightly larger and more massive than the Sun and is approximately 2.92 billion years old.

The TOI-677b orbits the star in an eccentric orbit with an orbital period of 11.24 days. Dr. Jordan and his co-authors stated: With a singularity of 0.435, it is in the upper range of eccentricity values for planets with similar periods in the currently known sample. An article detailing the discovery will be published in a magazine of the American Astronomical Society.

Scientists find iron ‘ice’ in the Earth’s core

According to new research, the Earth’s inner core is hot, under extreme pressure and ‘snow cover’, which can help scientists better understand the forces that affect the entire planet. The ice is formed by small particles of iron that fall from the molten outer core and accumulate in the inner core. The inner core of the Earth is warmer, according to new research.

Which can help scientists better understand the forces that affect the entire planet. The ice is made up of small iron particles, much heavier than any snowflake on the Earth’s surface, which fall from the molten outer core and accumulate in the inner core, accumulating up to 200 miles thick. They are formed that cover the inner core.

Jackson School of Geosciences

The image may seem like an exotic winter paradise. But the scientists who led the investigation said that this is how the rocks are inside the volcano. The Earth’s metal core acts as the magma chamber that we know best in the cortex, said Jung-Fu Lin. A professor and co-author of the study at the Jackson School of Geosciences at the University of Texas at Austin.

The study is available online and will be published on December 23 in the print edition of JGR Solid Earth. Eugen Zhang, associate professor at Sichuan University in China, led the study. Other co-authors include Jackson School graduate student Peter Nelson; And Nick Diegert, an assistant professor at the University of Tennessee who researched during a postdoctoral fellowship at Jackson School.

The Earth’s core cannot be sampled, so scientists study it by recording and analyzing seismic wave signals (a type of energy wave) as they pass through the Earth. However, the expiration between recent seismic wave data and expected values based on current models of the Earth’s core has raised doubts.

environment abolished that theory

Waves move more slowly than expected when they pass through the base of the outer core, and move faster than expected when the upper inner core passes through the eastern hemisphere. The study proposes iron ice-covered cores as an explanation of these aberrations.

Braginsky proposed in the early 1960s that there was a dirty layer between the inner and outer nuclei, but the prevailing knowledge about the conditions of heat and pressure in the central environment abolished that theory.

However, the new data extracted from the experiments and the new scientific literature made by Zhang on core-like materials found that crystallization was possible and that approximately 15% of the lower outer core may be composed of iron-based crystals that they finally dilute.

Earth inside the magma chambers

He might fall down. Nestled on the outer core and solid inner core. It’s a strange thing to think about that, said Diegert. You have crystals inside the outer ice core in the inner core several hundred kilometers away. The researchers point out that accumulated snow accumulations are the cause of seismic disasters. Dirty structures slow down seismic waves.

The variation in the size of the ice pile, thin in the eastern hemisphere and thick in the west, explains the change in speed. The inner core boundary is not a simple and smooth surface, which can affect thermal conduction and core convection, said Zhang. The paper compares the iceberg of iron particles with a process that occurs near the surface of the Earth inside the magma chambers.

geological sciences

Which involves the melting and polishing of minerals. In magma chambers, a collection of minerals is known as “accumulated rock.” In the Earth’s core, iron condensation contributes to the growth of the inner core and the reduction of the outer core. A greater understanding of its structure and behavior can help you understand how these great processes work.

Bruce Buffay, a professor of geological sciences at the University of California, Berkeley. Who studies the interiors of the planet and did not participate in the study, said the research addressed long-standing questions about the interior of Earth. It can help you learn even more about how the core came about.

Relating the predictions of the model with the anomalous observations helps us to speculate on the possible compositions of the liquid nucleus and perhaps this information is connected with the position that formed when the planet formed. The initial position of the Earth is an important.

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The Earth’s Geospatial System Is One Of The Main Objectives

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NASA launched the Aurel Winds
NASA launched

NASA launched the Aurel Winds: The Earth’s Geospatial System Is One Of The Main Objectives. Azure mission to study two rockets playing, from the ground, the dance of the northern lights. The northern lights may seem peaceful. But the flickering leaves of colored light are the product of violent collisions between the Earth’s atmosphere and the particles of the Sun.

NASA launched

Understanding how the Earth contributes to the total amount of energy entering and leaving the Earth’s geospatial system is one of the main objectives of the Azure mission (Auroral Zone Surge Rocket Experiment) funded by NASA.

NASA launched the Aurel Winds

On April 5, 2019, the mission was successfully operated from the Norwegian Endoya Space Center: two Black Brent XI-A sound rockets were launched at 6:14 and 6:16 a.m. EDT carries a mixture of scientific instruments and trimethyl aluminum trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and barium / strontium, which ionize when exposed to sunlight.

Colored clouds formed by the release of steam from two AZURE rockets allow scientists to measure femoral winds. Azure is the first of eight rocket missions that sound. Which will be launched in the next two years as an international collaboration of scientists, known as The Grand Challenge Initiative Kasp.

atmosphere and allow particles from space

These missions will be launched from the range of Endoya and Svalbard rockets in Norway, to study the processes that occur within the Earth’s polar tail. Where the planet’s magnetic field lines lean into the atmosphere and allow particles from space in the origin of the Earth and Let the surrounding femoral oval merge with it.

NASA scientists said: “AZURE will study the flow of particles in the ionosphere, the electrically charged layer of the atmosphere, which acts as the Earth’s interface, specifically focusing on regions E and F,” NASA scientists Said.

re-combine electrons

Region E, which was named by the first radio pioneers, discovered that the region had an electrical charge and, therefore, could reflect radio waves, from 56 to 93 miles (90-150 km) from the surface of the Earth. It is in the middle, area F is just above, between 93 and 310 miles (150–500 km) high.

Regions E and F contain free electrons that have been separated from their atoms by the activation of the sun’s rays, a process known as photoization. After night, without the sun’s energy input to keep them apart. They re-combine electrons with positively charged ions that they have left behind.

chemical of the atmosphere

Which is the general electron of the Rron density spheres are low. it makes the areas of ionization and daily cycles of recombination E and F particularly turbulent and complex. AZURE will focus exclusively on measuring vertical winds in these regions, creating a tumultuous particle soup that redistributes the energy, momentum and chemical components of the atmosphere.

On April 5, two Azure rockets launched gas tractors at 71, above the Norwegian Sea, at an altitude of 150 to 241 km. These mixtures, using substances similar to those found in fireworks, created colored clouds that allow researchers to track the flow of neutral and charged particles with femoral air.

new space agency rocket

By tracking the movement of these colored clouds through terrestrial photographs and triangulating their moment-to-moment positions in 3D, Azure will provide valuable data on the vertical and horizontal flow of particles in two major regions of the ionosphere. Different heights, the scientists said.

The new NASA rocket will not be ready to shoot at the moon next year: This illustration provided by NASA shows the space launch system during takeoff. On Wednesday, March 13, 2019, the main NASA official said the new space agency rocket would not be ready for a shot to the moon next year.

The top space agency official said Wednesday that the great new NASA rocket will not be ready for the launch of the moon next year. Administrator Jim Bridenstein said he is considering switching to commercial rockets to have a launch date in June 2020.

Science and Transportation Committee

Bridenstein told a Senate committee that two private rockets would be needed, one to launch the Orion crew capsule and its service module built in Europe, and the other to launch a higher stage. Before heading to the Moon, Orion must dock with the upper phase in orbit around the Earth. NASA’s SLS, or rocket space launch system, could do everything at once.

That is why it is “an important piece for the creation of NASA,” Bridenstein told the Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee. Currently, Orion does not have the ability to engage anything in the class. That organization would have to be completed between now and next year, Bridenstein said. Senator Roger Wicker, Republican of Mississippi, chairman of the committee, reminded Bridenstein.

Wicker said: “I’m sure we would like to have it on time. Bridenstein said this option may require more money from Congress. NASA is emphasizing a permanent lunar program at this time, unlike the Apollo lunar landing that came and went half a century ago. The objective is an outpost with astronauts near the moon to serve as a starting point for lunar landings. This is the first mission.

Which is essentially a three-week test flight

So crew will take off or land. Rather, Orion would approach the lunar surface before a major adoption around the moon. Breidenstein said NASA would decide in the next two weeks if it will keep its rocket and delay it or market this test flight.

If private rockets are used, and Bridenstein has not listed their preferences or mentioned any name, SLS will make its debut in 2023 for NASA’s second exploration mission. The mission that will take astronauts to the moon. This first test flight was originally scheduled for this year.

NASA has a history of not meeting release dates, and I’m trying to change that, Bridenstein said. NASA is already using private companies to ship international space stations: Just last week, SpaceX successfully completed the first test flight of its new Dragon capsule designed for astronauts. I could start a flight crew from Florida to the station in the summer.

What is Google Earth?

Google Earth Pro data shown with volcanic crust and tectonic plate boundaries from USGS. Google Earth is a landscape that accesses satellite and aerial images, topography, sea baths and other geographic data on the Internet to represent the Earth as a three-dimensional world. Geo-navigators are alternatively known as virtual globes or terrestrial navigators.

Google also calls Google Earth a “geographic browser.” Other examples of geobrogers are NASA’s World Wind, ESRI’s ArcGIS Explorer, and Geofusion’s Geopreier. Google Earth Pro is available to download for free for desktop use. Google Earth for the web is a browser-based version and Google Earth for mobile devices is an application.

Both are also free. Although the browser-based version has some ease of use because it does not have to be installed as a desktop application. It does not have many features that are useful for educational activities. While it is possible to upload kml files, search for locations, and use Voijer to find different locations, Earth for the web has some limitations that don’t exist with the desktop version of Google Earth Pro.

useful in educational settings

For example, creating a kml file in a Browser-based requires a full job, this is described in the User Guide section of this tutorial. The desktop version of Google Earth Pro provides many features that are useful in educational settings and provides additional capabilities such as high resolution printing and image storage and the ability to open ESRI shapefiles.

Various editions of Google Earth are available for free download on Google’s Google Earth Editions page. This current desktop version, which is free to use, has many features, including the display of aerial and satellite imagery, a growing group of map data layers, the ability to display third-party data, new data. import devices and GPS data to create.

Additional capabilities include movie creation, as well as importing ESRI shape files and MapInfo tab files, measuring areas of circles and polygons, and printing and storing high-resolution images. Google has created an educational Google Earth site to provide students with useful information on using Google Earth. For many years, the desktop version was what many people knew as “Google Earth”.

software used in earth science education

Google Earth Pro had additional capabilities and was not free. Now that Google Earth Pro is free, “normal” Google Earth has moved to the web. The desktop version (Google Earth Pro) is the main version of the software used in earth science education.

But it may shift more towards the web. Unless other clever suggestions have been given, the following pages refer to the desktop version, Google Earth Pro. Google Earth for the web (available for Chrome, Firefox, Edge, and Opera). An easy-to-use browser-based version that provides accessibility but has limited functionality.

This version can load kml or kmz files, can be used to search for locations and it has a Voyager option, based on a user-selected theme such as travel or nature, the history of a collection can be used to track what has been contributed from diverse people and institutions.

Google Earth for mobile devices – An application with the same visualization capabilities as Google Earth for the web, but cannot create a project. Earth Engine – Combines satellite imagery and geospatial data with multiple analysis tools, including the ability for the user to add their own algorithms for real-world applications.

NASA’s Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

 Company – This product makes imagery and other geospatial data available to employees of organizations such as corporations. Each of these versions of Google Earth can be used to read and create data in KML (Keyhole Markup Language) format, which allows teachers, students, and other users to share data.

Google Earth offers search capabilities and the ability to tilt, zoom, rotate, and view the Earth. It can be used to create new data and a growing set of data layers, such as volcanoes and terrain, that reside on Google’s servers and can be displayed in the view.

It primarily uses elevation data from NASA’s Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to present a layer of terrain that can visualize the landscape in 3D. For some locations, such as most of the western United States. The locality data is provided at fairly high resolutions.

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Betelgeuse: New Images Of A Red Supergiant Star Called Betelgeuse

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Betelgeuse: VLT Observing Darkening Supergiant Star
Betelgeuse

Betelgeuse: VLT Observing Darkening Supergiant Star, Astronomers using two devices in ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) have captured new images of a red supergiant star called Betelgeuse. Astronomers using two devices in ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) have captured new images of a red supergiant star called Betelgeuse. The images not only show the exaggeration of faded red.

But also how its apparent shape is changing. This comparative image shows Betelgeuse, also known as Alpha Orionis, before and after its unprecedented attenuation. The observations taken with the SPHERE instrument at ESO’s Very Large Telescope in January and December 2019 show how much the star has faded and its apparent shape has changed.

Betelgeuse

The second brightest star in the constellation Orion, is a red supergiant, located about 650 light years from Earth. With a radius approximately 1,400 times larger than the Sun, Betelgeuse is one of the largest known stars. It is one of the brightest stars, emitting more than 100,000 suns. With only 8 million years, Betelgeuse is already reaching the end of his life and is soon doomed to explode as a supernova.

When this happens, supernovae can be easily seen from Earth, even in broad daylight. Betelgeuse began to decline in September 2019. At the time of writing. The supergiant star represents approximately 36% of its normal brightness. A noticeable change even to the naked eye. This image obtained with the VISIR instrument in ESO’s Very Large Telescope shows the infrared light emitted by the dust around Betelgeuse in December 2019.

orbit of Jupiter

In this dramatic image, dust clouds surrounded by flames form when the star pours its contents. Back to space The black disk greatly obscures the center of the star and the surrounding atmosphere. Which are very bright and must be masked to allow smoke smoke to be seen. The orange dot in the middle is the SPHERE image of the surface of Betelgeuse, whose size is close to the orbit of Jupiter.

KU Leven astronomer Miguel Montargues and his colleagues have been watching the star with VLT since December 2019, with the aim of understanding why it is weak. Among the first observations that came out of his campaign. There is a dazzling new image of the Betelgeuse surface, taken at the end of last year with the Spectro-Polarimetric high contrast exoplanet research instrument (SPHERE).

portrait of Betelgeuse

The Montarges team did the same with SPHERE in January 2019 to inspect the stars, before we started to get dark before and after the portrait of Betelgeuse. Taken in visible light, the images highlight changes in both brightness and apparent size. Many astronomer enthusiasts were surprised if Bettingues’s attenuation meant it exploded.

“Montargate said:” The two scenarios we are working on are surface cooling for us due to exceptional stellar activity or dust rejection. Of course, our knowledge of the Red Supergiant is incomplete and is still in progress. So a surprise may still occur.

This artist’s impression shows Bethelges as revealed in ESO’s Very Large Telescope due to several cutting-edge techniques that allowed two independent teams of astronomers to obtain the sharpest views of the supergiant star. They show that the star has a huge gas vane in the form of our solar system and a huge bubble is boiling on its surface.

Betelgeuse radio units

These discoveries provide important clues to help explain how these giant materials shed material at such tremendous speed. Betelgeuse radio units have been provided, as well as scales compared to the solar system. This artist’s impression shows Bethelgeuse as revealed in ESO’s Very Large Telescope due to several cutting-edge techniques that allowed two independent teams of astronomers to obtain the sharpest views of the supergiant star.

They show that the star has a gas stack almost as large as our solar system and a huge bubble is boiling on its surface. These discoveries provide important clues to help explain how these giant materials shed material at such tremendous speed. Betelgeuse radio units have been provided, as well as scales compared to the solar system. Another new image, obtained with the VISR instrument in VLT, shows the infrared light emitted by the dust around Betelgeuse in December 2019.

Surface of Dim Betelgeuse

Astronomer Pierre Carewella and his colleagues at the Paris Observatory made observations. The wavelength of the image is similar to that detected by heat chambers, astronomers said. ESO Telescope Seas Surface of Dim Betelgeuse. Betelgeuse, the red supergiant star in the Orion planetarium, is becoming unprecedentedly dense.

This impressive image of the star’s surface, taken with the SPHERE instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope late last year, is one of the first observations to come out of an observation campaign aimed at understanding why the star faints. The comparison of the image taken in January 2019 shows how much the star has faded and its apparent shape has changed.

36% of its normal brightness

Using ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have captured the unprecedented attenuation of Betelgeuse. A red supergiant star in the Orion planetarium. The stunning new images of the star’s surface not only show the exaggeration of faded red, but also show how its apparent shape is changing.

Betelgeuse is a beacon in the night sky for star watchers, but it began to darken towards the end of last year. At the time of writing, Betelgeuse represents approximately 36% of its normal brightness, a change that is noticeable even with the naked eye. Astronomy enthusiasts and scientists hoped to learn more about this unprecedented dimming.

