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The 99-Million-Year-Old Bee Was Found In Burmese Amber

The 99-Million-Year-Old Bee was found in Burmese Amber, in an article published online in Palaeodiversity magazine. Professor George Ponnar Jr. of Oregon State University describes a new family, genus and species of pollen-collecting bee found in a piece of amber (middle Cretaceous period) of 99 million million years excavated in a mine in Myanmar.

Bee was found

Apicula discs; The bee carries four beetle tringulins. Image by George Poiner Jr. College of Science, Oregon State University. The bee is an important component in the history of the development and diversification of flowering plants (angiosperms). The vast majority of bees depend on pollen, nectar, oil, wax, aromas and resins of flowering plants for adult and larval nutrition, sexual attraction and nest building. Bees develop from apoid wasps, which are carnivorous.

Bee was found in Burmese Amber

However, not much is known about the change of wasps as they did with the changes in the diet. The newly described primitive bee is so unique that Professor Ponier decided to establish a new genus and family (Discosapidae) for her. Called Discoscopa apicula, the ancient insect is a small, dark, mostly hairless bee, collecting pollen. It shares features with modern bees with plum hair.

A round pronothal lobe and a pair of spurs on the posterior tibia and also has very short antennae sockets and some features of the wing veins, such as the apoid wasp. There is something unique in the new family that has not been found in the apoid wasp or in any extinct or extinct lineage of bees, a bifurcated rape, said Professor Ponnar. The fossil record of bees is very vast.

Burmese Amber

But most are from the last 65 million years and look like modern bees. Similar fossils in this study can inform us about the changes of some wasps, as they became palnivores, pollen eaters. Pollen in Burmese amber in the femur of the hind leg of Apicula Discospa captures the pollen with surrounding pollen particles. The insert shows branches in the hair.

The unique female specimen of Apicula Discosapa is located on the edge of a small piece of amber. Specimens from a mine first excavated in 2001 include beetle parasites in the Hukwang Valley southwest of Mingkhwan in the Kachin state of Myanmar. Pollen particles in its legs suggest that the bee had recently visited one or more flowers.


Additional evidence that the fossil bee had visited the flowers contains 21 beetle tringulins (larvae) on a single piece of amber that feeds on the bee’s larvae and their provisions. A food for the honeycomb to feed on of the food left by the female. We stopped the trip, said Professor Ponar. It is certainly possible that a large number of Tringulin bees accidentally flew into resin.

Trapped in 99 million year old Amber, a pollen beetle from Pillford. The discovery is one of the strongest pieces of evidence in the fossil record that pests pollinated prehistoric bicycles. A plant that preceded flowering plants. A middle Cretaceous beetle had a hairy cavity at the base of its market, known as Cycles. A middle Cretaceous beetle had a hairy cavity at the base of its market, known as Cycles.

Bees and butterflies

Bees and butterflies are praised for their pollination skills. But millions of years ago, once they played with a flower, beetles were one of the world’s prepollinators. Among the large number of prehistoric plants that helped fertilize were cycads, which look like a mix between palm trees and ferns, although they are more closely related to pine trees.

They have thick socks, pineapple-shaped cones, and are topped with leaves like feathers. The researchers learned from studies of modern cycles that were pollinated by beetles. Now, for the first time, paleontologists are trapped in Myanmar amber, a 99 million-year-old beetle protected from a cyclone with sharp pollen. He made his discovery Thursday in a magazine called Current Biology.

beetles have a small cavity

“Discovering this ancient relationship is like a dream come true,” said Chenyang Kai, a researcher at the University of Bristol in England. Dr. Cai started studying amber when researching in China. Trapped inside was an insect two millimeters high, known as a boganyd beetle. These beetles have a small cavity that is filled with fur at the base of their mandi that acts as a pocket for collecting pollen.

Cycad image of preserved amber pollen granules found in Myanmar. Crushed pollen granules preserved in amber found in Myanmar. When he finished cutting, trampling, and polishing the amber. Drs. Kai essentially had a biological sample placed on a gold glass slide. He placed the fossil under a microscope and examined it at a magnification of 400 times.

There he found a mandatory pocket of beetles and surprisingly, he saw dozens of pollen, some pressed against beetles and clusters. I was very excited. I just wanted to know what pollen was, said Dr. Cai. It is not in the beetle’s body, but it is very close to the beetle and part of its mouth, they said. He said the pollen may have once been in the beetle, but it may have stopped since it combined with the tree’s resin.


