80 Million Years Before The Bird, A New Review Article Published In Trends In Ecology

Recent discoveries of feathers in ornithischian dinosaurs indicated that they are a bird-shaped dinosaur character, with wings that emerge 80 million years before the bird, scientists say. According to a new review article published in Trends in Ecology.

In Ecology and Evolution, 250–230 million years ago, during the early Tricic, when life was recovering from a devastating mass elimination of the end of the Permian. Reconstruction of Culindradamus zabylicus:

It is surprising to realize that feathers originated much earlier than birds because feathers have generally been considered the main innovation that inhibited the success of avian organisms.

However, thousands of fossils in China have revealed that many non-avian dinosaurs also had wings, with types of feathers not found in today’s birds. These discoveries at least extended the origin of the feathers to 175 million years, 25 million years before the commonly accepted bird, Archeopteryx.

Recent feather discoveries in ornithic dinosaurs indicated that they are a dinosaur character in general. Another amazing discovery revealed that even the pteroyers had four types of feathers, apparently in the form of dinosaurs, similar to their close relatives.

“The oldest bird is still Archeopteryx, first found in 1861 in the late Jurassic in southern Germany, although some species are slightly larger than China,” said Professor Mike Benton of the University of Bristol, lead author from the article.

Those fossils show a diversity of feathers: feathers under the body and long and thin feathers in the feathers.

But, since 1994, paleontologists have been looking for dangerous discoveries based on hundreds of amazing specimens from China, including many dinosaurs.

Also there were wings. At first, the winged dinosaurs were close to the origin of the birds in the evolutionary tree, co-author Dr, a researcher at Nanjing University. Baoyu Jiang was added. It was not so hard to believe.

Therefore, the origin of the feathers was delayed at least to the origin of dinosaurs like birds, probably 200 million years ago. A reconstruction of one of the Yanlianao biota pterosaurs studied.

Which has four different types of feathers on the head, neck, body and wings and usually ginger brown. A reconstruction of one of the Yanlianao biota pterosaurs studied, which has four different types of feathers on the head, neck, body and wings, and usually ginger brown.

Co-authors Dr. Maria McNamara said: Then, we had the privilege of working on Culindrobius zabylicus, a winged dinosaur that feeds on plants and lived in lakeshore areas of Jurassic Siberia 169 and 144 million years ago.

University College Cork

This dinosaur showed incredibly well preserved skin covered with scales on the legs and tail, and a strange tremor throughout the body.

People were surprised that it was a dinosaur that was as far away from the birds in the evolutionary tree as one can imagine. Perhaps the feathers were present in the first dinosaurs.

“Modern bird-shaped chickens often have scales on their legs or necks, and we show that these were reversed: if the wings were ever invested with scales,” co-author Dr. Daniel Dholelei told the University of Grenoble.

In fact, we have shown that the same genome regulatory network governs the development of reptile scales, bird feathers and mammalian hair. Feathers can develop very quickly. Success came when we studied two new pterosaurs in China.

We noticed that many of his mustaches were torn. We expected single-stranded monofilaments, but what we saw was tuff and feathers. Pterosaurus had wings, Dr. Jiang said. Professor Benton said: He inspired the origin of the wings at least 250 million years ago.

Pterosaurs, the point of origin of dinosaurs and their relatives. The first Tricic world was recovering from the most devastating mass extinction, and life on earth almost disappeared. Paleontologists had already noticed that the new reptiles were straight instead of rotting.

And suggesting a rapid increase in their bone structure and perhaps even a shedding of warm blood, and probably mammalian ancestors by then. There was hair. Then, dinosaurs, pterosaurs and their ancestors also had feathers.

Feathers probably originated to help this acceleration of physiology and ecology, purely for isolation. Other functions of feathers, to show and, for of course, for the flight, much later.

Scientists discover how birds and dinosaurs evolved to dazzle with colorful displays. The Primotrogon fossil (above) compared to its modern counterpart, Narina Trogon.

Iridescence is responsible for some of the most striking visual displays in the animal kingdom.

Now, thanks to a new study on the plumage of some 100 species of modern birds, scientists have gained new knowledge on how this diversity of colors has evolved.

Iridescence refers to events in which an object changes color when viewed from different angles. Birds produce this different color on their wings using nanoscale matrices of organelles (melanosomes) filled with melanin layered with keratin.

In this form of structural coloration, the sizes of the melanosomes together with the thickness of the keratin layers determine what color is produced While melanosome morphology has been previously used to predict color in fossil animals.

The variation of melanosome in iridescent feathers has not been thoroughly analyzed until this study.

Evolution magazine

A team of researchers from the University of Bristol used electron microscopy to measure melanosome extracts from the feathers of 97 modern bird species with iridescent plumage from the Copenhagen Geological Museum collection.

Studies have shown that iridescent feathers have the most diverse melanosomal morphology of all types of bird coloration to date. Unlike black, brown and brown feathers, which always have solid melanosomes, iridescent feathers can have hollow and / or flattened melanosomes.

Fossil Scaniacypselus (above) compared to its equivalent today, the pen-tipped Swiftlet. We found that the melanosomes in modern iridescent feathers are more diverse than those found in gray, black or brown feathers (which also contain melanosomes), said lead author Clara Norden.

Who at the School of Earth in Bristol studied during The undergraduate years. Science, “It is already known that structural coloration represents 70% of the color variability in birds. These two facts can be combined:

Birds developed different forms of melanosomes to achieve greater color diversity. I wanted to find out if we could improve the current prediction model for fossil color based on melanosome morphology by incorporating all types of melanosomes found in iridescent feathers.

Co-authors of the study and a leading researcher, Drs. Jacob Vinther, a leading researcher in the field of paleocollars at the Faculty of Biological Sciences in Bristol, had already collected the correct fossil samples to test new models.

We take samples of Scaniacipellus and the ancestor of the modern trogon, Primotrogon, to see the changes in modern trees. These groups today are iridescent and have flat and hollow melanosomes.

Did your 4 million year old German ancestors also have iridescent feathers?

Interestingly, the model predicted that Primotrogan was probably iridescent, but used solids instead of hollow melanosomes, unlike its modern descendants.

Clara said: “This shows how we now have the tools to characterize the evolution of iridescence in fossil lineages,” now Ph.D. Princeton University student.

This opens the door to many new discoveries of dazzling exhibits in fossil birds and other dinosaurs. The current study focused on mapping how iridescent feathers differ from iridescent feathers.

Other research methods may investigate why birds use such a variety of types of melanosomes in iridescent feathers.

These ideas can ultimately increase our understanding of why fossil birds or dinosaurs would have used such morphology, revealing something about their behavior.

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