Star Betelgeuse

A team led by astronomer Miguel Montarges at KU Leuven, Belgium, has been observing the star since December with ESO’s Very Large Telescope, with the aim of understanding why it is weak. Among the first comments that came out of his campaign is a surprising new image of the Betelgeuse surface, taken with the SPHERE tool last year. This comparative image shows Star Betelgeuse before and after its unprecedented appearance.

Observations taken with the SPHERE instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope in January and December 2019 show how much the star has faded and its apparent shape has changed. This comparative image shows Star Betelgeuse before and after its unprecedented appearance.

Observations taken with the SPHERE instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope in January and December 2019 show how much the star has faded and changed its apparent shape.

Betelgeuse Supernova

In January 2019, the team did the same with SPHERE to inspect the stars, before beginning to provide information on Betelgeuse’ image. Taken in visible light, the images highlight changes in both brightness and apparent size. Many astronomers wonder if Betelgeuse’ attenuation meant it was about to explode.

Like all red supergiants, Betelgeuse will one day be a supernova, but astronomers don’t think it’s happening now. They have other hypotheses to explain what exactly causes the change in shape and brightness seen in the SPHERE images. The two scenarios we are working on are surface cooling due to extraordinary stellar activity or dust rejection towards us, says Monterges.

dust around Betelgeuse

Of course, our knowledge of the Red Supergiant is incomplete, and is still in progress, so a surprise may still occur. This image, obtained with ESO’s VISIR instrument on ESO’s Very Large Telescope, shows the infrared light emitted by dust around Betelgeuse in December 2019. In this dramatic image, dust clouds surrounded by flames form when the star throws its content.

Back to space. The black disk greatly obscures the center of the star and its surroundings. Which are very bright and must be masked to allow smoke from the hazy dust to be seen. The orange dot in the middle is the SPHERE image of Betelgeuse’ surface, the size of which is close to Jupiter’s orbit.

Montarges and his team needed VLTs in Cerro Paranal, Chile, to study the star, which is more than 700 light-years away, and collect clues upon completion. ESO’s Paranal Observatory is one of the few facilities capable of imaging Betelgeys’ surface, he says. The instruments in ESO’s VLT allow from visible to mid-infrared, which means that astronomers can see both the surface of Betelgeuse and the material around it.

superstar Betelgeuse

This is the only way we can understand what is happening to the star. This artist’s insight reflects superstar star Betelgeuse as revealed in ESO’s Very Large Telescope due to various cutting-edge technologies, allowing two independent teams of astronomers to get the sharpest views of Superstar Star Betelgeuse.

They show that the star has a giant source of gas almost as big as our solar system and a huge bubble is boiling on its surface. These discoveries provide important clues to help explain how these giant materials throw material at such tremendous speed.

Betelzius radio units have been provided, as well as scales compared to the solar system. This artist’s insight reflects superstar star Betelgeys as revealed in ESO’s Very Large Telescope due to various cutting-edge technologies and allowing two independent teams of astronomers to get the sharpest views of Superstar Betelgeuse.

They show that the star has a giant source of gas almost as large as our solar system, and a huge bubble is boiling on its surface. These discoveries provide important clues to help explain how these giant materials throw material at such tremendous speed.

Betelzius radio units have been provided, as well as scales compared to the solar system. Another new image, obtained with the VISR instrument in VLT, shows the infrared light emitted by dust around Betelgeuse in December 2019. These observations were made by a team led by Pierre Carevala of the Paris Observatory in France.

popular astronomy

Who reported that the image’s wavelength is similar to that detected by heat cameras. Dust clouds, which resemble flames in the visual image, form when the star drains its contents into space. The video takes viewers from the Orion constellation to the surface of Supergiant Star Beteluse. Which has an unprecedented vibration.

The point at the end of the zoom is a SPHERE image showing the visible surface of Bethelues, whose size is close to Jupiter’s orbit. The phrase ‘we are all made of Stardust’ is what we hear a lot in popular astronomy, but where exactly does this dust come from?

Says Emily Cannon, a doctoral student at KU Leuven who works with extended images of red supergiants. During their lifetime, red supergents like Betelgeuse create and eject large amounts of material before it explodes as a supernova. Modern technology has allowed us to study these objects, hundreds of light years away, in unprecedented detail that gives us the opportunity to discover the mystery of what caused their great loss.

Betelgeuse: VLT Observing Darkening Supergiant Star
Betelgeuse
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The Amazing Beauty Of Galactic Collisions

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galactic collisions
galactic collisions

The amazing beauty of galactic collisions. A closer look at the center of NGC 3256 reveals that the chaos there is struggling to restore order. Dark dust clouds and bright stars can still maintain their general spiral distribution. credit: ESA / Hubble, NASA Every now and then, a heavenly image will fall that is so fascinating, so moving, that it stops you in your tracks.

Galactic collision

No matter what kind of object it is, planet, nebula, star cluster, galaxy, it is their art that somehow reaches you. NGC 3256 is one of those objects. This image from the Hubble Space Telescope is one of those works of art. Pictures like this take my breath away. At first glance, this is its scope, in general, its wonderfully complete nature.

But then your eye begins to descend in detail, and you see thousands of stars as specks of light that make up the image, streams of filigree-shaped dark dust that your eye can see, and then as soon as your gaze wanders. The galaxies are taken from the background, so far away that the universe has aged considerably by the time they came into our light.

NGC 3256 is fine arts

But as lush and rewarding as this image is for its aesthetics, the science, the reality, behind it, is even more impressive. NGC 3256 are two galaxies that collide, merging into one. The galaxy is something huge, something so vast that our brains struggle to understand it. A decent-size galaxy could have a hundred billion stars, gas, and dust with the same amount of mass and a halo of invisible dark matter around it.

The Milky Way is 100,000 light-years across, which means it takes 100 millennia for light, the fastest thing in the universe, to make that journey. In human terms, from one side to the other it is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 kilometers. An amazing distance. Galaxies exist in clusters, even strong clusters of tens to thousands of members. They are unique in this way in the universe; Most of the objects are small and far away.

trillions of kilometers away

For example, a star may be a million kilometers wide, but the closest star to it is tens of trillions of kilometers away. The size of the stars and the distance between them can be in the millions. But with galaxies, this ratio can be much lower. Not millions, not even thousands, but maybe ten. Under. Because of this, galaxies can get unnecessarily close to each other. And if they get too close, they can collide.

Even if they don’t collide directly, they can gravitationally affect each other, which is why astronomers still classify it as a collision. The gravity of one galaxy can pull on the outskirts of another, ripping out giant streamers of stars and gas, creating long, bulging tidal tails. These are common places where galaxies congregate.

But if they approach each other slowly enough and pass close enough, they won’t be able to overcome each other’s gravity. The physics is complicated, but the result is inevitable: they merge. Massive forces shake them, creating conflict and devastation, throwing stars like leaves into a dust devil. Conversely, perhaps, physical collisions of stars are extremely rare, since they are small and the distances are very large.

starburst galaxies

But nebulae, gas clouds, can be tens or even hundreds of light years across, and collisions between them are common in mergers. It could collapse the clouds, causing the birth of a fiery star. Collision galaxies are prolific, and we poetically call them starburst galaxies. NGC 3256 has it all. About 500 million years ago, two spiral galaxies came close to each other.

Maybe they missed the first pass, just to slow down, reverse course, and back away from each other. Chaos ensued, the visible remains have survived to this day. You can see a tidal tail on the left and another still experiencing turbulent times on the right. But order can be found even in chaos. Now there are patterns in the center of a single galaxy, clumps of dust still moving around the center thousands of light years away.

The spiral arms are altered but still retain some structure. The colliding gas clouds are fertile, and NGC 3256 now forms stars at a speed 75 times that of the Milky Way. Surprisingly, the two main tails have very different stars. Many of the stars on the left are undoubtedly about 300 million years old, formed after a collision. The faint tail on the right contains mostly older stars, around 800 million years.

flagrante delicto

So they were already present in one of the two mating galaxies, and were there to see the merger for the first time. Although we see this association of the two galaxies 400 million years after the primary event, it is too late to see them in flagrante delicto, but still long enough to see the effect.

What will it be like after 400 million years?

I suspect that the general spiral structure may persist, although it will be a long time before peace returns. Oh how I would love to see this galaxy for ages to come! But our descendants can still see something even more spectacular.

When you look at NGC 3256, you are looking at our future. In four billion years, the giant Andromeda galaxy, easily twice our mass, will collide with the Milky Way. The merger would eventually produce something like NGC 3256, albeit briefly in cosmic time, until it becomes something of a higher general order.

collision occurs

A simulation based on real physics shows what the collision of the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxies will look like in the next billions of years. Note that this is based on previous observations, and the distance they cross first is likely greater than what is shown here. Note that the stars turn red after the collision; A giant star-forming explosion can deplete the gas available for star birth, so no more stars form after a few hundred million years.

Giant blue stars waste their fuel excessively and die quickly, leaving behind red stars to light up the universe. This collision will occur during the life of the Sun; The planets can still orbit it when a collision occurs, giving our distant children a view that is unique in our experience. You will see wonders in your sky that we can only imagine and that we can see for ourselves through galaxies like NGC 3256 from far away.

Hubble discovers that “staggering in the galaxies” Observations may insinuate the nature of dark matter. Using the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have discovered that the brightest galaxies within the clusters of galaxies are “inlays” in relation to the center of mass of the group.

staggering in the galaxies

This unexpected result is inconsistent with the predictions made by the current standard dark matter model. An additional analysis can provide insight into the nature of dark matter, perhaps even indicating that the new physics is functioning.

More than 25 percent of all mass energy in the universe constitutes dark matter, but it cannot be seen directly, which makes it one of the greatest mysteries of modern astronomy. Invisible metamorphic dark matter surrounds galaxies and galaxy clusters alike. The latter are large-scale clusters of a thousand galaxies submerged in hot differential gas.

These clusters have very dense nuclei, each of which contains a massive galaxy called the “brightest cluster galaxy” (BCG). Hubble Seas, twelve images of the same galaxy divided by gravitational lenses: An effect called a strong gravitational lens has allowed the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope to see the same distant galaxy multiple times.

Hubble uses gravitational lenses

Called PSZ1 G311.65-18.48, the galaxy is about 11 billion light-years from Earth and a massive foreground galaxy is 4.6 billion light-years away from the lens. This Hubble image shows a massive galaxy cluster, which is about 4.6 billion light-years away. 12 images appear within four arcs along their edges.

These are copies of the same galaxy called PSZ1 G311.65-18.48, which is about 11 billion light-years away. Three of these arcs appear in the upper right of the image, while a counter appears in the lower left, partially obscured by a bright star in the foreground within our Milky Way. Hubble uses gravitational lenses to study objects that would otherwise be very sensitive and even too small for its sensitive instruments.

The known Senserturst arc, PSZ1 is no exception to G311.65-18.48, one of the brightest gravitational galaxies. The lens makes multiple images of this galaxy 10-30 times brighter. This allows Hubble structures to look as small as 520 light years away, a rare detailed observation of a distant object.

analogue of galaxies

This compares quite well to the star-forming regions in galaxies in the local universe, allowing astronomers to study the galaxy and its environment in great detail. Hubble’s observations showed that PSZ1 G311.65-18.48 is an analogue of galaxies that existed long ago in the history of the universe: an era known as the era of times, an era that only 150 million after the Great Bang began to over the years.

This was an important time in the early universe, ending the dark ages, the era before the first stars were created when the universe was dark and filled with neutral hydrogen. Once the first stars formed, they began to radiate light, producing the high-energy photons necessary to ionize neutral hydrogen. It converted space matter into a primarily ionized form, in which it still exists today.

survived the first galaxies

However, to ionize interhydrogen hydrogen, the high-energy radiation from these first stars would have to escape from their host galaxies without first being absorbed by interstellar matter. So far only a very small number of galaxies. High-energy photons of the leak have been found in deep space. How this light survived the first galaxies remains a mystery.

PSZ1 G311.65-18.48 analysis helps astronomers add another piece to the puzzle. It appears that at least a few photons can exit through narrow channels in a gas-rich neutral medium in the galaxy. This is the first observation of a long theorem process. While this process is unlikely to be the primary mechanism that led to the recreation of the universe. It may very well provide a decisive boost.

astronomers has analyzed ten clusters of galaxies

The standard dark matter model (cold dark matter model) predicts that once a cluster of galaxies has returned to a “rest” state after experiencing the turbulence of a melting event, BCG does not move from the center of the cluster.

This is due to the enormous gravitational effect of Dark Matter. But now, a team of Swiss, French and British astronomers has analyzed ten clusters of galaxies seen with the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and discovered that their BCGs are not fixed in the center.

Hubble discovers that - staggering in the galaxies

Hubble data indicates that they have been “staggered” around the center of mass of each group, when the group of galaxies has returned to a resting state after fusion. In other words. The center of the visible parts of each cluster of galaxies and the center of the total mass of the cluster, including its halo of dark matter, are displaced, up to 40,000 light years.

We discovered that BCFL, the Swiss astronomer, David Harvey and the lead author of the article, David Beevi, point out that BC indicates that, instead of a dense area in the center of the galaxy cluster As the cold dark matter model predicts , has a very shallow central density. It is an important sign of strange forms of dark matter in the heart of galaxy clusters.

gravitational lenses

The wobble of the BCG can only be analyzed since the galaxy clusters studied also act as gravitational lenses. They are so large that they give spacetime enough deformation to distort the light of the most distant objects behind them. This effect, called a strong gravitational lens, can be used to create a map of the dark matter associated with the cluster.

Which allows astronomers to locate the exact position of the center of mass and then from this center. You can measure the displacement of BCG. If this “wobble” is not an unknown astronomical event and is actually the result of Dark Matter’s behavior, then it is inconsistent with the standard Dark Matter model and can only be explained when Dark Matter particles interact with each other.

Strong contrasts with the current understanding of dark matter. This may indicate that a new fundamental physics is needed to solve the mystery of dark matter. Frederick Courbin, co-author of EPFL, also concluded. We expect larger surveys such as the Euclid Survey, which will expand our data set.

galaxy & small flakes of dark matter

Then we can determine if the wobble of the BGC is the result of a new astrophysics event or a new fundamental physics. Both will be exciting! Hubble detects little known groups of dark matter. This graphic shows how the light of a distant Kaiser is replaced by a huge foreground galaxy and small flakes of dark matter along the path of light.

The galaxy’s powerful gravity amplified and improved Kaiser’s light, creating four distorted images of the quasar. Dark matter flakes reside in and around the foreground galaxy, along with the quasar line of the Hubble Space Telescope.

The appearance of Dark Matter changes the apparent brightness and position of each quasar image distorted by tilting and tilting slightly as it travels from the distant Kasar to Earth, as indicated by the wavy lines in the graph.

Astronomers compared these measurements with an estimate of how the image would look without the effect of dark matter groups. The researchers used these measures to calculate the mass of small concentrations of dark matter.

Dark matter is the gravitational

Dark matter is an invisible substance that forms most of the mass of the universe and forms the scaffold in which galaxies are formed. Quadruple images of a quasar are rare because the background quasar and the foreground galaxy require almost complete alignment.

When looking for dark matter, astronomers must go like a “ghost hunt.” This is because dark matter is an invisible substance that cannot be observed directly. However, it forms most of the mass of the universe and forms the scaffold in which galaxies are formed. Dark matter is the gravitational “glue” that holds galaxies and galaxy clusters together.

Astronomers can detect their presence indirectly to discover how their gravity affects stars and galaxies. Mysterious matter is not made of the same things that stars, planets and people do. This material is common “barionic” material, which includes electrons, protons and neutrons.

However, dark matter may be some type of unknown subatomic particle that contacts weakly with normal matter. A popular theory holds that dark matter particles do not move very fast, which makes it easier for them to collide with each other.

Dark Matter forms

According to this view, the universe has a wide range of dark matter concentrations from small to large. Astronomers have detected groups of dark matter around large and medium galaxies. Now, using Hubble and a new observation technique, astronomers have discovered that dark matter forms much smaller groups than previously known.

The researchers discovered small concentrations of dark matter in the Hubble data. Which show how light is affected by distant quasars when they travel from space. The quasars are the luminous nuclei driven by black holes of very distant galaxies.