Bee was found

Dr. Cai contacted Liqin Li, who studies ancient pollen at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and is a paper author. Looking at the long grooves in the oval grain, Drs. Lee identified the pollen as an ancient cyclone. Although scientists in Spain previously found the beetle and pollen preserved together in amber from a separate tank. The researchers were unsure whether the pollen came from the bikes or from the ginkgo plant.

male/ female flowers

The authors of the new article also discovered that the closest living relative of the ancient beetle is that of Australia, which also contaminates cycas. A wide view of the beetle, with preserved pollen granules, appears in the lower left. A wide view of the beetle, with preserved pollen granules, appears in the lower left. Unlike most flowering plants, cycus has different male and female flowers (plants).

When a beetle flies into the cone of a male plant, looking for a place to eat pollen or lay its eggs, it brushes against the pollen. Then, while visiting dozens of other cyclases, you can be in a female cycad and distribute that pollen. It is inadvertently and innocently pollinating the plant, said Michael Engel. A paleontologist at the University of Kansas and a paper writer.

It works well

The plant pollinates and feeds on the insect. Although this piece of amber is 99 million years old. Drs. Cai and Dr. Engel feel that this provides a snapshot of the pollination process that may be older, possibly dating back to the Triassic period. If so, this could mean that beetles were pollinating plants a hundred million years before butterflies and bees were the first pollinated flowers.

Which must have happened about 130 million years ago. Insects and plants are the two main titles in our world,” said Dr. Engel said. The intimate love-hate relationship between these two giants of diversity over time is an important story, and this fossil is just one component

Dolphins larger than the oligocene epoch were fast swimming apex predators. Paleontologists have found and described the first almost complete skeleton of Ankilorhiza bandhmani. A large extinct dolphin that lived about 24 million years ago (it was from the Oligocene). Restoration of the life of an Ankylorhiza bandhamani pod.

Dolphins larger than the oligocene epoch

With a body length of 4.8 m (15.7 ft), Ankilorhiza was the largest member of the Odontoceti (toothed whale) group during the bandedani odigosin. A form not crossed by sperm whales until early Mioenne. The extinct animal was first described in the 19th century with a large, fragmented skull. The first skeleton was discovered by the Charleston Albert Sanders Museum’s natural history curator in the 1970s.


The nearly complete skeleton analyzed in the new study was found by commercial paleontologist Mark Havenstein in South Carolina in the 1990s. It was later purchased by private fossil collector Mess Brown and then donated to the Mess Brown Museum of Natural History in the College of Charleston. The samples include a well-preserved skull, a vertebral column, a ribase and a fin.

The discovery is significant, as it is one of the first skeletons found by a very early member of the toothed whale (dolphins, porpoises, and sperm whales) and shortly after they arrived at the whale about 35–36 million years ago. Dr A Paleontologist in the Charleston College Department of Geology and Environmental Geology. Robert Boseneker.

cylinder whales & dolphins

What is very important is the evolutionary position as a very early dolphin. Most early dolphins are known only to skulls, so having a finned skeleton and most vertebrates gives us unprecedented insight into the development of adaptation to swimming. That unprecedented window surprisingly told us that cylinder whales and dolphins have many similarities due to convergent evolution since their evolutionary division 35 million years ago.

The skeletal ligament of Ankylorhiza and Drs. Boessenecker.

The Ankylorhiza tympani skeleton shows some adaptation to swimming faster than other small dolphins, but it also shows many primitive characteristics. These primitive characteristics are surprising because paleontologists and biologists have long believed that many adaptations for rapid swimming in cylinder whales and toothed whales were ancient adaptations shared in the past 35 million years by their shared heritage, said Dr Bosenecker said.

whales & dolphins

Instead of the level at which the whales and dolphins independently reach the same general swimming adaptation, these traits that once developed in the common ancestor of both groups startled us, he said. Examples include narrowing the tail stock, increasing the number of tail vertebrae, and shortening the humerus (upper arm bone) in the fin.

This is not evident in the different lineages of seals and sea lions, for example, that evolved into different swimming methods and have very different looking skeletons. This is such that the addition of additional finger bones to the fin and blocking of the elbow joint has forced the dominant group of both cetanes to have a similar evolutionary path in terms of locomotives.

dolphin Squalodon developed

Various lines of evidence suggest that Ankoekiza Bandhanmani was a superior hunter in the community in which she lived. The species very clearly took advantage of a body with a large body like an orca and is the first echolocation whale to become a superior predator. When Ankylorhiza bandamani went extinct about 23 million years ago. The killer sperm whale and the shark-toothed dolphin Squalodon developed and reopened the niche within 5 million years.

The last sperm whale died about 5 million years ago, with the development of killer whales about 1 or 2 million years ago, leaving the niche open until the ice age. Whales and dolphins have a complex and long evolutionary history, and at a glance, you may not get this notion of modern species, Drs. Bosenecker said.

Journal Current Biology

The fossil record has actually opened up this long and winding path of development, and fossils like Ankilorhiza bandhimani help illuminate how it happened. The findings were published in the Journal Current Biology. An extinct giant dolphin looked more like an orca, according to the study. Now researchers have confirmed that an ancient dolphin that lived in the oligosine era, 33.9 million to 23 million years ago.