Hubble images show that the light from these quasar images is largely distorted and amplified by the gravity of foreground galaxies in an effect called gravitational lens. Astronomers used this lens effect to detect small scales of dark matter.

massive foreground galaxy

The tweezers are located along the telescope to the quasars, as well as around the foreground lens galaxies. Using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope and a new observation technique. Astronomers have discovered that Dark Matter forms much smaller groups than before. This result confirms one of the fundamental predictions of the widely accepted theory of “cold dark matter.”

Each of these snapshots of the Hubble Space Telescope shows a background quasar around the middle nucleus of a broad massive galaxy and four distorted images of its host galaxy. The gravity of the massive foreground galaxy is acting like a magnifying glass by striking the light of the quasar in an effect called gravitational lens.

Caesars are extremely distant cosmic lanterns created by active black holes. Such quadruple images of quasars are rare due to the almost exact alignment between the anterior galaxy and the background quasar.

galactic collisions
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Another Potential Planet Recently Discovered More Massive Than Earth

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Proxima Centauri
Proxima Centauri

Proxima Centauri: Another planet can orbit Proxima Centauri, the star closest to the sun seems much colder in another world than Earth. illustrating the Next Centauri. The Star Proxima Centauri (illustrated) can confirm two planets. A possibly habitable world (left) and another potential planet recently discovered (right) more massive than Earth.

Proxima Centauri

The planet that orbits the closest star to the Sun may be its neighbor. It is known that Proxima Centauri. A dim red star just 4.2 light years away, is home to a potentially habitable planet, Proxima B, slightly taller than Earth (SN: 8/24/16) It is huge. Now, they find signs of another planet, it is much larger and further from the star.

If it exists, Proxima C appears at least 5.8 times larger than Earth and orbits its star once every five Earth years, the researchers reported January 15 in Science Advances.

GIVEN ITS DISTANCE FROM PROXIMA CENTAURI, THE PLANET IS TOO COLD TO HAVE LIQUID WATER, WHICH IS AN IMPORTANT TEST FOR THE HABITAT.

Clues about the existence of the planet appeared in the spectroscopic data of Proxima Centauri from two telescopes in Chile, Mario Demaso, astrophysicist at the Turin Astrophysical Observatory in Italy and reports from colleagues. The data, which have a duration of 17 years, record the movement of the star from side to side in relation to the Earth. After considering the known planet.

next-generation large-sized telescope

The researchers found signs of an additional inexplicable feasible, most likely caused by stars in the gravity of another planet. Demaso’s team emphasized that additional data is needed to confirm the existence of the planet. Given the proximity of the Earth, Proxima C may be a leading candidate for direct imaging with the next-generation large-sized telescope, scientists say.

New species of squid bobble discovered. Marine biologists have discovered a new species of the genus of fragmented squid Euprymna, known for its rich marine diversity, in the waters of the Ryuku Islands, Japan. Bobet squids (Sepiolida Order) are small cephalopods found in the shallow coastal waters of the western Indo-Pacific, the eastern Atlantic coast and the Mediterranean Sea.

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology

The common name of these marine animals comes from their characteristic gob (mantle). Dr. of the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University. Daniel Rokhsar and his colleagues declared. Our goal was to describe the buffaloes of the Ryukas and establish them within the broader systemic framework of the Indo-Pacific Brielle squid.

The researchers examined the strange squid along the Ryuku Islands up to 20 meters deep from shallow water. We found manure squid from three different species in these waters, and we showed them using cytochrome oxidase I sequences, transcriptome sequences and morphology.

Science and Technology

Two of these species were clearly related to Eupremna pardalota, a rebel squid known from northern Australia and a feast of Euprimna from Sagami Bay in mainland Japan. The third Ryukuan species was different in size and molecularly from other buffalo. We formally describe this new species and call it Eupremna brenneri in honor of Nobel laureate Dr. Sidney Brenner, founding president of the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, the study authors said.

We propose the common name of Brenner in English and Berena-Mimica in Japanese. Euprimna brenneri, the eleventh species known in its genus, is a small squid, 8.5 to 22 mm in average length. Adult specimens were found between corals and reefs in shallow waters near the sandy coast, at depths of less than 2 m.

Their eggs were found in rocky areas near coral reefs at depths of 8-18 m. In addition to its transcription sequence, we closely analyze its morphology, the scientists said.

We saw different patterns of sprouts in their arms and tents. An article describing Euprymna brenneri was published in the journal Communications Biology. New species of squid were discovered. Marine biologists discovered a new species of the genus of the fragmented squid Euprimna, known for its rich marine diversity in the waters of the Ryuku Islands of Japan.

Bobet squid (order Sepiolida) are small cephalopods found in the shallow coastal waters of the western Indo-Pacific, the eastern Atlantic coast and the Mediterranean Sea. The common name of these marine animals comes from their characteristic gob (mantle). Dr. of the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University.

Daniel Rokshar and his colleagues proclaim

Our goal was to describe the buffaloes of the Ryukas and establish them within the broader systemic framework of the Indo-Pacific Brile squid.

THE RESEARCHERS INVESTIGATED STRANGE SQUID ALONG THE ROKU ISLANDS AT A DEPTH OF 20 METERS FROM SHALLOW WATER.

We found squid manure from three different species in these waters, and we show them using cytochrome oxidase I sequences, transcriptome sequences and morphology. Two of these species were clearly related to the Eupremna pardalota, a well-known rebel rebel from northern Australia and a feast of Sagami Bay on the mainland of Japan.

The third species of Ryukuan differed in size and molecularly from other buffalo. The study authors stated that we formally describe this new species and call it the Nobel Prize winner Dr. In honor of Sydney Brenner, says Eupremna Brenneri, the founding president of the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology. We propose the generic name of Brenner in English and Berena-Mimica in Japanese.

international team of scientists

Euprimna brenneri, the eleventh species known in its genus, is a small squid of 8.5 to 22 mm in average length. Adult specimens were found between corals and reefs in shallow waters near the sandy coast, at depths of less than 2 m. Their eggs were found in rocky areas near coral reefs at a depth of 8-18 m.

IN ADDITION TO ITS TRANSCRIPTION SEQUENCE, WE CAREFULLY ANALYZE ITS MORPHOLOGY.

The scientists said. We saw different patterns of buds on his arms and tents. An article describing Euprymna brenneri was published in the journal Communication Biology. They discover the existence of another planet in the closest star to the Sun, Proxima Centauri. An international team of scientists, with the participation of the Andalusian Astrophysics Institute (IAA-CSIC), has announced the discovery of another planet, Proxima C, which may be close to Proxima Centauri, which is closer to the Sun.

Earth-sized temperate planet

Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf just four light years from Earth. Eight times less massive than the Sun, it is evolving as an increasingly complex system. In 2016. The discovery around Proxima Centauri of the Earth-sized temperate planet, which formed the closest extrasolar planet (which they call Proxima B) and the detection of signs of the existence of dust belts around the star in 2017 walked.

Probably remnants of system formation. 24 hours – Signs of a second planet around Proxima Centauri – Listen now Audio 01.43 minutes of playback. Now, a study published in Science Advance announced that scientists have detected signs of the existence of another planet around Proxima Centauri.

PROXIMA C. THIS STUDY BUILDS ON PREVIOUS WORK THAT SUGGESTS THE EXISTENCE OF A COMPLEX PLANETARY SYSTEM AROUND PROXIMA CENTAURI.

IIA-CSIC researcher Pedro J. At the institute we are excited about this result as it provides new information to understand the planetary system around Proxima Centauri, says Amado. As he points out, the team started by looking for the first observations for the Red Dots project.

Which resulted in the detection of the first planet Proxima B. Later, he continued to explore potential dust belts and understand the star’s atmosphere, with a point source of dust emission 1.5 times the distance from Earth to the Sun, to which he attributed the ring emission. Second planet and now we find another planet that orbits at exactly the same distance.

international team of researchers

A coincidence? Perhaps, but we have to confirm it, says the scientist. About six times the mass of Earth: Therefore, Proxima C can have six times the minimum mass of Earth and will move around the star at 1.5 times the distance from the Sun from Earth. The discovery has been made by an international team of researchers for data collected from Chile with UVES and HARPS spectrographs belonging to the European Southern Observatory (ESO).

Observations spanning a total of 17 years reveal the presence of a 5.2-inch-spanning sign. Which is the existence of a second planet around Proxima Centauri, which is approximately six times the mass of Earth. In the opinion of Christina Rodríguez-López, also from the IAA-CSIC and one of the scientists participating in this work.

The signal seems very reassuring, although it has not yet been ruled out that it is due to other factors, such as a cycle of magnetic stellar activity. It is an ideal planet for a combination of complementary techniques that confirm existence, and if we are successful, a modification of the models will be necessary.

Rocky planet

The signs suggest that it is a rocky planet, but it is known as the ice line, from where we find gas giant planets. A rocky planet in that area demands a new approach. The detected signal is at the limit of the instrumental capabilities. So the researchers hope that the astrometric data taken with the Gaia satellite will play a decisive role in confirming the existence of Proxima c.

IT WOULD BE THE ONLY STAR OTHER THAN THE SUN THAT COULD BE STUDIED “IN SITU” THROUGH INTERSTELLAR MISSIONS.

And the researcher has stated that this would have led to the study of other planetary systems around other stars in a “ever” way and it will be as follows. Able to compare these systems with solar.

Proxima Centauri
Proxima Centauri
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NGC 2264 Is About 2,600 Light Years Away

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Spitzer Space Telescope
Spitzer Space Telescope

Spitzer Space Telescope CG Protesters NGC 2264: NASA has published a photograph taken by its Spitzer space telescope that shows several newborn stars or prototypes in NGC 2264. NGC 2264 is about 2,600 light years away in the constellation Monoceros. This astronomical object includes the so-called groups of Christmas trees, groups of snowflakes, cones and fox fur nebulas. Spitzer’s infrared image reveals newborn stars hidden behind a thick dust in NGC 2264.

Astronomer Spitzer stated

Since the stars detect the straight line pattern of the radii of a circle, we believe that these are protostars. With only 100,000 years of age. These structures for babies have not yet” dragged “from their place of birth. Over time, the natural movement of each star will break this sequence, and the design of the snowflakes will no longer exist.

While most of the stars that give the group of Christmas trees their name and triangular shape do not shine in Spitzer’s infrared eyes, all the stars formed by this cloud of dust are considered part of the group. He explained. Like a dusty cosmic finger pointing at groups of newborns. Spitzer also alternately illuminates the dark, dense nebula of the cone, whose tip can be seen towards the lower left corner of the image.

Spitzer Space Telescope

Spitzer Space Telescope Stains Protosters 2,600 light years away! Star-forming clouds are dynamic and evolving structures. When they give birth to newborn stars. An incredible amount of dust is expelled in the process, through which the newborn stars appear as a touch of light.

Recently, NASA’s Spitzer space telescope hooked several rising stars or prototypes surrounded by dense clouds of dust on NGC 2264, located 2,600 light years away in the constellation Monoceros. According to NASA, the infrared astronomical image shows baby stars as pink and red spots that move towards the center, which are formed with regular spherical intervals, similar to the pattern of a wheel or a snowflake.

Therefore, astronomers have called it a “group of snowflakes.” At only 100,000 years old, these baby structures have not yet been “tracked” from their place of birth. Over time, the natural drifting movement of each star will break this sequence, and the design of the snowflakes will not be too much.

considered part of the cluster

Although most of the stars that give their name to the so-called cluster of Christmas trees and the triangular shape do not shine in Spitzer’s infrared eyes, all the stars formed by this dusty cloud are considered part of the cluster. NASA reported: Like the dusty cosmic finger pointing to groups of newborns, Spitzer also alternately illuminates the dark and dense cone nebula, whose tip can be seen towards the lower left corner of the image.

This impressive photograph is perhaps one of the last observations made by the NASA telescope. Spitzer has mapped the Milky Way, and has also taken beautiful images of nebulae and seen incredible things and such as a new ring around Saturn and the exoplanet. Congratulations to Spitzer, who is approaching his incredible journey as the James Webb space telescope in 2020.

CG demonstrators of the Spitzer Space Telescope NGC 2264

NASA has published a photo taken by its Spitzer Space Telescope that shows several stars or prototypes newborn in NGC 2264. NGC 2264 is about 2,600 light years away in the constellation Monoceros. This astronomical object includes the so-called groups of Christmas trees, snowflakes, cones and groups of fox fur nebulas. Spitzer’s infrared image shows newborn stars hidden behind a thick dust in NGC 2264.

Spitzer’s infrared eyes

Astronomer Spitzer said: Since the stars detect the pattern of a straight line of a circle’s radius. We believe they are protostars. ‘For babies with only 100,000 years of age, these structures have not yet been dragged’ from their place of birth. Over time, the natural circulation of each star will break this sequence. The design of snowflakes already there will not be.. While most of the stars that name a group of Christmas trees and their triangular shape do not shine in Spitzer’s infrared eyes.

All stars formed by this cloud of dust are considered part of the group. He explained, Like a dusty cosmic finger pointing towards groups of newborns, Spitzer also alternately illuminates the dark and dense nebula of the cone. Gaia (Mother Earth in Greek mythology) is part of the Horizon 2000 Plus long-term science program, an ESA pivotal space astro-mission, with a target> 3D space catalog> 1 billion stars.

extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs

Or a compilation of approximately one 1% stars. In our home galaxy, the Milky Way. Gaia will monitor each of its target stars approximately 70 times the magnitude of G = 20 over a 5-year period. This will accurately record changes in your position, distance, gait, and brightness.

It is expected to discover hundreds of thousands of new celestial objects, such as extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs, and observe hundreds of thousands of asteroids within our own solar system. The mission will also study approximately 500,000 distant quasars and provide rigorous new evidence of Albert Einstein.

Listing the night sky is an essential part of astronomy. Before astronomers can examine an astronomical object, they must know where to find it. Without this knowledge, astronomers are rendered powerless over what Galileo once called dark laboratory mazes.

astronomers have devoted

During the satellite’s expected five-year lifespan, Gaia will observe each star approximately 70 times, each time recording its brightness, color, and most importantly, its position. The precise measurement of the position of an astronomical object is known as astronomy, and since humans began studying the sky, astronomers have devoted much of their time to this art.

However, Gaia will do so with extraordinary precision, beyond the dreams of those ancient astronomers. By comparing the series of precise observations of Gaia. Astronomers today will soon be able to make precise measurements of the apparent motion of a star in the sky, allowing them to determine its distance and speed in space. The resulting database will allow astronomers to trace the history of the Milky Way.

asteroids in our solar system

While charting the sky, Gaia’s higher instruments are expected to study a host of previously unknown celestial objects. As well as ordinary stars. Its expected path includes asteroids in our solar system, icy bodies in the outer solar system, failed stars, baby stars, planets around other stars, distant stellar explosions.

Black holes in the process of feeding, and supermassive black holes. Other galaxies. Gaia’s goal is to provide a highly accurate dynamic 3D map of our galaxy using global astronomy from space, complemented by multi-colored photometric measurements from various epochs.

The goal is to complete a catalog of star magnitudes of up to 20, which corresponds to more than one billion stars, or about 1% of the stars in our galaxy. The sensitivity of the instrument is such that a distance greater than 20-100 kilopores (kpc) will be covered, thus including the bulge of the galaxy (8.5 kpc) and the spiral arms.

Gaia measurements

The measurements will not be limited to the stars in the Milky Way. These include the study of the structure, dynamics and stellar populations of Magellanic clouds, space motions of galaxies and local clusters supernovae, galactic nuclei and quasars. Which are then used to materialize inertial frames for Gaia measurements. Gaia is ESA’s second space mission dedicated to astronomy. 

It builds on the legacy of the successful Hippocross Mission (1989-1993). 7) Like Hipparcos, Gaia’s observation strategy is based on detecting stellar positions in two fields of view separated by a ‘basic angle’, which is 106.5º for Gaia. This strategy allows astronomers to establish a coherent frame of reference across the sky, a by-product of high-precision measurements of stellar positions.

ESA’s Science Program Committee

After a detailed study of concept and technology during 1998-2000, Gaia was selected in October 2000 as a confirmation mission within ESA’s science program. This was confirmed by ESA’s Science Program Committee after reevaluation of the science program in June 2002, and reconfigured in November 2003 after another reevaluation of the program.

The project entered Phase B2 / C / D in February 2006. As of summer 2012, Gaia is in Phase-D (qualification and production) and will be launched in another.

In June 2013, ESA’s Arab-Star Surveyor, Gaia, completed final preparations in Europe and is scheduled to depart for its launch site in French Guiana. On August 23, 2013, the Gaia spacecraft boarded the Antonov 124 aircraft and arrived at Cayenne in French Guiana. On October 23, 2013, ESA postponed the launch of the Gaia mission.

scientific telemetry

This decision was made due to a technical problem that has already been identified on another orbiting satellite. This problem concerns the components used on Gaia in two transponders that generate “time signals” for downlink scientific telemetry. To avoid potential problems, they will be replaced.

The transponders were removed from Gaia in Kaurau and returned to Europe, where potentially faulty components were replaced and verified. After the replacement is made, the transponder will be refined to Gaia and a final verification test will be performed. As a result of these precautionary measures.

It will not be possible to launch Gia within a window that includes a pre-scheduled release date of November 20. The next available release window is December 17 – January 5, 2014. 11 The precise measurement of the position of an astronomical object is known as astronomy, and since humans began studying the sky, astronomers have devoted much of their time to this art.

precise observations of Gaia

However, Gaia will do so with extraordinary precision, beyond the dreams of those ancient astronomers (Ref. 21). By comparing the series of precise observations of Gaia, astronomers today will soon be able to make precise measurements of the apparent motion of a star in the sky, allowing them to determine its distance and speed in space. The resulting database will allow astronomers to trace the history of the Milky Way.

supermassive black holes

While charting the sky, Gaia’s higher instruments are expected to study a host of previously unknown celestial objects. As well as ordinary stars. Its expected path includes asteroids in our solar system, icy bodies in the outer solar system, failed stars, baby stars, planets around other stars, distant stellar explosions. Black holes in the process of feeding, and supermassive black holes. Other galaxies. Gaia will be a search engine. To fully understand the physics of a star, one must know its distance from Earth.

other techniques to measure

This is more difficult than it sounds because the stars are so remote. Even the closest is 40 trillion kilometers away, and we can’t measure the pace of the spacecraft as it goes. We also cannot bounce off radar signals, a method used to measure distances within the solar system. Instead, astronomers have developed other techniques to measure and estimate distances.

The most reliable and direct way to measure the distance of a star is to determine its ‘parallax’. By obtaining extremely precise measurements of the position of the stars, Gaia will produce parallax for a billion stars. More than 99% of these have never correctly measured their distance. Gaia will also make precise measurements of other important stellar parameters. Including brightness, temperature, composition, and mass. The observations will evolve into many different types of stars and many different phases.

Spitzer Space Telescope
Spitzer Space Telescope
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What is an Exoplanet | Science & Technology 2021!

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What is an Exoplanet?
What is an Exoplanet?

What is an Exoplanet.. Astronomers discovered 7 Earth-sized planets that orbit around nearby stars, According to a study published Wednesday in the journal Nature. Astronomers have found at least seven planets the size of the Earth that orbit 40 light years from a single star. The findings were also announced at a press conference at NASA headquarters in Washington. This discovery is rare outside our solar system because the planets are a combination of being the same size as the Earth and being all temperate.

What is an Exoplanet?

Which means that there may be water on their surfaces and possibly support life. “This is the first time that so many planets of this type are found around a single star,” said Michel Guillon. A leading study writer and astronomer at the University of Liège in Belgium. Seven exoplanets were found in closed formation around an ultrapool dwarf star called TRAPPIST-1. Their mass estimates also indicate that they are rocky planets instead of being gaseous like Jupiter.

7 Earth-sized planets

The three planets are in the habitable zone of the stars, known as TRAPPIST-1e, f and g, and may even have oceans on the surface. The TRAPPIST-1 star, an ultra-cold dwarf, has seven planets the size of Earth in orbit. Researchers believe that TRAPPIST-1f in particular is the best candidate to support life. It is slightly colder than Earth, but it may be adequate with the right atmosphere and enough greenhouse gases.

If Trappist-1 is familiar, it is because these researchers announced the discovery of three early planets that orbit the same star in May. New research increased that number to a total of seven planets. Three Planets Like Earth Orbiting The Dwarf Star. I think we have taken an important step to discover if there is life there, said Amauri Triad, the study authors and astronomer at the University of Cambridge. I don’t think we had time before that when we could discover what it was life.

Here, if life thrives and leaves the gases we have on Earth, then we know it will go. The researchers said that life can begin and develop differently on other planets, so it is important to detect gases that indicate life. This discovery can be an important part in the puzzle of finding habitable environments, life-friendly places, said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator of the NASA Scientific Mission Directorate.

The answer to the question ‘Are we alone’?

It is a scientific priority, and finding many planets like these for the first time in the habitable zone is a remarkable step towards this goal and as we have previously learned from the study and discovery of exoplanets, where there is one. There is more, said Sarah Seeger, a professor of planetary science and physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Seeger and other researchers are encouraged by the discovery of this system because it improves our chances of finding another habitable planet like Earth in the future, knowing where to look. What we know: The planets are so close to each other and the stars that at a distance of seven from space are five times smaller than the distance of Mercury from our Sun.

The seven Trappist-1 planets

This proximity allows researchers to study planets and obtain information on planetary systems other than ours. The seven Trappist-1 planets compared Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The planets revolve around a year and a half to approximately 13 Earth days, starting from the closest to the star and leaving. The farthest planet’s orbit is still unknown. When you stand on the surface of a single planet, you will receive 200 times less light than what you receive from the Sun.

But you will still get the same amount of energy that will keep you warm even after being so close to the star. You will also have some picturesque views, since other planets will appear as large (or even double) as the moon in the sky. In Trappist-1f, the star will appear three times larger than the sun in our sky and due to the red nature of the star, researchers have speculated that the light will be salmon.

Researchers believe that planets form together beyond the stars. Then, they moved to their current lineup. It is incredibly similar to Jupiter and its billions of moons. Like the Moon, researchers believe that the planets closest to the star are happily closed. This means that planets always face the same path near the star. One side of the planet is always at night. What a TRAPPIST-1 planetary system would look like.

According to preliminary weather models, researchers believe that the three planets closest to the star may be too hot to withstand liquid water, while the outermost planet and TRAPPIST-1h, to withstand water on the surface Probably too far and cold. But more observations are needed to know for sure.

How was the search performed?

Trappist-1 classifies the mass of the Sun as a star and a tenth at just half the temperature. It is red, dim and slightly larger than Jupiter. But these small ultrapool dwarf stars are common in our galaxy. Strange and surprising planets beyond our solar system. They were largely ignored until Gillon decided to study the space around one of these dwarves.

The researchers used a telescope called TRAPPIST (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope) to observe changes in their starlight and brightness. The team observed shadows, like small eclipses, periodically interrupting the constant pattern of starlight. This is called transit. The shadow indicated the planets, and subsequent observation confirmed them.

In July, the team was able to determine that two of the planets closest to the star had more compact and comparable atmospheres to those on Earth, Venus and Mars by observing the stars through the planet’s atmosphere. A closer look at the new Earth-like planets for the first time. Like Spitzer, using global network terrestrial telescopes such as TRAPPIST and space telescopes, the researchers continued to look towards the TRAPPIST system and were able to determine the distance from the orbital period, its stars, radii and planetary masses.

What will happen next?

Over the next decade, researchers want to define the atmosphere of each planet, as well as determine if they really retain liquid water on the surface and look for signs of life. Although the sound of 40 light years away is not far away. It will take us millions of years to reach this star system. But from a research perspective, this is a close opportunity and the best goal to discover life beyond our solar system.

The painters look closely at us with ‘Tatoin’ and other alien planets. “If we learn something now, it can determine if we look at the right place,” Gillon said. In 2018. The James Webb space telescope will launch and be located 1 million miles from Earth with an unprecedented view of the universe. You can observe large exoplanets and detect filtered stars through its atmosphere.

Researchers are also exploring similar star systems to conduct more atmospheric research. Four telescopes called Speculos based in Chile (search for habitable planets that eclipse the ULtra-COOl stars) will examine the southern sky for this purpose. This star system will probably overtake us because this type of star develops very slowly. When our sun dies, TRAPPIST-1 will remain a young star and will live for another billion years. After we are gone, if there is another part of the universe to pursue life.

It may be in the TRAPPIST-1 system. This is the most exciting result I’ve seen in 14 years of Spitzer operations, said Sean Carey, manager of NASA’s Spitzer Science Center at Caltech / IPAC in Pasadena, California. Spitzer will continue the decline to further refine our understanding of these planets, following the James Webb space telescope. Greater observation of the system will surely reveal more secrets.

NASA discovers 7 Earth-like planets.

Some interesting facts you should know. This photo from NASA shows the Astronomer of the Baltimore Space Telescope Science Institute, Nicole Lewis, while presenting the research findings during the TRAPPIST-1 planetary informational meeting. Talk about the discovery of the destruction of the Earth.

Scientists have observed seven planets the size of the Earth around a nearby star, some or all of them can alter water and possibly life. The largest group of such planets has not yet been found. The ultrafresh star in the center of this system shines 200 times less than our sun, since we know it is a continuous twilight.

The star will glow red, perhaps the color of salmon, researchers speculate. Here is a quick look! This star system is 40 light years less than Earth, or 235 billion miles away, in the constellation Aquarius. The center has a small, weak star known as TRAPPIST-1. The seven planetary circle Trappist-1, which revolves around 1 20 to 20 days.

the TRAPPIST-1 system discovered

If Trappist-1 were our Sun, then all these planets would fit into the orbit of Mercury. How close they are to their star and why their orbit is so low. The planets have no real name. They are only known by the letter “b” a “h”. The word “A” refers to the star itself. An artist’s illustration shows a possible surface on one of the seven newly discovered planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system discovered by scientists using the Spitzer space telescope and terrestrial telescopes.

An artist’s illustration shows a possible surface on one of the seven newly discovered planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system discovered by scientists using the Spitzer space telescope and terrestrial telescopes. The three planets are hard dub in the so-called habitable zone, also known as the Goldilocks zone, where conditions are good for water and life to thrive, not too much and too little stellar energy.

solar system from the Trappist-1

Four other planets are so temptingly close to the Goldilocks zone that they can also disturb water and potentially life. But only because a planet is in this sweet spot, life does not exist or never existed. If aliens observed our solar system from the Trappist-1 network, they could say, Hey, there are three habitable planets, Venus, Earth and Mars, said Sarah Seeger. An astrophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who was not involved in the study.

The point is: “Wait and see what’s there,” he warns. Trappist-1, one of several ultrapolitical dwarfs that leave the galaxy, lights red. If you stand on one of the planets, the star may appear colored like a salmon. Their planets are so close together that they will appear twice as large as our moon in the sky. Temperatures can be as beautiful as Earth, at least on one of these planets.

3,600 planets outside our solar system

Scientists need to study the atmosphere of rocky planets almost predictably before reaching conclusions about water and life. The Hubble Space Telescope is already in the case. The James Webb space telescope, still under construction, will be included as soon as it is launched next year. The web will look for gases that can be a byproduct of life: oxygen, ozone and methane.

Scientists say it should take five years to control all these atmospheres and discover if there is water and maybe life. In total, astronomers have confirmed 3,600 planets outside our solar system since the 1990s, but their stars are barely four dozen in their habitable zone, and only 18 of them are about the size of the Earth.

biofirma gases on Earth

Phosphine can signal alien anaerobic life on Roxy planets: A team of MIT researchers discovered that phosphine, one of the most toxic gases on Earth, cannot be produced in any way other than anaerobic organisms. Which makes it a biosignation gas of pure ignition. Life uses thousands of volatile compounds that can contribute to the biosphere.

Some of these compounds can accumulate in the planet’s atmosphere and be remotely detectable. These are commonly called aces biosafety gases. There are important biofirma gases on Earth that are relatively abundant and spectroscopically active mainly oxygen, ozone, methane and nitrous oxide.

Here on Earth, oxygen is an impressive sign of life, said Dr. Clara Susa-Silva, a scientist at the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at MIT. But other things besides life also produce oxygen. It is important to consider more strange molecules that often cannot be formed, but if you find them on another planet, there is only one explanation.

rocky exoplanet

In a new investigation, Drs. Susa-Silva and his colleagues discovered that phosphine is a promising marker for life if detected in a rocky exoplanet. But to be sure, they have to rule out any possibility that this gas originated from something other than life. To do this, he spent the last few years running several phosphorus species.

The essential basic components of phosphine, in increasingly extreme scenarios, through a thorough theoretical analysis of chemical routes, to see how can phosphorus become phosphine in any abiotic way! The researchers worked to observe the chemical and thermodynamic pathways involved in many scenarios on Earth to see if they could produce enough energy to convert phosphorus to phosphorus.

At some point we were seeing less and less admirable mechanisms, as if the tectonic plates were rubbing each other, could I get a plasma spark that produced phosphine! They said “Or if lightning strikes somewhere that contains phosphorus, or a meteorite contains phosphorus, can it cause effects to produce phosphine and we go through many years of this process to discover that there is nothing more than life than the amount of phosphine that is detectable.

signal in the atmosphere

Scientists have discovered that phosphine has no significant false positives, which means that any phosphine detection is a sure sign of life. According to the team, if phosphine is produced in relatively small quantities equivalent to the amount of methane produced on Earth today. It would produce a signal in the atmosphere that could be detected by an advanced observatory like the next James Webb. Space Telescope, if that planet was 16 light years from Earth.

Since the establishment of phosphine as a viable biology in the search for extraterrestrial life, said Esosa-Silva. Our results provide a pipeline, or for researchers to follow one of the other 16,000 candidates for the biological signature. Process. “Sosa-Silva said. The team article was published in the journal Astrobiology.

7 Earth-Sized Exoplanets

7 Earth-sized exoplanets in the hunt for extraterrestrial life. TRAPPIST-1 Planetary System Art – This artist’s illustration shows what seven TRAPPIST-1 planets can see based on available data on their diameter, mass, and distance from the host star. Click here for latest news tips16.com blog… The discovery of seven Earth-sized worlds orbiting a nearby star could be a watershed moment in finding extraterrestrial life in search of humanity, scientists say.

On Wednesday (February 22), an international team of astronomers announced that seven planets the size of our TRAPPIST-1 orbit, a small, cold star just 39 light-years from Earth. Search team members said three of these planets rotate in the star’s “habitable zone,” where lakes, rivers and oceans may exist on the world’s surface, but all seven potentially damage surface water.

world and life on other worlds

Sarah Seeger, a planetary scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said during a press conference: “With this discovery, we have made a giant and rapid leap to explore the habitable world and life on other worlds, potentially speaking. According to Seeger, who is not part of the research team, the discovery is exciting for several reasons. First, with many potentially water-bearing worlds, the TRAPPIST-1 system is a promising candidate to harbor life.

And even if researchers don’t have a completely accurate understanding of its habitable zone. You can say, colloquially, that it’s like this planetary system, Goldilocks has many sisters, Seeger said. This artist’s depiction shows what the seven TRAPPIST-1 planets would look like based on available data on their diameter, mass, and distance from the host star.

Also, about 15 percent of the stars in the vicinity of the sun are ultra-cool dwarfs like TRAPPIST-1, which is only slightly larger than Jupiter. If TRAPPIST-1 is a guide, many of these nearby dwarfs can harbor potentially habitable, rocky planets. With this amazing system, we know there must be many more possible worlds to lead lives, just waiting, Seeger said. Discovering such a world is only the beginning.

the 7 planetary atmospheres

TRAPPIST-1 is close enough to Earth that astronomers will soon be able to expand to the seven planetary atmospheres. An important step in exploring the world’s habits, and its potential for oxygen, ozone, methane, and other possible signs of life. In fact, NASA’s $ 8.8 billion James Webb Space Telescope is likely to start shortly after launch in late 2018.

We can see the results in early 2020, said Nicole Lewis, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. Lewis is also not part of the TRAPPIST-1 search team, although he was co-leader of a group that used NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope to begin studying the atmospheres of two planets in the system. The researchers first announced the detection of three planets around TRAPPIST-1 in 2016.

The new discovery confirmed those two previously seen worlds and raised the total planet of Milan to seven. You should also be able to study three large ground-based observatories that will be online in mid-2020. The extremely large European telescope, the giant Magellan telescope (both in Chile), and the thirty-meter telescope (in Hawaii). Nearby planetary environments like the TRAPPIST-1 world, telescope builders have said.

What is an Exoplanet?
What is an Exoplanet?
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HabEx: New Mission Proposed To Search For A Second Earth

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HabEx: New mission proposed
HabEx: New mission proposed

HabEx: New mission proposed to search for a second Earth. The Habitable Exoplanet Observatory (HabEx) will use a telescope with a mirror larger than Hubble’s and employ origami techniques to access the outer ‘stellar shadow’, which will block the light from the target stars and look similar to Earth and will enable the attribute. Exoplanets around it & the Habucks Observatory (Habucks) will use a telescope with mirrors larger than the Hubble and will use origami technology to use an external ‘star basin’. Which will block the light from the target stars and look like Earth and it will allow characterization.