It was the first Sitas (a type) to use underwater to navigate underwater and play the role. apex predator. It was a mammal), very similar to the present. Echolocation allows dolphins to “see” through sound. They do this by making calls to detect distant objects in the water, then explain the echoes of those objects’ sound waves. The skeleton helps you fill in the gaps in the evolutionary narratives of marine mammals returning to the sea.

Cittacia is a sequence of mammals that includes dolphins, whales, and porpoises. Odontocetes, or toothed whales, are a sequence of cetaceans that have dolphins, purposes, and other whale teeth, like teeth, like sperm whales. The specimen called Ankilorhiza bandhmani was partially discovered in rock formations in South Carolina, a study published Thursday in the Journal Biology.

ecological status

Its 15-foot-long body shape, a short, strong muzzle, the texture of its teeth. The formation of vertebrates indicate that Ankolorhiza was the first odontocetate predator that could eat small and large-bodied prey and swim compared to other whales. Initially it indicates that it was destined to become extinct to fulfill the same ecological status as the killer whales.

We see the same pattern in the fossil record of land carnivores, said Anthony Frisia. An associate assistant for integrated biology and psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles, who was not part of the study. For example, you see that it produces a “cat-like” predator many times before cats receive modern radiation.

The repeated development of a similar ecology is the basis of many of these studies on how long-term evolution works.

How a rare skeleton was discovered?

The rarity of oligosine-era whale skeletons has hampered research efforts to understand the evolution of modern whale engines powered by their fins (tails). But controlled by their forelimbs, according to the study. he said. We had been waiting for those fossils for decades, said Olivier Lambert, director of the history of Earth and Life and the development of the Paleobiosphere at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences.

Lambert was not involved in the investigation. The raptor baby discovered in Alaska may be a permanent resident of the ancient Arctic. Skeletons suggested that the characteristics associated with its fins and locomotives may have developed as little as 35 million years ago. Which was the last guess Koathor Robert Boesenecker, researcher said.

Department of Biology

Associate and assistant instructor in the Department of Biology and Environmental Geosciences at the College of Charleston in South Carolina. If you are a mammal or a reptile attacking the water, there are only a few things you can do to develop efficient swimming and those same characteristics have repeatedly evolved in different groups.

Bosenecker explained, “In this case, they also continued to develop in parallel lineages with the common lineage. In the 1880s, a partial snout of the dolphin, a toothed whale in the Odonocetti group, was recovered during a refreshment of the Wando River in South Carolina. The first dolphin skeleton was discovered in the 1970s by Albert Sanders, the then-late Natural History curator of the Charleston Museum Bunting.

Museum of Natural History

Another nearly complete skeleton, described in the current study, was unearthed in the 1990s, when paleontologist Mark Havenstein found it through the construction of a subdivision of housing in South Carolina. It was then donated to the Mess Brown Museum of Natural History for later study. But classified as belonging to squalodone, an extinct genus of whales, called the misclassification by the study researchers.

He saw the skeletons up close in 2015, after being hired by the museum to study these fossils by Boseneker. The skeleton was not widely known in the research community until Squalodon was in the genus, he said, but neither had done definitive research to explain it.

Parallel Evolution

The researchers also wanted to determine why and how toothed cylinder whales evolved. They found that the options that come with the dolphin skeleton are beyond its neck. Which includes modern baleen and toothy whales, although similar characteristics may develop in different similar aquatic environments.

Echolocation development

Ankylorhiza was the first ecological whale to become a top predator due to a joint pair that allowed a resistance range similar to that of a modern killer whale, Bosenacker said. Ankilorija had large teeth with thick roots that could strengthen teeth against fractures while shaking small parts because he didn’t have a molar, said Bosinecker, who does it with the killer whale seal.

Boesenecker said..the Dolphin insulating tusk is likely to rub other animals with its teeth. It is difficult, but modern dolphins put the ram in and kill them, said Bosenecker. This ancient dolphin went extinct about 23 million years ago, with shark-toothed dolphins and giant sperm whales evolving to occupy the position of Ankilorhiza in 5 million years.

the development of killer whales

The teeth of the giant sperm whales were massive and possibly prey to small species of whales, while today’s sperm whales feed on giant squid. The killer sperm whale surpassed about 5 million years ago, about 2 million years ago. The ecological space was open before the development of killer whales during the ice age.

There are many other rare and unique early dolphins and baleen whales from the Oligocene reef in Charleston, South Carolina, Boesenecker said in a press release. Because the oligocene era is the time when filter feeding and echolocation first evolved and since marine mammal tracts from that era are rare worldwide, Charleston fossils provide the window more complete for the early development of these groups.

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