HabEx New mission proposed

Exoplanets around it. HabEx, a space telescope with ultraviolet (UV), optical and near infrared (near IR) and spectroscopic capabilities, will have three main scientific objectives. Search the surrounding world and discover its habitat. Prepare a map of nearby planetary systems and understand the diversity of the world. New discoveries of astrophysics systems from our own solar system to galaxies. The universe by increasing our access to UV rays through nearby IR.

“Our goal is to see if we can find a planet that is similar to Earth, one that can support life,” said Professor Scott Gowdy, a researcher at Ohio State University. While we have identified many planets outside our solar system. So far, none has proven to have the necessary elements for the usual elements. The Habucks mission will be the next logical step in the search for planets similar to our Earth.

The habucks will have a 4 meter wide mirror, compared to the Hubble 2.4 meter mirror, and will be used along with a stellar shadow to search for light from other planets. Professor Gaudi said: This light usually comes out of the bright light of the surrounding stars, including our Sun. But the Habucks will deflect the starlight with a star head, a 52-meter flower-shaped disk that will move origami similar to space in a tight spiral.

NASA as the next large observatory

Once the satellite reaches its orbit and blocks the light of the stars, the light of the stars is blocked, but allows the light of other planets to be reflected to reach the instruments of the telescope. Then, henchmen would look for signs of planets with stars like the Sun that contain water or carbon dioxide, two signs that could be habitable for a planet.

The telescope will also have a camera that can take pictures of nearby planets. Those paintings will be the first familiar drawings of those systems, said Professor Gaudí. HabEx will have additional instrumentation. Including a crown paragraph, which can also characterize planets outside our solar system and record images of them. The project is one of the four mission concepts proposed by NASA as the next large observatory.

A large-scale mission that will play a key role in space science over the next decade of the United States. The Federal Decadal Survey was intended to make a recommendation on which project should receive funds by 2021. If you prefer, the HabEx mission will be launched in the 2030s. It is estimated that it will cost approximately $ 7 billion for 10 years.

Gaudi and his colleagues at the MIT Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA presented the mission concept at the AGU Fall Meeting 2019 in San Francisco, CA, on December 13.

Our goal is to see if we can find a planet similar to Earth that can support life,” said Professor Scott Gowdy, a researcher at Ohio State University. While we have identified many planets outside our solar system, so far no one has demonstrated the essential elements for common elements. HabEx’ mission will be the next logical step in the search for planets similar to our Earth.

Hubble 2.4 meter mirror

The Hubble will have a 4 meter wide mirror, compared to the Hubble 2.4 meter mirror and will be used with a stellar shadow to search for light from other planets. Professor Gaudí said: This light generally emanates from the bright light of the surrounding stars. Including our Sun. But the habucks would deflect the starlight with a star head, a 52-meter flower-shaped disk that would move origami similar to space in a tight spiral.

Once the satellite reaches its orbit and blocks the light of the stars, the light of the stars is blocked, but allows the telescope instruments to reflect the light of other planets. Then, the minions will look for signs of planets with stars like the Sun that contain water or carbon dioxide, two signs that can be habitable for a planet. The telescope will also have a camera that can take pictures of nearby planets.

Those images would be the first familiar images of those systems, said Professor Gowdy. Habucks will have additional instrumentation, including a paragraph from Crown. Which can also characterize planets outside our solar system and record their images. The project is one of the four mission concepts proposed by NASA as the next great observatory. A large-scale mission that will play an important role in space science over the next decade of the United States.

NASA prepares a HabEx mission

The goal of the Federal Decade Survey was which project should receive funding by 2021. If desired, the HabEx mission will be launched in the 2030s. It is estimated that it will cost around $ 7 billion for 10 years. Gauty and his colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at MIT and NASA presented the mission concept. NASA prepares a HabEx mission to search for another Earth-like exoplanet.

NASA has designed a mission to directly search for Earth-like exoplanets using the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission or the HabEx Space Telescope. HabEX visualization: a telescope that will search for Earth-like exoplanets. NASA has proposed a mission to image planets directly around Sun-like stars to search for Earth-like exoplanets.

Habex Community of Science

The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission or HabEx is one of four mission concepts that the space agency is currently studying in preparation for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Professor Scott Gowdy, a researcher at the Ohio State University and Habex Community of Science: Our goal is to see if we can find a planet that is similar to Earth, one that can support life.

He and his colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at MIT and NASA presented the mission concept at the AGU Fall Meeting 2019 in San Francisco on December 13. Habitable Exoplanet Mission, HabEx, habex telescope, nasa, nasa Earth like planet search, habex mission A diagram of the Exoplanet Habitable Observatory. The NASA website described HabEx as a large space-stationary optical telescope with “exclusive resolution”.

An “unprecedented resolution” for direct image exoplanets and enabling galactic, extrasalactic and solar system astrophysics. The agency says the HabEx concept is ready for development, which will be applied technically and scientifically for the next decade. Compared to Hubble’s 2.4 meter mirror, habucks will have a larger mirror that is 4 meters wider.

It will be used in conjunction with a star shadow to search for light from other planets. Gaudi explains that the light is generally submerged by the bright light from nearby stars, including our Sun. But the Habucks will deflect the stars with Starshade, a 52-meter flower-shaped disk that travels into Origami-like space will go tight. Habitable exoplanet image missions.

instruments of the telescope

Habex, telescope, NASA Earth as planetary search, habex mission illustration of star day deployment steps. Gowdy said: Once the satellite reached its orbit and flew about 77,000 km from the telescope. The light was blocked by the stars, but light was allowed to reflect from other planets to reach the instruments of the telescope, said Gaudi. Although Habucks’ primary goal is to characterize planets like Earth.

He will also study the full range of exoplanets, particularly around our closest Sun-like neighbors. The first complete family portrait of planets,” says NASA. In addition to Starsday, HabEx will also have a coronography. A device that can also characterize planets outside our solar system and record images of them. Habitable exoplanet imaging mission, Habex, habex telescope, planetary search like nasa, nasa Earth.

HabEx mission

The HabEx study is being conducted by a science and technology definition team. While we have identified many planets outside of our solar system, so far, none have proven necessary for the usual elements. The HabEx mission will be the logical next step in finding planets similar to our Earth. The HabEx telescope will be able to sensitize ultraviolet, optical and near infrared photons to all kinds of planets.

The telescope will measure the atmospheric content of the Earth-like exoplanet by measuring the spectra of these planets and discovering the signature of the habitat like water. HabEx will be sensitive to gases in the atmosphere, indicating biological activity, such as oxygen or ozone.

HabEx: New mission proposed
HabEx: New mission proposed

The Frontiers New Specialty section is one of the most fascinating questions that humans have tried to answer for centuries. Our galaxy contains more than 30 billion planets and the observable universe contains more than 100 billion galaxies. As I read these numbers, I naturally have a question.

life in the universe

From scientists and philosophers to writers and filmmakers, from believers to agnostics and devotees, to artists, poets and ordinary people, we have all wondered if anyone else while clear signs of life have never been detected, astronomers look for answers, using a combination of astronomical, chemical, geological and biological sciences.

Isik Kanik is a Senior Research Scientist at Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, California. His main research interests are astrobiology, detection techniques and laboratory spectroscopy.

The new chief editor of Astrobiology, Professor Issik Kanik, says that now is the time to study the existence of life in the universe: Space science has developed rapidly in recent decades, combining new discoveries made through space exploration and in conjunction with laboratory and field research in terrestrial environments such as fuel, extreme space.

new scientific discoveries

We have already made incredible discoveries: evidence of liquid water in nearby planetary bodies, identification of new planets outside our solar system, the discovery of a wide variety of novel microbial life forms in highly terrestrial environments and the emergence of life on Earth. New theories, to name a few. Everything seems to be waiting for more and more new sensational discoveries. Thanks to the latest discoveries.

NASA and other international research institutes are encouraging research in the field, and open access is the right tool to promote the delivery of results from the scientific community as objectively and quickly as possible. Open access will help scientists develop new hypotheses and new perspectives in the field. Which provide the basis for new scientific discoveries, says Professor Kanik.

astronomy to explore our own solar system

The new special section of Frontiers in Astrobiology, Astronomy and Space Science is now open for presentation and receives high quality articles and proposals for research topics. The purpose of the section’s inaugural research topic is to emphasize the importance of astronomy to explore our own solar system while examining the possibility of life on Mars, Europe, Titan and Enceladus.

We are alone: The search for new planets continues. Exoplanets, a new special section of Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences, is now open for presentation. A senior scientific researcher at NASA’s Ames Research Center, Dr. Directed by Steve B. Howell, this section will provide a focus for research on the discovery and characterization and understanding of planets that orbit the alien sun, as well like those who are stellar.

A growing scientific field with Nobel Prize recognition

The study of exoplanets began only 25 years ago, but their scientific impact has been widely recognized, especially at the 2019 Nobel Prizes. The purpose of exoplanet research is to address one of the fundamental human questions about the universe: are we alone?

Dr. Howell explains: Given the vastness of heaven, one can feel small and insignificant, or can feel a deep connection. I think both. So, my desire, then and now, is to learn and share that knowledge.

A platform to solve great exoplanet challenges The mission of Exoplanets is to bring together leading scientists around the world, providing them with a platform to connect and share ideas and results. The exoplanet community is more diverse than any other in astronomy and makes it incredibly vibrant, powerful and a fantastic platform of human interest.

Alma discovers

We hope that global partnerships, new and substantial partnerships, without borders, and that the great scientific challenges of the exoplanet we face can be solved. Follow Frontiers in Astronomy and Astronomy on Twitter and sign up for our article alerts to receive new research and updates. Alma discovers rare carbon isotopes in 49-game debris discs.

 

Using the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA).

 

Astronomers have detected radio emissions from two carbon isotopes (12C and 13C) in a massive gas-rich debris disk of about 49 cm, located 186 lights A star of 40 million years – Away in the constellation of Situs. We found nuclear carbon gas in debris disks around 49 SETIs using observations for 10 hours with the 10-meter ASTE radio telescope in Chile, said Dr.

An astronomer at the National Astronomical Observatory in Japan. Aya explained to Higuchi. As a natural extension, we used ALMA to get a more detailed view and this gave us a second surprise. Carbon gas turned out to be 10 times more abundant than our previous estimate of around 49 SET. The amount of nuclear carbon gas was so high that Drs. Higuchi and his colleagues detected radio signals not only from the common 12C isotope.

But also in the very rare 13C form. This is the first emission detection of 13 C at 492 GHz in an astronomical object. Which is usually hidden behind the normal emission of 12 C, he said. The amount of 13C is only 1% of 12C, so the detection of 13C in the waste disk was completely unexpected, said Dr. Higuchi. This is clear evidence that the 49 Seti contains a surprisingly large amount of gas.

Astrophysical Journal Letters

Astronomers offered two possible explanations for the origin of this carbon gas. One is that it is the remaining gas that survived the dissipation process in the final stages of the planet’s formation, he said. However, the amount of gas around 49 SETI is comparable around very small stars in the active formation phase of the planet.

There are no theoretical models that explain how much gas can persist for so long. Another possibility is that the gas has been released when small objects such as comets collide. But the amount of collisions necessary to explain the large amount of gas around 49 SETs is too large to accommodate current theories.

The findings appear in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. For millennia, people turned their eyes to the stars and wondered if there were others like them.

Is there life, similar to ours or not, elsewhere in our solar system?

Our galaxy! In 1992, when the first exoplanet was confirmed, it was unclear whether there were planets outside of our own solar system. Today we know of over 3,850 planets around other stars and thousands of planet candidates.

Are any of these planets in a position that will sustain life?

What conditions are favorable for the formation of terrestrial planets in the development of planetary systems? NASA can help address these questions by developing missions designed to find and characterize extrasolar planetary systems. Before we can determine if other planetary systems are capable of supporting life, we must first find them.

NASA Science pursued this goal by supporting a focused set of Earth observations through the Kepler mission. A retired space observatory that studied the propagation and the number per star of extralater planets, and the prospecting satellite of Exoplanets in transit through from the TESS operation.

Which is conducting an inspection of the entire sky to search for transplanets that vary in size from Earth to gas giants. The search for life outside the earth is totally ready to accelerate.

Indian astronomers have developed a new technology to discover if any of the recently discovered exoplanets (planets outside our solar system) are potentially habitable. Big Data algorithms can help find answers. The artist’s impression of the particular region around each star where liquid water may be present on the surface of their planet is called the habitable zone.

The technique developed

More than 3,500 exoplanets have been discovered so far, and scientists estimate that this number could reach billions in our galaxy and trillions in the observatory universe. According to astronomers, Earth is actually an average planet and our solar system may not be unique in terms of its ability to support life. In this scenario, trying to find out if there are planets that are friendly to life and similar to Earth.

The technique developed by Indian scientists is based on the emerging understanding that habit should not be defined only from the perspective of Earth or the Solar System. Until now, the search for life has been limited to habitable regions only where liquid water exists on the surface. But now it has expanded to galactic and even cosmic habitable zones.

Habitability depends on understanding the parameters of physical planets, such as orbital properties, chemical composition, mass, radius, density, surface temperature, distance from the original star, and the temperature or mass of parents. Applying these criteria to each of the recently discovered exoplanets will be a slow and time consuming task. Indian researchers have automated this process using data analysis and machine learning techniques.

astronomy and computer science

An exercise that combines astronomy and computer science. Which represents an emerging discipline. The new technology was presented at the 36th session of the Astronomical Society of India (ASI) to be held here at the University of Osmania. The current approach to looking at life on planets outside the solar system is to search for Earth-like conditions or planets.

What we call ‘Earth-like’ and also the possibility of life in a way known or unknown to us.

Which means “habit”. For this, two indices are used, namely the Earth Parity Index (ESI) and the Planetary Habits Index (PHI). We have proposed a different metric, a Cobb-Douglas habitability score (CDHS). Which calculates the usual scores using measured and predicted planetary input parameters, such as radius, density, exhaust velocity, and surface temperature of a planet.

The value of the input parameters is normalized to units of land. The metric has analytical properties along with an exponent representing the elasticity metric that guarantees a global optimum, and can be extended to accommodate more input parameters and based in Bangalore Margarita Safonova from MP Birla Institute of Fundamental Research and research member explained. The team, speaking to India Science Wire.

The Cobb - Douglas habitability score is actually derived from an economic theory proposed before 1920.

Our sophisticated models predict a score for each planet by comparing it to Earth, using known parameters of each exoplanet, such as density, radius, migration speed and surface temperature. These scores are incorporated into machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms that can group these planets into different kinds of potential habitat, said Jayant Murthy, a professor at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics in Bangalore.

exoplanet Proxima B

The new metric has been applied to the exoplanet Proxima B that orbits the closest star to the Sun (Proxima Centauri). There is an expectation that Proxima B is potentially habitable because it is in the star’s habitable zone and its mass is 1.27 the mass of Earth. Although it orbits its star eight times more than Mercury, the amount of energy it receives is 2/3 of the Earth from the Sun, which increases the possibility that there is liquid water on the surface.

We calculated the Proxima B CDSH habit score using radius, density, escape velocity, and surface temperature, only surface temperature and radius, stellar flux and radius, and flux and stellar mass. According to our classification algorithm, Proxima enters the Earth League-League B, “Saffonova said. Earth’s ability to live the value of the floor function ‘is 1, and the difference between its CDHS and the CDHS of Earth is within an acceptable range.

discovered exoplanets in general

“Our algorithm demonstrates the possible habituation of praxima B, which coincides with the estimation of the University of Puerto Rico’s planetary habituation laboratory, which maintains the list of all exoplanets,” he said. This indicates that the model can be scaled up to quickly examine the potential habitat of recently discovered exoplanets in general. We have created a website to host all relevant data and results for this project.

Including the dataset, Figures, animation videos and a graphic summary. Snehashu Saha, Kakoli Bora, s. Aggarwal, Swati Ruth and Anand Narasimhamurthy are also members of the research project, carried out by astronomers from the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, PES University and MPBIFR. Financed and supported by the Vision Group on Science and Technology (VGST).

The Government of Karnataka and the Interuniversity Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA). I don’t think there is anyone in the whole world who, when they are in a good place on a good starry night and look up, feel nothing. Some simply experience the sensation of feeling epic beauty, some think of the greatness of the universe. Someone drowns in a well-stocked pool, feeling uncomfortable for at least half an hour.

But everyone feels something. Physicist Enrico Fermi also felt something:

Where are they all?

The starry sky looks huge, but everything we see is part of our little yard. At best, when there are no nearby settlements, we see around 2,500 stars (i.e. one millionth of the stars in our galaxy), and about 1,000 light-years away (1%) in the Milky Way. Diameter). In fact, we see this: When faced with the issue of stars and galaxies, people inevitably begin to wonder “is there an intelligent life”? Let’s take some numbers.

In the observable universe, there are almost as many galaxies as there are in our galaxy (100-400 billion), so each star in the Milky Way galaxy has its own galaxy. In total, there are 10 ^ 22 – 10 ^ 24 stars in total, for every grain of sand on earth, there are 10,000 stars. The scientific community has not yet reached general agreement on what percentage of these stars is represented by the sun (similar in size, temperature and light).

Earth-like planets rotate

Opinions generally range from 5 to 20%. If we take the most conservative estimate (5%) and the lower limit of the total number of stars (10 ^ 22), the universe will have 500 quintillion or 500 billion trillion stars at sunset. There is also controversy over what percentage of these sun-like stars would be an earth-like planet (a terrestrial planet with temperature conditions that allow liquid water to exist and a possible support for life).

Some say they can go as high as 50%, but a conservative estimate from a recent PNAS study showed that no more than 22% would be less. This suggests that potentially inhabited Earth-like planets rotate at least 1% of the total stars in the universe, a total of 100 billion Earth-Like-Planet. So for every grain of sand in our world there are a hundred terrestrial planets.

civilizations directly to our galaxy

Next time think about meeting you on the beach. In the future, we have no choice but to remain within a purely theoretical approach. Let’s imagine that, after billions of years of existence, 1% of the terrestrial planets have evolved (if true, each grain of sand would represent a planet with life) and imagine that 1% of these planets have managed to reach the level of intelligence, similar to the terrestrial.

This would mean that there are 10 trillion or 10 million intelligent civilizations in the observable universe. Let’s go back to our galaxy and do the same trick with the lower limit of star ratings in the Milky Way (100 billion). We will only have a billion terrestrial planets and 100,000 intelligent civilizations in our galaxy. SETI “The Quest for Supernatural Wisdom” is an organization dedicated to trying to hear signs of another intelligent life.

developed civilizations

If we send 100,000 or more intelligent civilizations directly to our galaxy, and even some of them radio waves or laser beams, then trying to communicate with each other, the SETI must at least once. The signs had to be captured. This is strange..our Sun is relatively young by the standards of the universe. Terrestrial planets are also very old stars, which in theory speak of the existence of much more developed civilizations than ours.

For example, let’s compare our earth to the imaginary planet X of 7.5 trillion years, with the age of 7.56 trillion years. The knowledge of technology and civilization, which is over a thousand years old, can surprise us as much as our world. A man of the Middle Ages. For a million years, the civilization that awaits us may be reckless for us, because human culture is for chimpanzees.

And Planet X, for example, is 3.4 billion years ahead of us. The so-called Kardashev is the scale. Which will help us identify appropriate civilizations in three broad categories, depending on the amount of energy they use. Civilization I uses all the energy on our planet. We have not yet reached that type of civilization, but we are reaching it (Carl Sagan called us a type 0.7 civilization).

civilization on planet X

The Civilization II guy uses all the energy from his own star. Our weak minds can hardly think what it is like, but we try to represent something like Dyson Sphere. It absorbs the energy emitted by the Sun and can be redirected to the needs of civilization.

The Type III civilization destroys the previous two, using energy to produce the entire Milky Way. If such a level of development is hard to believe, don’t forget that Planet X has a level of growth that exceeds our 3.4 billion years. If the civilization on planet X were similar to ours and III could evolve to typify civilization, then it stands to reason that by now they have exactly reached an interstellar journey, and perhaps colonized the entire galaxy.

One of the hypotheses about how you can colonize the galaxy is to create a machine that can fly to other planets, spend approximately 500 years doing it, using the planet’s raw materials, and then do the same to send two replicas. Even without traveling at the speed of light, this process would have colonized the entire galaxy in just 3.75 million years, a time by the standards of existence of billions of years of planets.

We keep reflecting. If 1% of intelligent life is long-lasting, becoming a galaxy potentially colonized by a Type III civilization. Then our previous calculations indicate that only our galaxy should have at least 1000 types of Civilization III – Y given the power of such civilizations, their presence would hardly go unnoticed. But there is nothing.

We don’t see anything, we don’t listen, nobody visits us. We don’t have the answer to the Fermi paradox: the best we can do is “a possible explanation and if you ask ten different scientists, you will get ten different answers. What would you think of the people of the past who are discussing a round or flat earth, or the sun revolves around it or is round.

Is given by the Ray the Almighty Zeus?

They look so primitive and dense. The same can be said to us, discussing the Fermi paradox. Given the most contested possible explanations for the Fermi paradox, it’s worth dividing them into two broad categories. Those explanations show that there are no signs of Type II and III civilizations because they simply don’t exist, and which ones we suggest not looking at for some reason: Group of explanations.

There are no signs of superior civilizations (second and third type), because there is no superior civilization. Those who follow Group I’s explanation indicate what is called the problem of non-specificity. She rejects any theory that says: There are great civilizations, but none of them tried to contact us. People in the group look at the math, which says there must be thousands or millions of high civilizations.

So there must be an exception to at least one rule. Although the theory supports the existence of 99.9% of the superior civilizations, the remaining 0.01% will be different, and we know it. Therefore, follow the explanation of the first group, underdeveloped civilizations do not exist and since our calculation, thousands have spoken in our galaxy, there must be something else & this is something else called the Great Filter.

The Great Filter theory states that from the beginning of life to the third type of civilization there is a fixed wall at a certain point, on which practically all life strives. It is a definite phase in a long evolutionary process, through which life practically cannot pass. And this is called the Great Filter. If this theory is correct then the big question is at what time interval does the Great filter appear?

It turns out that when it comes to the fate of humanity, this topic becomes very important. Depending on where the Great Filter occurs, we live with three possible realities: we are rare, we are the first or those who cover us.

1. We are a rarity (behind the big filter)

There is an expectation that the Great Filter is behind us; We did it and that would mean that life is extremely difficult to develop our level of intelligence, and this occurs very rarely. The following diagram shows that only two species have done so in the past, and we are one of them. This scenario may explain why there are no Type III civilizations, but it would also mean that we can be one of the many exceptions.

I mean, we have hope. At first glance, it resembles what people thought 500 years ago that Earth was at the center of the universe: they thought they were special, and today we might think so. But the so-called “selective observation effect” states that, whether our condition is rare or fairly general, we will try to see first. This leads to the fact that we allow the possibility that we are special and, if we are special. When exactly have we become special, that is, have we gone to the stage..

Where others stagnate?

One of the possibilities: a great filter can occur in the beginning, therefore the beginning of life was a very unusual event. This option is good because it took billions of years to finally appear. We tried to replicate this phenomenon in the laboratory, but were unsuccessful. If the error is caused by the Great filter, it would not mean that there can be no intelligent life in the universe.

It would say that life in general does not exist outside our planet. Another possibility: a great filter may be the transition from simple prokaryotic cells to complex eukaryotic cells. After prokaryotes are born, they need at least two billion years before they can take an evolutionary leap, become complex, and reach their origin.

If it’s all the Great Filter, you can tell that the universe is full of simple eukaryotic cells and that’s it. There are many other possibilities, some even believe that our last jump to current intelligence can also be a sign of a great filter. Although the jump from a semi-intelligent life (chimpanzee) to a suitable life (people) does not seem like a miraculous step, Stephen Pinker rejects the idea of the inevitable “apogee” in the evolutionary process.

Earth is a technical reason

Since evolution does not set a goal, it only uses adaptation that would be useful for a specific ecological niche, and the fact that its cause on Earth is a technical reason may already indicate that natural selection. Such a result is very rare and not it is a habitual result of the growth of the tree of life. Most jumps are not considered candidates for the Grand Filter.

Any possible big filter has to be a billionth thing, when something incredibly strange has to happen to provide a crazy exception. For this reason, the transition from a single-cell to a multi-cell life is not taken into account. Because Only 46 occurred once as isolated incidents on our planet. For the same reason, we do find fossilized eukaryotic cells on Mars. They would not be indicative of the Great Filter (as nothing else had happened before in the evolutionary series.

Because if it happened on Earth and Mars, it would be where something else would happen. If we are really rare, this may be due to a strange biological phenomenon, and also to what is called the “rare earth” hypothesis. Which says that there may be many terrestrial planets with similar terrestrial positions, but different positions on Earth: specificity of the solar system, relationship to the moon (the big moon is rare for such small planets) or something on the planet itself. favorable for life.

2. We are the first?

Followers of Group I believe that if the great filter is not behind us, there is an expectation that conditions in the universe have recently become, for the first time since the Big Bang, such that they have allowed the development of a adequate life. In this case, we and many other species may be on their way to superintendency, and none came before that. We were at the right time to become one of the highest civilizations for the first time.

An example of an event that could make this explanation possible is gamma brightness, the prevalence of massive explosions that we see in distant galaxies. Just as it took young Earth several hundred years before asteroids and volcanoes died, opening the way to life. The universe could be filled with gamma rays, like gamma rays that burned everything that became life. occasionally. Given, up to a point. Now, perhaps, we are in the midst of the third astronomical stage of infection, when life can go on for so long and nothing prevents it.

3. We cover (large front filter)

If we are not infrequent and not before, among the possible explanations for Group I is the fact that the Great Filter awaits us. Perhaps life unfolds regularly as we stop. But something is preventing me from advancing and reaching higher intelligence in almost all cases, and we are unlikely to be an exception. One of the possible excellent filters is a regularly occurring catastrophic natural phenomenon, similar to the gamma eruptions mentioned above.

Perhaps they are not finished yet, and it is only a matter of time before they suddenly share the emptiness of all life on Earth. Another candidate is the potential imperative for self-destruction of all civilizations developed after reaching a certain level of technology. That is why Oxford University philosopher Nick Böstrom says “lack of news is good news. Discovering even the simplest life on Mars will have disastrous consequences, as it will cut many possible large filters behind us.

If we find fossils of a complex life on Mars, in Bosrom’s opinion, it would be the worst news in the history of humanity, published in the newspaper. Because it would mean that the great filter would surely be ahead. Bossom believes that when the Fermi paradox comes, “the night sky is gold.” II Group of explanations: There are civilizations II and III, but there are logical reasons not to listen to them.

history is only 5,500 years old

The second group of explanations removes any mention of our rarity or uniqueness; On the contrary, his followers believe in mediocrity theory, the starting point of which is that nothing is rare in our galaxy, solar system, planets, intelligence unless the evidence shows otherwise. They are not quick to say that the lack of high intelligence evidence speaks to their absence, and underscores the fact that our search for signals has only increased 100 light years (0.1% of the galaxy) from us.

Here are ten possible explanations for the Fermi paradox from the point of view of Group II. The supreme life has come to earth long before us. In this scheme of things, living people have been around for almost 50,000 years. Which is relatively small. If the contact happened first, our guests drowned in the water alone, and that’s it.

Furthermore, the recorded history is only 5,500 years old. Perhaps a group of ancient hunter-gatherer tribes collided with unknown supernatural garbage, but no way was found for future descendants to recall or capture the event. The galaxy is colonized, but we only live in some uninhabited country. Americans may have been colonized by Europeans long before a small Inuit tribe in northern Canada.

Perhaps there is an urban moment in the colonization of the galaxy. When species gather in the neighborhood for convenience, and it would be impractical and futile to try to contact someone in the part of the spiral galaxy we are in. The whole concept of physical colonization is a fun idea of antiquity for the more advanced species. Remember the image of a Type II civilization around your star!

physical world of biology

With all this energy, they could create an ideal place for themselves that would satisfy all needs. They can incredibly reduce the need for resources and live in their joyous utopia instead of exploring the cold, empty, and underdeveloped universe.

An even more civilization could see the entire physical world as a very primitive place, long ago conquering its biology and charging its mind into virtual reality. A paradise for eternal life. Life, mortality, wants and needs in the physical world of biology may seem primitive to such creatures because it seems to us primitive life in the cold, dark ocean.

Somewhere there are hunter-gatherer civilizations. The smartest life knows that it is highly inappropriate to transmit any outgoing signal, thereby giving it its place. This unpleasant moment may explain the absence of any signal received by SETI satellites. It can also mean that we are new and naive people, who leave their risky place because of their stupidity.

any developed civilization

There is controversy over whether we should try to approach a supernatural civilization, and most people conclude that no, it’s not worth it. Stephen Hawking warns: If aliens come to us, the consequences will be worse when Columbus lands in the United States, which was clearly not very good for Native Americans.

Even Carly Sagan (who piously believed that any developed civilization that would dominate interstate travel rather than hostile) called the SETI practice “highly inappropriate and immature” and recommended that strange and inconsistent Newborns sit in space and listen in Silence for a long time.

They study patiently and absorb, before shouting into the unknown, that we do not understand.  There is only one representative of the higher intellectual life: the civilization of the “hunters” (like the people here on earth). Which is much more advanced than all the others, and avoids destroying any intelligent civilization as soon as it arrives.

Fixed level of development

It would be very bad It would be very unfair to destroy civilizations, to spend resources on them. Because most of them died alone. But after a certain point, intelligent species can begin to multiply like viruses and soon populate the entire galaxy. This theory implies that whoever populates the first galaxy wins, and no one else has a chance.

This may explain the lack of activity, as it would reduce the number of supernatural civilizations for one. There is activity and noise somewhere, but our technologies are much more primitive and we try to hear something else.

You go to a modern building, turn on the walkie-talkie and try to listen to something, but everyone sends a message and you decide that the building is empty. Or as Carl Sagan said, our brains can run slower or faster than other smarter brains: it takes 12 years to say “hello,” but when we hear that, this is white noise for us. We are exposed to a wise life, but the authorities are hiding it.

national nature reserve

This theory is completely silly, but we must mention it. The high civilizations know us and observe us (“zoo hypothesis”). As far as we know, there are known civilizations in a tightly controlled galaxy, and our Earth is considered a national nature reserve, preserve and a great thing, a sign that it is “seeing but not touching.” We don’t notice them, because if some intelligent species wants to see us.

They will know how to hide from us easily. Perhaps, in fact, there is a “Star Trek” “directive” that prevents superintelligent creatures from coming into contact with young species until they reach a certain level of intelligence. We have high civilizations here. But we are too primitive to understand them.

Michio Kaku explains it like this: Suppose we have an anthill in the middle of the forest. Near the anthill, a ten-lane high-speed road was built.

The question is:

Do the ants understand that ten lanes tall. -Speed? Can ants understand the techniques and intentions of the creatures that build the road alongside them?” Therefore, not only can we not pick up signals from planet X using our techniques, but we also cannot understand what organisms on planet X do. On their behalf, an effort will be made to tell us that we are trying to train ants to use Internet. You can also answer the question.

Well, if there are so many amazing Type III civilizations. Why haven’t they contacted us yet? To answer this question, let’s ask ourselves:

  • When Pizarro went to Peru, did he stop in front of Antheil to speak?
  • Was he generous trying to help ants in their difficult cases?
  • Was it hostile and prevented anthill burning from time to time?
  • Or was it deep in the drum?

Is the same!..we are completely wrong in our thoughts about reality. There are many options that can completely divide our thoughts to zero. The universe can be something like a hologram. Either we are aliens, and they put us here as an experiment or fertilizer. There is even a chance that we are all part of computer simulations of some otherworldly scientists.

And that other life forms are not just programmed to appear. As our path continues, we continue to seek supernatural intelligence, it is not entirely clear what to expect. If we find out that we are alone in the universe, or if we officially enter the galactic community, both options are equally terrifying and equally awaken consciousness.

conversations about civilizations

In addition to its surprisingly bright component, the Fermi Paradox leaves people feeling profoundly humble. It is not the usual “I am a microbe and I live three seconds”, which originates from the idea of the universe. The Fermi paradox leaves a more distinct personal delicacy that can only appear after spending hours studying the most incredible theories put forth by the best scientists who constantly turn their minds and mutually refute each other.

It reminds us that generations to come will look at us the same way we see people of old who thought that the stars had collided with the wooden sky and wondered, “Wow, they really didn’t know what was happening.” All of this is hurting our self-esteem, along with conversations about civilizations II and III. Here on Earth we are the kings of our little palace, proudly ruling over the few fools who share the planet with us and there is no competition in this bubble and no one will condemn us.

We have no one to discuss the problem of being, except ourselves. All of this suggests that humans are probably not that smart, we sit on a small rock in the middle of a desert universe and we don’t even think we could be wrong. But perhaps we are wrong, let us not forget this in an attempt to justify our greatness.

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The Elevation Of The Atmospheric Scale On These Planets Is 10 Times Greater

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Kepler-51 is home to three super-swollen exoplanet
Kepler-51 is home to three super-swollen exoplanet

Kepler-51 is home to three super-swollen exoplanet: Kepler-51 is a 500 million-year-old G-type star located 2,615 light years away in the constellation Cygnus. New observations from the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope showed that the Kepler-51 houses three of the lowest density exoplanets known to date. At a density of less than 0.1 g / cm3, the elevation of the atmospheric scale on these planets is 10 times greater than that of a typical hot Jupiter exoplanet.

Kepler-51

Super puffs are several times larger than Earth, planets larger than Neptune and planets of much lower density. First discovered by NASA’s Kepler space telescope, these planets are relatively rare in our galaxy, the Milky Way: so far less than 15 have been discovered. “A trio of Kepler-51 has taken planetary disturbances to new levels,” said Dr. Zachary Berta-Thompson is an astronomer in the Department of Astronomy and Planetary Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder.

Kepler-51 is home to three super-swollen exoplanet

Their discovery was directly opposite to what we teach in graduate classes. Also known as KOI-620, Kepler-51 houses three planets the size of Jupiter: Kepler-51B, C and D, with an orbital period of 45, 85 and 130 days. Discovered by Kepler in 2012, these planets are several times larger than Earth’s mass and have a hydrogen / helium atmosphere.

“The three planets had a density of less than 0.1 g / cm3, almost the same as the pink candy bought at any fair,” said Jessica Libby-Roberts, an astrologer and graduate student in the Department of Planetary Sciences. University of Colorado, Boulder. “We knew they were low density. But when you photograph a cotton candy ball in the form of Jupiter, it is really low density. ” This representation shows three massive planets orbiting Kepler-51 compared to some planets in our solar system.

Kepler-51

Dr. Berta-Thompson, Libby-Roberts and colleagues saw two transits of the Kepler-51, B with the Hubble 3 wide-field camera. The researchers found no chemical signs in the spectra of both planets. “It was completely unexpected. We had planned to see large water absorption facilities, but they weren’t there. They forced us out,” Libby-Roberts said. However, unlike Earth’s water clouds, clouds on these planets can be formed by salt crystals or photochemical rewards.

Such as those found on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. These clouds provide scientists with an idea of how Kepler-51, B and D compare to other low mass and gas rich exoplanets. “By comparing the flat spectra of the overpopulations with the spectra of other planets, we could support the hypothesis that the formation of clouds / mists is associated with the temperature of the planet. The colder a planet is, the deeper it becomes”, said.

The low density of these planets is the result of the early age of the system, just 500 million years older than our Sun of 4.6 million years. The models suggest that these planets formed outside the star’s snow line,” areas of possible orbits where frozen matter can escape. After this, the planets went inward. The authors also found that Kepler-51B, C and D flow at high speed. He calculated that if this trend continued.

Mini Neptunes

The planets could be substantially reduced in the next billion years, increasing their frustration. Finally, they can be transmitted as a common class of exoplanets called ‘mini-neptunes’. People are really struggling to discover why this system is so different from everyone else. We are trying to show, in fact, that it looks like these other systems, said Libby-Roberts. Dr. Berta-Thompson said:

A good fact of their rarity is that we are seeing them at a time of their evolution, where we rarely have the opportunity to see planets. The team article will be published in the Astronomical Journal. Super-puffs: new types of exoplanets seen by hubble have the density of cotton candy. This new class of exoplanets has the lowest density of any planet discovered outside of our solar system. When you hear “super puffs.”

NASA-ESA’s Hubble Space Telescope

t’s more like thinking of cheetos, breakfast cereals, or whatever else is super puffy. But a planet in space would not be an unexpected assumption. Okay, we’ll just have to figure out how to make peace with doing it anyway (especially if you’re a space cushion), because “super-puff” is now a newly-discovered category of a unique and rare cotton candy category as well.

This is the first in the field of astrophysics, let alone exoplanets, simply “there is nothing [like them] that exists in our solar system.” Data from NASA-ESA’s Hubble Space Telescope pointed to the heterogeneous chemistry of two of those super-bloated planets, found in the Kepler 51 system. Some 2,400 light-years away from Earth. Consisting of not two but three superpopulations orbiting a young star.

super-bloated exoplanets

The system was discovered in 2012 by NASA’s Kepler telescope. It was only in 2014 that the densities of these planets were estimated, and what they found was a huge drunken surprise. Super-Puffs: The new class of exoplanets observed by Hubble has a density of cotton candy. An artist’s rendering of the super-bloated exoplanets is compared to cotton candy in appearance as a pedicle.

Recent Hubble observations shed some light on the mass and size of these worlds, on the basis of which several independent research groups have confirmed their “bloated” disposition. To an observer, these planets may look big and heavy like Jupiter, but the reality is that these planets are very, very light (about a hundred times lighter) in mass.

How and why its atmospheres make the balloon remains a mystery!

But the feature makes Super-Puffs the primary target for atmospheric investigations. The research team went looking for evidence of components: water, especially in the atmospheres of the two planets (Kepler-51B and Kepler 51D). Most exoplanets, including the overpopulations in question, are studied using a method called transduction photometry.

In which astronomers search for starlight to detect the intensity of dives as the exoplanet passes by.

A drop in light intensity during this “transit” can reveal a lot of information about the size and structure of the exoplanet. The study was published in The Astronomical Journal. The three pleural planets in the Kepler 51 system are comparable to some of our acquaintances. Researchers have testified that there are light gases, hydrogen and helium.

University of Colorado Boulder

For example, which gives the bloated world something, if not some of its strange characteristics. Methane is also in the mix, creating a layer of gas that obscures the view through the atmosphere when viewed with powerful telescopes. It is similar to Saturn’s moon Titan, which has a dense atmosphere and a fog through which it is impossible to see.

“They are very strange,” said Jessica Libby-Roberts, a graduate student in astrophysics at the University of Colorado Boulder. She sent us off course to explain what might happen here… We were expecting to find water, but we couldn’t see the signature of any molecule.

However, the system is young, compared to our solar system (4.5 billion years old). Which is only 500 million years old, which is considered quite young. It may be too early to compare or speculate on the curious trio of super-puffs. But we can certainly imagine time, which can be like looking and walking in real super-bloat.

The most distant radio emission source
The most distant radio emission source

Astronomers search for the most distant radio emission source known to date. The source, a quasar, is so far away that its light has taken 13 billion years to reach Earth. Astronomers have discovered and analyzed the most distant radio emission source ever known. The source is what scientists call a radio-noisy quasar, a bright object with powerful jets that emit radio wavelengths.

most distant radio emission source

According to the study, which was published in The Astrophysical Journal, the newly discovered quasar, dubbed P172 + 18, is so far away that light has traveled nearly 13 billion years to reach Earth. Quasars date to a time when the universe was 780 million years old, and researchers say the discovery could help them understand the early universe.

Quasars are very luminous objects at the center of some galaxies and are powered by supermassive black holes. As black holes consume the gas around them, energy is released, making them visible to astronomers even when they are very far away. Artist’s impression of quasar P172 + 18, the most distant radio emission source known to date ESO / M Kornmeiser.

Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Germany

This is the first time that researchers have been able to identify the telltale signatures of radio jets in a quasar early in the history of the universe. Only 10 percent of quasars have jets that glow at radio frequencies. P172 + 18 is powered by a black hole that is approximately 300 million times larger than the Sun.

Chiara Mazuchelli, a fellow at the European Southern Observatory in Chile, led the discovery together with Eduardo Baados from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Germany. The black hole is consuming matter very rapidly, increasing in mass at one of the highest rates ever observed, Mazuchelli said.

Astronomers believe there is a link between the rapid growth of supermassive black holes and the powerful radio jets seen in quasars like P172 + 18. The jets are believed to be able to disturb the gas around the black hole, increasing the speed to which the gas collapses. Studying radio-noisy quasars can provide insight into how black holes grew so rapidly to their supermassive size in the early universe.

Ultra massive black holes (UMBH)

Big Bang. “As soon as we got the data, we looked at it closely and knew immediately that we had discovered the most distant radio quasar ever known,” Banados said. P172 + 18 was first identified as a distant quasar in the Magellan Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. But researchers believe it may be the first of many found to be a strong radio quasar, perhaps at a even greater cosmological distance.

There is no theoretical upper limit for the mass of a black hole. However, astronomers have noted that ultra massive black holes (UMBH) found in the cores of some galaxies never seem to exceed 10 billion solar masses. Given the amount of time that has elapsed since the Big Bang, we would expect exactly the same rate that we know black holes grow.

Furthermore, recent studies suggest that UMBHs cannot physically move beyond this as they would then begin to disrupt the accretion discs that feed them, suppressing the source of new material. Astronomers have referred to the source galaxy of the rapid radio. Repeat the fast burst of locally large spiral Galaxy radio. It the closest known example to us and only the second repetitive rapid radio source that indicates its location have made sky.

The rapid radio burst as FRB

Astronomers have referred to the source galaxy of the rapid radio burst as FRB 180916.J0158 + 65 (abbreviated FRB 180916), which makes it the closest known example to us and only the second repetitive rapid radio source that indicates its location have made sky. This image of the 8 m Gemini North telescope shows the SDSS host galaxy J015800.28 + 654253.0 (center), FRB 180916 (green circle). Rapid radio bursts (FRB) are mysterious bursts of energy from space.

They have a duration of milliseconds and exhibit the characteristic scattering of pulsed radii. These events emit as much energy in a millisecond as the sun emits in 10,000 years, but physical phenomena that make them unknown. There are two types of fast radio bursts: repeaters that flash several times and non-repeaters, unique events, said Kshitij Aggarwal, a graduate student at the University of West Virginia.

Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI)

Despite hundreds of records from these mysterious sources, astronomers have only indicated the exact location of four of these explosions. Now there is a fifth: FRB 180916. This observation is only the second time scientists determine the location of a rapid radio burst. In June 2019, astronomers used eight telescopes from the European VLBI network to observe FRB 180916.

Which was originally discovered by the CHIME (Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment) telescope in British Columbia in 2018. They detected four bursts of radio, each less than two thousandths of a second. Using a technique called Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), they achieved a high enough resolution level to locate these explosions in an area with a separation of approximately 7 light years.

large galaxy spiral

Follow-up observations in Gemini north of 8 m at Mauna Kea in Hawaii. One of the world’s largest optical telescopes, showed that the explosion originated in a massive spiral galaxy in SDSS J015800.28 + 654253.0. There is a large galaxy spiral. Millions of light years from Earth. This galaxy is only about 7 times longer than the second repeat burst to locate, and 10 times closer than some non-repeated FRB scientists..the researchers noted.

We used an 8-meter Gemini North telescope to take sensitive images that showed diffuse spiral arms similar to galaxies and showed that the source of FRB in one of those arms was in a star-forming region, said Dr.  Srihari Tendulkar, astronomer at McGill University. This is a very different environment for a repeated FRB than a dwarf galaxy, in which the first FRB 121102 was discovered.

radically different environment

Astronomer of the Joint Institute of the European Research Infrastructure Consortium VLB. This is the closest FRB to Earth, said Dr. Benito Marcotte. Surprisingly, he found himself in a radically different environment than the four previous FRBs, an environment that challenges our ideas about what could be the source of these explosions.

Scientists hope that more studies will know the circumstances that led to the production of these mysterious transient radio pulses, and some of the unanswered questions they pose. For example, X-rays or visible light.

Radio Astronomy

We have a new opportunity to detect emissions at other wavelengths. And if we did, it would be a major disadvantage for the model, “Dr. Victoria Kaspi is an astrophysicist at McGill University and a key member of the CHIME / FRB collaboration. Astronomer of the Dutch Institute of Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) and the University of Amsterdam, Drs. Jason Hessels said:

Our goal is to locate more FRBs and ultimately understand their origins. These findings were published in the January 9, 2020 issue of the Journal Nature. Rapid observation of radio bursts deepens the astronomical mystery.

rapid radio burst in a nearby galaxy

Astronomers point to the origin of a rapid radio burst that is repeated in a nearby spiral galaxy, challenging theories about the unknown source of these pulses. Observations with the 8-meter North Gemini Telescope, a program of the NSF’s National Laboratory of Optical Infrared Astronomy Research, have allowed astronomers to determine the location of a rapid radio burst in a nearby galaxy.

It is Earth and only the nearest Create familiar examples The second source of repeated burst to indicate its position in the sky. The source of explosion of radio waves is completely different from the atmosphere observed in previous studies. ‘This discovery challenges researchers’ assumptions about the origins of these already widespread exoglytic events.

An unsolved mystery in astronomy is even more surprising.

The source of rapid radio bursts (FRB), the sudden explosion of radio waves in a few thousandths of a second, has remained unknown since its discovery in 2007. The research, published today in the scientific journal Nature, and presented in the 235th meeting of the American Astronomical Society, has indicated the origin of FRB in an unexpected atmosphere in a nearby spiral galaxy.

Research Laboratory

Observations with the North Gemini Telescope of the NSF Optical Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory (OIR Lab) on tautology in Hawaii played an important role in the discovery. Which further deepens the nature of these extragalactic pulses. The sources of FRB and their nature are mysterious: many are exploiting one by one, but very few of them sprout frequently.

The recently discovered FRB, identified by the ubiquitous designation FRB 180916.J0158 + 65, is one of only five sources with a precisely known location and only the second source that indicates repeated bursts. These FRBs are called localized and can be associated with a particular distant galaxy. Which allows astronomers to make additional observations that can provide information about the origin of the radio pulse.

The location of this object is fundamentally different from the FRB repetitions located above, but also from all previously studied FRBs, explains Kenzie Nimmo, a PhD student at the University of Amsterdam and author of this article. It blurs the difference between repetitive and non-repetitive rapid radio bursts. It may be that FRBs originate in a large zoo of locations throughout the universe and simply need to observe some specific conditions.

radio and optical wavelengths

It is required to see the location of FRB 180916.J0158 + 65 in radio and optical wavelengths. FRBs can only be detected by radio telescopes, so radio observation is fundamentally necessary to accurately determine the position of FRBs in the sky. This particular FRB was first discovered by the Canadian CHIME Radio Telescope Array in 2018. New research used the European VLBI Network (EVN) to locate the source.

But measuring the precise distance and local atmosphere of the radio source was only possible with optical follow-up observations with the Gemini Northern telescope. The International Gemini Observatory includes telescopes in the northern and southern hemispheres, which can simultaneously reach the entire night sky.

Gemini and subsequent data analysis

We use cameras and spectrographs in the Gemini North telescope, explains Sriharsh Tendulkar, a postgraduate fellow at McGill University in Montreal. Canada that led to observations of Gemini and subsequent data analysis. These observations showed that FRB originates from a spiral arm of the galaxy, in a region that is rapidly forming stars. However, the source of FRB 180916.J0158 + 65.

Which is about 500 million light years from Earth, was unexpected and deepens this astronomical mystery, indicating that FRB cannot be associated with a particular type of galaxy or environment. This is the closest FRB to Earth, explains Benito Marcotte, joint director of the VLB European Research Infrastructure Consortium and lead author of the article on nature.

Individual radio bursts

Surprisingly, he found himself in a different environment from the four previous FRBs, an environment that defies our ideas about what could be the source of the explosion. The researchers hope that more studies will discover the conditions involved in the production of these mysterious transient radio pulses, and some of the unanswered questions they pose. Mysterious rapid repetitions of radio bursts detect nearby galaxies.

For the second time, astronomers have detected a repetitive esoteric signal of intense radio bursts and this is in a spiral galaxy similar to ours, not far away. Fast radio bursts, or FRBs, are bursts of radio waves milliseconds long in space. Individual radio bursts emit once and are not repeated. Repeated fast radio bursts have been known to sometimes send energetic small radio waves.

Over the years, many individual fast radio bursts go back to their sources in other galaxies. Although they have not yet shed light on what they have created. But the first source of this new discovery that replicated the FRB was found in 2019, deepening the mystery of the creation of these radio waves. The ghostly shell in this image is a supernova, and the glow emanating from it is a pulsar.

illuminating the nebula

Hidden in one of the darkest corners of the Orion planetarium, this cosmic bat is spreading its misty wings through interstellar space at a distance of two thousand light years. It is illuminated by young stars that inhabit its core despite being surrounded by opaque clouds of dust, its bright rays still illuminating the nebula. Hidden in one of the darkest corners of the Orion planetarium.

This cosmic bat is spreading its misty wings through interstellar space at a distance of two thousand light years. It is illuminated by young stars that inhabit its core despite being surrounded by opaque clouds of dust. Its bright rays still illuminating the nebula. In this illustration, many dust rings surround the sun. These rings are formed when the planets; Gravity digs up dust grains in orbit around the Sun.

The planets transports

Scientists have recently detected a ring of dust in Mercury’s orbit. Others imagine the source of Venus; The dust ring is a group of coorbital asteroids never before identified. In this illustration, many dust rings surround the sun. These rings form when the gravity of the planets transports the dust grains in orbit around the sun. Scientists have recently detected a ring of dust in Mercury’s orbit.

Others look at the source of the Venus Dust Ring, a group of previously identified coorbital asteroids. Author Jason Hessels, of the Dutch Institute of Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) and the University of Amsterdam, says “our goal is to locate more FRBs and ultimately understand their origins.” I am glad to see that the different observation facilities complement each other during such demanding high-priority investigations, Luke Simmer, board member of Gemini and CEO of NRC-Herzberg, CHEME, also houses a Canadian office.

Science Foundation

We are especially honored to make astronomical observations at Maunakia in Hawaii.” The extraordinary observation conditions of this site are important to make such astronomical discoveries. Understanding the origins of the FRB will undoubtedly be an exciting challenge for astronomers in the 2020s, said Chris Davis of the US National Science Foundation. UU., Jemis program officer.

We are confident that Gemini will play an important role, and Gemini seems to have made these critical comments at the beginning of the new decade, says Davis. The research was presented in an article in Nature entitled “A source of rapid and repetitive radio burst located in a nearby spiral galaxy.” Mysterious repetitions of rapid bursts of radio detect the nearby galaxy.

Astronomers have tracked the signal for an enigmatic repetitive rapid radio burst only a second time, and it is in a spiral galaxy similar to ours, not far away. Fast radio bursts, or FRB, are long-lasting millisecond radio waves. Individual radios explode once and then do not return. It is known that repeated rapid radio bursts sometimes send small energetic radio waves.

the McGill University study

Over the years, many individual rapid radio bursts date back to their sources in other galaxies. Although they have not yet shed light on what they have created. But the first source of this new discovery that the FRB reproduced was found in 2019, which deepens the mystery of the creation of these radio waves. The source of the new repetitive FRB, known as 180916.J0158 + 65, was discovered by a global effort of eight geo-based telescopes.

Which indicated the location in a galaxy half a billion light years away from Earth. While it seems incredibly distant. It is seven times closer than other repeated radio bursts and 10 times closer than the non-repeated FRBs that have been detected and doctoral student of the McGill University study, said: The FRB is the most observed, and we speculate that it could be a more traditional object on the outskirts of our own galaxy.

American Astronomical Society

However, observations have shown that it is in a relatively close galaxy, so it remains a disconcerting FRB. But now enough to be studied with many other telescopes. The study, published Monday in the journal Nature, and its findings were presented at the 235th annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Honulu. The first repetitive rapid radio burst, FRB 121102, was detected associated with a small dwarf galaxy containing stars and metals.

Benito Marcotte quoted the lead author of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe saying: Many of the glimpses we saw earlier repeat that the FRB was born from a very special and extreme position within the very small and dwarf [galaxy]. Of telescopes in the same observatory. This discovery represented the first piece of the puzzle, but it also raised more questions than it could solve. Such as marked and non-repetitive A repetitions was a fundamental difference between the FRB.

Canadian CHIME telescope

Now, we have made a second location, repeating the FRB, which challenges our previous ideas about what could be the source of these explosions. On June 19, 2019, the joint institute repeated rapid radio bursts, which were initially discovered by the Canadian CHIME telescope in 2018. In five hours, the telescopes detected four explosions that lasted less than two seconds.

He used a technique called Very Long Baseline Interferometry to combine the power of the telescope and used it as one to fix the location of the FRB in an area of seven light years. Astronomers compared someone’s ability to stand on Earth to be able to identify someone on the moon. This new repetitive fast radio burst is not only different from other repeated tracks, but also all the fastest radio bursts are detected.

galaxy or environment

The differences between repeated and non-repeated rapid radio bursts are therefore less pronounced, and we believe that these events cannot be associated with a particular type of galaxy or environment, said Kenzie Nimmo, Co-author and PhD student from Amsterdam. It could be that FRBs originate in a large zoo of locations throughout the universe and only need to observe certain specific conditions.

Repeated rapid bursts of radio were detected by one of the spiral arms of the Milky Way galaxy. It was also within a star-forming arm region, the researchers said.  Learning more about the Burst host galaxy can expose astronomers to the environment from which it originates and ultimately discover the greatest mystery of what makes them. Since this is closer than the others, astronomers will observe it more in the future.

Understanding fast radio bursts can help astronomers learn more about the universe. The more bursts they can track, the better it will be to be able to use the signal of how they are distributed in the universe.

Kepler-51 is home to three super-swollen exoplanet
Kepler-51 is home to three super-swollen exoplanet
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TESS Reveals Two New Hot Jupiters

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TESS reveals two new hot Jupiters
TESS reveals two new hot Jupiters

TESS reveals two new hot Jupiters, using NASA’s TESS satellite inspection of exoplanets in transit and many ground telescopes. Astronomers have observed the transits of two hot exoplanets from Jupiter “Hot giants” and defined as systems with periods longer than 10 days, are close enough to the star that they have the potential for significant migration.

two new hot Jupiters

But not close enough that the effects of the tide can erase the potential traces of that migration. Dr. Andres Jordan of the Adolfo Ibanez University and the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics and its allies. Along the same lines, they are far enough away from their original star that their ingenuity has not been inflated by the mechanism used to feed the reds of the hottest giants.

But while it is clear that these systems are very interesting. The population of known hot giants around nearby stars (which allows for more detailed characterization) remains very small. Called TOI-677b, the new hot giant was detected by NASA’s Exoplanet Inspection Satellite (TESS).

We follow the host star, TOI-677, which includes several spectrographs to confirm the candidate of the planet in transit TESS and measure its mass, the astronomers explained. They discovered that the TOI-677b is approximately 1.2 times larger and more massive than Jupiter. Its radius corresponds to what is expected of a gas giant with a core with 10 Earth masses according to the standard model.

American Astronomical Society

He said. The TOI-677 is an F-type star about 464 light years away from Earth. Also known as HD 297549 and 2MASS J09362869-5027478, the star is slightly larger and more massive than the Sun and is approximately 2.92 billion years old. The TOI-677b orbits the star in an eccentric orbit with an orbital period of 11.24 days. Dr. Jordan and his co-authors stated: With a singularity of 0.435.

It is at the upper limit of eccentricity values for planets with similar periods in the currently known sample. An article detailing the discovery will be published in a journal of the American Astronomical Society. The hottest jupiter discovered the light on Everplanets migratory behavior.

Astronomical Journal

Hot Jupiters are a class of exogiants located outside our solar system with relatively short orbital distances. Most of the warm Jupiter previously discovered by astronomers are over a billion years old. The youngest researchers to cross the hot Jupiter were discovered circling the star HIP 67522.

A study published by the Astronomical Journal. The exoplanet, called HIP 67522B, is believed to be 17 million years from Earth and approximately 10 times as large in diameter. Hot jupiters are gas giants similar to Jupiter in our solar system but with significantly shorter orbital distances due to their proximity to their original stars.

Transit Inspection Satellite (TESS)

HIP 67522 b orbits its home star in approximately seven days. But for some former veterans the process can take less than 20 hours. Despite an astonishing discovery with the help of NASA’s Exoplanet in Transit Inspection Satellite (TESS) using a so-called “transit method”. Scientists are still amazed at the “migration” behavior patterns among hot lupers.

Right now, astronomers believe that gas giants are unlikely to be this close to their original stars, as most of their components will evaporate, although this is still debated. This suggests that the hot jupiters may have migrated from their initial formation sites. Exoplanets thus move towards their original star, either in the early history of their formation or according to some other hypothesis.

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory

And much later, under the influence of other planets. As demonstrated in the case of HIP 67522B. The final assumption regarding this exoplanet was not applicable. The color of exoplanets can reveal whether they are respectable, according to the new study. Yasuhiro Hasegawa, an astrophysicist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, quoted Phys.org as saying.

Scientists would like to know if there is a primary mechanism that produces the hottest jupiter. Currently there is no clear consensus in the community about how important the hypothesis is to reproduce the population that we have seen. The discovery of this young and hot Jupiter is exciting, but it is only a sign. We will need more to solve the mystery.

wide-area exoplanet studies

TESS Reveals Transit HD 118203b After 13 Years. There are many ways to search for exoplanets. The first exoplanet around the solar-like star was discovered by radial velocity measurements and was won by explorers for this year’s Nobel Prize. Following the advent of wide-area exoplanet studies from SuperWASP to NG NG and TESS since 2006.

And most exoplanets have been discovered using the transit method and confirmed shortly after radial velocity studies. However, in today’s article, the exoplanet, HD118203 b, was detected in 2006 by Radial Velocity and 13 years after its discovery, it is now only in transit.

Radial velocity discovery

HD118203 b was found in 2006 using radial velocity technology: measuring the amount of the star’s spectrum that wobbles when the star is dragged by its orbiting planet. During the orbit of a planet. The spectra redden as the planet moves its star away from us and the star gets closer to us.

Radial velocity measurements give us the orbital period of the planet, as well as its eccentricity and minimum mass.

The correct mass of the planet depends on the relative inclination between the star and the planet. 43 ELODIE radial velocity measurements detected HD118203B as an eccentric planet with an orbital period of 113 days and a minimum mass of approximately 2 Jupiters (see Figure 1).

While most orbit orientations will produce radial velocity signatures, only a small percentage need to be aligned for us to see the planet from its star or in front of the transit. Transiting exoplanets emit a small fraction of the light and allowing us to interconnect planets and stars.

small portion of the exoplanet

If a planet transits, it interrupts the tilt of the planet and means that the minimum mass at radial speed is very close to the true mass. Many discovered exoplanets have been found using radial velocities since transduction, but this confirmation process takes time for two reasons.

First, only a small portion of the exoplanet will actually transit. Second, only a very small fraction of the orbit (usually within a few hours for an orbit of less than 10 days) transits through the end, so the telescope must stare at a star long enough to find out when it actually occurs. .

TESS Detective One (or Five)

The transit of HD 118203B was carried out thanks to the ongoing TES mission. TESS is a space mission that stares at each area for 28 days, looking at most of the sky, seeking to move exoplanets. Five HD 118203B infections were automatically identified using the Scientific Processing Operations Center (SPOC; see Fig. 2), and as the following investigation to check for false positives, I was identified as a promising candidate.

The authors use the exoplanet adaptation suite, EXOFASTv2, to adjust the planetary parameters, but first they need to adjust the stellar parameters. They perform an initial fit to estimate the gravity of the star’s surface (log (g)), and find that the star is a subcategory. A spectral energy distribution (SED) model uses broadband photometry that is stellar magnitudes measured on different filters to find stellar temperatures.

brightest host stars

The author claims that it is similar to the Sun, but the radius of the star is double. The authors simultaneously run a full analysis using these stellar parameters to model the stellar parameters using ELODIE radial velocity. TESS photometry, and stellar evolution models..

EXOFASTv2 produces two sets of solutions that correspond to the data: an older (5 Gyr), less massive (1.3 M a) star, or a smaller (3 Gyr) more massive (1.5 M☉) star. The authors adopt an older, smaller star solution, as the model makes it much more likely (89.6% vs. 10.4%). Its results also correspond to the other two codes tested.

planet’s atmosphere

HD 118203 b is an interesting target because it is one of the few transiting exoplanets in an eccentric orbit with a bright host star (the thirteenth brightest of all transiting exoplanets). Fig. 3 shows all transiting exoplanets with eccentricities greater than 0.05 and places HD 118203 among the brightest host stars.

The combination of a relatively short orbital period, a bright host star, and an eccentric orbit make it a good candidate for a phase shift. Future space missions Observations of the infrared phase curve from JWST can provide information on the thermal properties of the planet’s atmosphere.

How many more proofs can be found?

HD Earlier this year, an article, led by a colleague in today’s newspaper, examined this question. They considered the traffic probability of each radial speed detection system and how long TESS planned to inspect each system on its main mission. They predict that TES will observe the transit of 11 of the 677 radial velocity planets.

But only three will not be known for the first transit. Only 12 radial velocity planets are known to transit through March 2019, so this is still a substantial increase. Today’s authors found that HD 118203B might be the most observed planetary transit (top 2%). It seems surprising that it took 13 years for a relatively large, short-lived planet to be seen in transit.

But an important factor is that the transit itself was relatively large compared to the transit discoveries from the wide-field based studies. In the land of the time. little deep. Most transiting exoplanets have also been found around main sequence stars, not giant or subgiant stars. Looking ahead, it is clear that we can expect many more interesting results from TESS, and photometry and radial velocity measurements working together.

two massive exoplanets
two massive exoplanets

The new planet HD 213885

The new planet HD 213885 (also known as TOI-141 and TIC 403224672), a 3,800 million-year-old G-type star located 156 light years away. The inner planet, called HD 213885b (TOI-141b), is 1.74 times larger than Earth and 8.8 times heavier, making it a so-called super Earth. Hot Super-Earth and Exo-Neptune revolve around a star like the Sun.

Using data from NASA’s exoplanet prospecting satellite (TESS). Three terrestrial spectrographs. Astronomers have discovered an ultra-short-lived super Earth and a planet of Neptune mass that orbits a nearby star similar to the Sun. Dr. of the Space Telescope Science Institute of NASA. Nestor Espinoza declared.

stellar radiation of HD 213885b

HD 213885B has a rocky bulk composition, which transforms this exoplanet into a super earth in good faith.” And his colleagues. HD 213885B has an orbital period of only 1,008 days and a surface temperature of 1,855 ° C (3,371 ° F). The planet is similar to 55 Canary E, an extremely hot super Earth that orbits a G-type star about 42 light years from Earth.

Astronomers, radius, mass and stellar radiation of HD 213885b, given our data, similar to the 55 E Canario, make this exoplanet a good objective to demonstrate comparative exoplanetology in the short term, which is much more irradiated. the super Earth, the astronomers said. The outer planet in the system, called HD 213885c (TOI-141c), has a mass of 19.9 times the mass of the Earth and is similar to Neptune in the solar system.

atmospheric characterization

It orbits the original star once every 4.78 days and has a surface temperature of 922 ° C (1,692 ° F). The HD 213885 system is very interesting from the point of view of future atmospheric characterization, which is the second brightest star to house a super-Earth transmitting the super-Earth (being the brightest star, in fact, 55 Cancri), said Dr.. Espinoza and co-authors declared.

Your article will be published in the monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. The exoplanet orbits its star every 18 hours. A hot Jupiter has been quickly found: in the last decade, thousands of planets have been discovered beyond our solar system. These planets give astronomers the opportunity to study planetary systems that have defined our previous assumptions.

study planetary systems

This includes particularly large-scale gas giants that are several times the size of Jupiter (also known as “superjupiter”) and then there are those who are particularly close to their sun, also known as “hot-jupiters. Traditional knowledge suggests that gas giants should be far from their sun and have a long orbital period that can last a decade or more.

However, in a recent study, an international team of astronomers announced the detection of a “hot jupiter” with the shortest orbital period to date. Located 1,060 light years from Earth. This planet (NGTS-10b) takes only 18 hours to complete a full orbit of its Sun. The planet was discovered by the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS), as stated by the team in their study.

exoplanet the size of Jupiter

Which recently appeared in the monthly announcement of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS). The telescope, located in the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, is used by a consortium of European universities and agencies that hunt extrasolar planets. Artistic concept of an exoplanet the size of Jupiter that is relatively close to its star also known as Hot Jupiter.

In particular, NGTS is related to the search for super-Earth shaped exoplanets around Neptune and luminous stars. To date, most large planets that have short orbit periods are hot Jupiter. Which is easier to detect in relation to the observer (also known as the transit method) that passes through its star, especially with telescopes terrestrial.

discover the exclonset of Neptune’s size

Dr. James McCormack, a postdoctoral researcher at the Center for Exoplanets and Habitability at Warwick University and a member of the NGTS, was also the lead author of the study. As he explained by email to Universe Today. The Next G